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A Handbook of Legendary and Mythological Art. 
By Clara Ersktne Clement. A new edition, revised and 
enlarged. Fully illustrated, and with complete index. Crown 
8vo, $3.25 ; half calf, or morocco, $5.00 ; full morocco, or 
tree calf, $7.00. 

A perfect storehouse of facts relative to symbolism in art, and the leg- 
ends, stories, and myths associated with them. The wonderful and touch- 
ing histories of the Christian, saints and martyrs are told with a freshness 
and fullness which give to the book an intrinsic value quite distinct from 
its ulterior design. — Christian Union. 

Painters, Sculptors, Architects, Engravers, and their 
Works. By Clara Erskine Clement. With illustra- 
tions and monograms. Fifth edition, revised. Crown 8vo, 
$3.25 ; half calf, or morocco, $5.00 ; tree calf, or full morocco, 


Indispensable to every person interested in pictures and artists. It gives 
not only the biography of artists, but lists of engravings from their works, 
and by means of cross-references and copious indexes is a complete hand- 
book. It is liberally illustrated by representations of standard works of 
art, and the curious monograms of painters are given with the biographies. 

Artists of the Nineteenth Century and their Works. 
A Handbook containing 2,050 Biographical Sketches. By 
Clara Erskine Clement and Laurence Hutton. With 
indexes. 2 vols, crown 8vo, $5.00. 

These two volumes include biographical sketches of 2,050 artists, of all 
nations in which there exists sufficient intellectual and aesthetic develop- 
ment to foster productive art. Of these artists the best attainable infor- 
mation is given, with an account of their works, the departments to which 
they belong, their characteristic styles, and the opinions entertained of 
them by competent critics. 

The Introduction comprises a concise but comprehensive account of the 
academies and schools of art of all countries, describing their various 
systems of study and instruction. 

HOUGHTON, OSGOOD & CO., Publishers, Boston. 



a l^anDboofi 






VOL. I. 

T> 8 T N : 

(LTjc Etocmue Prrgfj, Cambrifctje. 



1 *F 

Copyright, 1879. 

All rights reserved. 



This work is devoted to the Art of the Nineteenth Century, 
and very largely to the Art of the present day. A concise bio- 
graphical account is given of the artists, followed in as many 
instances as possible by critical quotations from the best authori- 
in various languages. In many cases no printed accounts 
could be found of artists whose claims to notice were undoubted. 
This difficulty we attempted to overcome by direct personal ap- 
plication to them, having sent letters and printed circulars to 
nearly a thousand artists. To many of these no reply has been 
received, and in some cases, in justice to ourselves as well as 
to the artists, we have said, " Xo response to circular," in order 
to explain the insufficiency of the accounts given. 

It is alm> 38 to say that in writing of what belongs to 

the present time it is impossible to avoid more or less inaccuracy, 
■me cases artists have not done themselves justice in what 
they have said of their works, while in other instances, doubt- 
. an undue enthusiasm lias tinged the statements made. In 
printed authorities, too, upon current events, one is not able to 
insure correctness in the same degree as in writing of things in 

A large in of the critical quotations we have trans- 

I for this purpose, and an immense number of catal 
exhibitions and museums have been Deed in addition to tin- 
books named in the list of authorities consulted 

In ti. pinion, 


and frequently directly opposite estimates of an artist have been 
selected in order to enable readers to judge for themselves by 
comparing the conflicting views. 

The large number of biographical sketches, about two thousand 
and fifty, has made many accounts shorter than we wished, and 
in some cases the lives of the artists have been so uneventful that 
a list of their principal works gives (as far as the public is con- 
cerned) their entire history. 

In the Introduction we give an account of the more important 
academies and schools of Great Britain, the Continent, and the 
United States, where the Fine Arts are taught, with some facts 
concerning their courses of study, exhibitions, rewards, and other 
matters of interest in this connection. 


Cambridge, January 10, 1879. 




INTRODUCTION lix-lxxxvii 







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A.i.V/> OF ARTISTS. xv 



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tDOl LED... 


















































































CATLIN, GEORGE Vol.1. Page 125 




CAZES, ROMAIN " " 126 




CHALMERS, G. PAUL " " 127 



CHAMPNEY, J. WELLS ("Champ") " " 128 










CHASE, JOHN " " 132 


CHASE, HENRY " " 133 



CHAVET, J. VICTOR " " 134 


CHENEY, SETH " " 135 

CHENU, FLEURY " " 135 

CHEVALIER, N " " 135 






CHURCH, F. S " " 138 



CLARK, THOMAS " " 138 

CLARK, JOSEPH " " 138 





•• L40 

CLINT, GEORGE " " 1 to 

N r. ALFRED " " 141 


" " in 

B, DARIUS " " 141 

BETT, EDWARD J " " 142 

BZO, THOMAS .. " " 142 


Mi:r. IKON " " 143 

DAVID " " 148 

R, THOMAS " " 143 

:.. GEORGE " " 144 

[i w *' " 145 

COLL .1 l"\CROFT " " 145 

MAN. CHARLES C " " 146 


IN, PAUI . . M " 146 




IfUEL " " 147 


IS CHARLOTTE B. ... " 149 


iX, FRAH ... " " 149 

.... " " ISO 

I MAUR " " 150 

• NELLY, PIERCE FRAN4 I- " " 160 

HNJAMIN " ' L51 

• . I. TITO " " 158 



COOPER, ABRAHAM " " 1">:* 

►PER, THOM IS 8 . " " 154 

- WE8T " ■ 164 


BOULD, EDWARD II. " " 166 


.ILK. ALPHONSE " " 156 

D .... lM 

■• 168 






COSTA, PIETRO « « 162 












COX, DAVID " " 167 

COX, DAVID, Jr M " 167 




CRANCH, JOHN " " 169 


CRANE, WALTER " " 169 



CRAWFORD, WILLIAM .'. " " 171 






CROSS, JOHN " " 174 

CROWE, EYRE " " 174 







CURRIER, J. FRANK " " 177 



\.\ ARTISTS. *ix 



1 > vii . .ian FRANZ VAX " " lis 



DALOU, .u IKS « " 179 

DAMK. ERNEST .".. " " 180 

dameron, Smile charles " " iso 

DANA, WILLIAM P. YV " " 180 

DANBY, PRANC1S " " 181 


DANBY, THOMAS " " 181 

DANFORTH, M. I " " 181 





DAROENT, VAN " " 183 

DARLEY, 1 1 . 1 . 1 X (). C " " 183 

DARRAH, MRS. S. T " " 184 




DAI/ATS. ADRIEN " " 185 

DAVID 1 3, PIERRE JEAN " " 186 


DAVIS, HENRY W. B " " 186 





USNB, HENRY ' " " 187 


DE I LVBBR " " 189 

DE OOi • : " " 189 



DBDREUX, A I.I RED " " 190 


DEI " l'jo 

JEAN MARIE ■ " 191 

" 19] 




DE HAAS, M. F. H Vol.1. Page 192 

DE HAAS, J. H. L « « 193 














DEMI, EMILIO " « 199 









DEVENTER, J. F. VAN " " 203 



DEVIGNE, PAUL " " 203 

DEWING, T. W " " 203 

DEXTER, HENRY " " 204 


DICKENS, KATE. See PERUGINI, MRS Vol.11. Page 175 

DICKSEE, THOMAS F Vol.1. Page205 







DIETZ, FEODOR " " 207 

DIEZ, WILHELM " " 208 





DIX rn yrles TEMPLE 


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Vol. I. 

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GUAY, GABRIEL " " 317 












GUSSOW, CARL " " 320 

GUTHERS, CARL " " 320 



HAAG, CARL " " 322 

HAANEN, REMI A. VAN " " 323 


HAGHE, LOUIS " " 323 



HALE, SUSAN " " 324 

HALE, ELLEN DAY " " 325 


HALL, SYDNEY P " " 325 


HALSE, G " " 326 




HAMILTON, J. McLURE " " 327 



HANCKE. See WIEGMANN Vol. II. Page350 

HANOTEAU, HECTOR Vol. I. Page 329 



















HASBNCLEVER, 1\ P « « 337 


HAYES, EDWIN «< «< 333 



HAYS. WILLIAM J « « 339 

HAYTER, Silt GEORGE « « 339 

HEADS, MARTIN .1 « « 540 

HEALY, G. P. A "..'.' « u uo 









Rl DOLF FRIEDRICH !........" " 


\ ILLIAM ".""' « 











HESS, PETER VON " « 351 


HESS, KARL " « 352 

HESS, GEORG « << 352 





HICKS, GEORGE E " « 353 

HICKS, THOMAS " " 354 





HILL, AMELIA R " « 356 

HILL, THOMAS " " 356 






HINE, H. G " " 358 



HODGSON, JOHN E " " 359 

HOFF, KARL " " 360 




HOLL, WILLIAM " " 361 

HOLL, FRANK " " 361 





HOPLEY, EDWARD W. J " " 364 




HORSLEY, JOHN C " " 865 






HOVENDEN, Hl<>M\^ " " 368 


HOWS. JOHN A " " 3G9 

HOXIB, MRS. Bee REAM, V Vol. II. Pa- 




HUET, PAUI " " 371 

HUGHES, BALI " " 371 





HI NIN. Al.nllS PIERRE-PAUL " " 372 




HINT, RICHARD M " " 375 



HUNTER, COLIN* " u 377 




[MBR, ftDOUARD " " 378 






INMAN, J. O'BRIEN " " 382 


INNI .h:. " " ft8J 







ITTENBACH, FRANZ Vol. T. Page 385 

IVES, C. B " " 385 






















JERICHAU, A " " 10 










JONES, OWEN " " 15 


JONES, H. BOLTON " " 16 


JOORAVLEF, F. " " 17 






IOURDAN, \D<>1 THE . v.,1. il Pigt Lfl 

JUNDT, Gl BTAV1 " " L8 



KAl 1M ANN. THSODORI " " 19 



KM 1. BACH. K. A. ., " " 20 


KENSETT, J. 1 " " 21 

KEY, JOHN R " " 22 



KEYSER, E " " 23 

K1EES. PETER " " 23 









KMLLE. OTTO " " 25 

M " " 25 


" " 26 





OCK, mai:v " " 27 

BIN, ALEXIS " " 27 




GBR, FRANZ " " 28 

KARL MAX ... " " 28 


GU8TAV ADoi.l *' " 29 


Kl RZBA1 " " 29 














































l.A\ «'i i\ Ti; IM.RUIAM \ 1 11 



1LANT, .11 I1KN 

3NE, M Gl 8TE 




11. JOHN 


























LBQ1 RSNB, Ei (,E.\i; LOl [fl 



LE ! 








LEVY, EMILE " " 64 






LIER, ADOLF " " 68 




LINDHOLM, B " " 69 






LINTON, MRS " " 71 





LOCKHART, W. E " " 73 




LONG, EDWIN " " 73 


LOOP, HENRY A " " 75 

LOOP, MRS. HENRY A " " 75 






LOW, WILL H " " 76 

LUCAS, JOHN " " 77 





LUNT. See MRS. WILLIAMS " " 354 




Vol. Ill' 

,. 78 



ETH, U. W. . 


I W.l.l M. ANDREW 
















- KDUARD... 































































Vol. II. Page 93 

NAMiSS OF ARTIS1 fc xxx ix 

MERLE. HUGUES Vul.II. I'.»-r ill 

MERLE, GEORGES •' '• 111 


fON, CH vRl.F.s " " LIS 


METER, ERNEST • " 111 









MIGNOT, LOUIS B " " 114 



MILLER. CHARLES 11 " " 117 


MILLET. A1ME " " 120 


MILLS. (LARK " " 121 



MINOR, ROB! * « 18* 


M'KVV, WILLIAM I) " " 123 



-V. ENENNE " " L84 


1EVERDE, (.11 LIO " " 1*4 


" " 125 

MOORE; l B, " " Itt 

U, ALBERT " " 125 



MORAN, EDWARD " " 127 

MORAN, THOM Lfl - 118 

MORAN. PETE1 " " 129 















































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PfRIGNON, LLBXIS v.,i.ii. 






























PH./, \ IV BNZ 


place; henri 





. I Bl IN l.i GENE l.l. 



ftgl 171 





ge 7-i 

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POTT, L.J Vol. II. Page 188 





























































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\ I ABTIS1 S. -xlvii 


. IN CHRYSOSTOMI " " ~ :{: * 

LRELLI, LMll.Io " 234 

in a 
in. Tiro 





See BROW NT.. MMK. II Vul. I 








I.. PETRUS van 





LEICH, EDUARD " " 242 


•III). KATTIAS " " 242 

KIDT, IIAI " " 243 



uua «... 243 

' LBS 

" 245 

" Mi 

• KIT/ LUDWIG Kill . 
: [0 . 
IT, SIR < " 


SCOTT, JULIAN Vol. II. Page 247 

SEEL, ADOLF " " 248 










SHAPLEIGH, F. H " " 250 



SHAW, ANNIE C " " 251 



SHURTLEFF, R. M " " 252 



SIGNOL, EMILE " " 253 









SINDING, OTTO " " 256 

SKILL, F. JOHN " " 256 




SMART, JOHN •. " " 257 






SMITH, COLVIN " " 260 

SMITH, T. L • " " 260 

SMITH, GEORGE " " 261 


sMiin. \. CART \.: ii i- 

sm l ill. r HOPKINSON | 

SMI I'll. PRANK 1111. 1. <• 262 

smith. WILLIAM in SSEJ I. «« •• lw 

\. KARL FERDINAND «« •• gftj 


WTAG, * 11. MAM l.(H IS « «• 263 

B&RKNSEN, C. l « i 

PB PAUL MARI1 s « •• 801 

IBERG, (il STAU ADOLF M " 264 

I'M. 1. MARIE Ml!- W. .1. sin. |. man " - -,;;, 


TIM. GIOVANNI " " 266 

BPREAD, HENRY K » «• 2 66 

EDWARD A « « 266 

CAR! » •< 267 

« «« 267 


LAERT, JOSEPH " » 268 







IMA « .« 269 


[I - GOURLA1 !......!." 

K, KARL Mix HEINRICH " « 270 

M'.Ki'ck. BDUARD « «« 270 


M.i:. EDDARD u .. 27i 

• WARD I; " 

\ « «« 27I 

ALFRED .... h .. 1?1 

3 ALFRED I: « « 2 73 

I.i MB 


IB, HORATIO « .« 271 

• I II I AM OLIVBH « « 274 

" 878 

1 M. 



STORY, WILLIAM W Vol. II. Page277 

STORY, GEORGE H " « 277 



STROEBEL, J. A. B " « 278 



SULLY, THOMAS " « 279 



SUYDAM, JAMES A " « 279 





TAIT, ARTHUR F : " " 281 

TAIT, JOHN R " " 281 








TENNANT, JOHN " " 285 

TENNIEL, JOHN " " 285 

TERRY, LUTHER " " 285 

















THOM M BERT \ ' i: 


THORND1 0INC1 .... in 






TIDET, ARTHUR " " 295 

TIBET, HENRI " " 296 


TIPFANT, LOUIS c " ■ 296 



»T. JAMES " " 298 






TORELLI, LOT " " 300 

TOUDOUZE, ftDOUARD • " " 300 




TRIOT, II A VAX ■ " 301 

TRIQl'ETI, HENRI DE " " 301 

IWBOLD II " " 301 

TEOTON, n " " 301 

BNER, WILHBLM " " 303 


TETON, BENJAMIN I .... " " 303 

(II LRLS9 PHIL " " 303 

IMOND " " 304 

EERMAN, s. S. «... 3W 

" 304 

TUR1 l.IMI M. W. " " 304 

WILLIAM (.KEEN " " 307 

TW.W If I MAN, J. H. " " 307 

I'LIVI, PISTRO " ■ 307 



UNGER, WILHELM Vol. II. Page307 


UWINS, THOMAS " " 308 

VAINI, PIETRO " " 308 


VALLANCE, W. F " " 309 





VAN LUPPEN, G. J. A " " 311 



VARLEY, JOHN " " 311 



VARNI, SANTO " " 312 





VEDDER, ELIHU •. " " 313 

VEIT, PHILIP " " 314 


VELY, ANATOLE " " 314 

VERA, ALEJO " " 315 



VERHAS, JAN " " 315 











VINCK, FRANZ " " 325 



\ ! ■!: S OF ARTISTS. liii 

\ IKY. PAUL .. \ ■■! .11 


vol k. I BON LRD W. 

Yd K. DO! 0] IS " " 327 

VOLLON, AN rOINl " " 887 


\ BRDONCK, J " " 888 

- MARIA " " 888 



il. KARL WILHSLM " " 328 



WALDO, SAMUE1 " " 320 




WALLER, FRANK " " 331 




WARD, EDWARD M " " 332 


WARD, JOHN Q a " " 334 

WARD, EDGAR M " " 331 



WAR] HOND G " " 335 











WAV, A. J. H 















































Vol.11. Page 339 



priMTs, (.1 ii im mi; " " bb? 





WOLF, EMU " " BB8 


WOOD, GEORGE B, Jr " M 35<J 

.». MARSHALL " " BM 

D, THOMAS nv M " 359 



DLES M " 361 

1H. rHOMAS " " 301 

WRIGHT, RUFUS " " 362 

WRIGHT, 1'. i: " " 363 

WYANT, A. H " " 363 



WYLIE, ROBERT " " 364 

WYLLIR, W. L " " 364 



YAi:/ I 





UIE9 Hauvkv 

TOUNG, ll.\..\ i.V 



I, MMK M. 




ZOCCHI, EMILIO Vol. II. Page 372 








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Americas Engravers and their "Works. 


1 n.-.lish Ar1i>is 01 Tin: PRESENT Day. 

lisii Painters oi the Present Day. 
lt American Bcxtlptora 
Hameeton's Thoughts about Art. 

Han:; :.:■ W*S Paimin<; in Fl 

Han ai.y French Painters. 

Ha LVD Erciii 

Jabves* Art i 
Jartes 1 Art Thoughts. 

of the Time. 
Mrs. Tttlee's Modern Painters. 
Ottley'- wnters. 

:> Art 1 
Ti ru Aeth 

OR Painting. 


I XL. 

The Portfolio. 

on Art. 

a inters. 


AtLAHI : i . 


Atk: vpital8 of Europe. 

r ok the America 


Report of the United States Commissioners at Vienna. 

Mario Proth's Voyage au Pays des Peintres. 

Chesneau's Chefs d'Ecole. 


Gazette des Beaux-Arts. 


Galerie Contemporaine, Litteraire, Artistique. 

Revue des Deux Mondes. 

Cherbuliez' Litterature et Art. 

Charles Blanc's Les Artistes de mon Temps. 

Claretie's Artistes Contemporains. 

T. Gautier's Salon de 1861. 

E. About's Salon de 1864. 

Roma Artistica. 

Die Kunstler aller Zeiten und Volker, von Professor Fr. 

ansichten uber die beldenden kunste von einem deutschen 
Kunstler IN Rom. 

Die Deutsche Kunst in unserem Jahrhundert, von Dr. Hagen. 

Die Konigliche Kunstakademie in Dusseldorf, von Wiegmann. 

Zeitschrift fur Bildende Kunst. 


Bryan, Vapereau, Bitard, Nagler, Larousse, and many other 
Dictionaries and Encyclopaedias. 


Tiie following pages give an account in outline of the Art 
Acad I of the Institutions for Art Education of the | 

ent day in various countries : — 

Great Britain. — The Royal Academy of Arts in London, 
membership of which constitutes the Alt Peerage of Great Brit- 
ain, was founded in 1768, 'for the purpose of cultivating and 
improving the arts of painting, sculpture, and architecture. The 
memorial rge III., asking for its charter, stated 

that the two principal objects in view were the establishment of 
hool or academy of design, and an annual ex- 
hibition open to all artists of distinguished merit. The plan of 
constitution was approved ami signed by the King December 10, 
1768. Among the thirty .-ix original members were Reynolds, 
Gainsbor' jamin West, Mary Ifoser, and Angelica Kauf- 

mann. The fast President Joshua Reynolds, succe- 

in 17 Djamin West. 

The active men. idemy are divided into 

Academi- i inters, sculptors, and architects), Assoc: 

and Assc ravers. The number of members has varied 

from time to time. There are in 1878 — 79 thirty-nine Ac 
micians and twenty-nine Associ lemiciana. Beside the 

re members tic !• .:• Honorary Meml tired 

and B n eai riemicians. All art 

whose works show sufficient merit are perm: ontribnts 

ti exhibitions; as exhibitors they are eligible ' :i as 

Associates, and are chosen by I ;it the annual 

meeting of the A idemicians tl are 

chosen from amoi anber of Associates w! 

occur. 1 . since its foundation, has been under the 

direction and Ail by-laws fa 


the sanction and signature of the reigning sovereign to give 
them effect, and the approbation of the monarch is necessary 
to make valid any election as Associate, Academician, Professor, 
or Member of the Council. The President of the Eoyal Acad- 
emy is knighted upon election. 

The annual exhibitions open on the first Monday in May, and 
close on the first Monday in August. No artist is allowed to 
exhibit more than eight different works ; no work is admissible 
which has been already publicly exhibited in London ; and all 
works sent for exhibition are submitted to the judgment of the 
Council, whose decision is final. Many works of art are sold an- 
nually at these exhibitions, the Academy receiving a small per- 
centage upon the sales. 

The schools of the Royal Academy are the most complete and 
most important Fine Art schools in Great Britain. There are 
three branches, — a school for study from casts of celebrated 
works of antiquity, a school for study from living models, and 
a school of painting. All applicants are admitted free, whose 
personal character is established, and whose works show indica- 
tions of talent. Prizes are annually given, including a gold 
medal for the most deserving work. There is also a traveling 
studentship, occasionally bestowed upon artists of uncommon 
promise and merit. 

There are four professors chosen from among its Academicians, 
who lecture upon painting, sculpture, architecture, and perspec- 
tive, besides a professor of anatomy, not necessarily a member 
of the Academy. The Library of the Royal Academy is very 
complete ; it contains the best works on art subjects in all lan- 
guages, and continual additions are being made. There is also 
a fine collection of engravings from works of the masters of all 
times and all countries. 

The early exhibitions of the Royal Academy were held in 
Pall Mall. In 1780 the society took possession of the apart- 
ments allotted to it in Somerset House, the first exhibition there 
taking place in 1781. In 1836 the east wing of the National 
Gallery on Trafalgar Square was granted by the government to 
the Royal Academy, and there it remained until it removed, in 
1869, to the present building, Burlington House, Piccadilly, 
which was purchased by the Crown in 1854. The modern 
structure is in the form of a hollow square, containing twelve 
galleries. It was erected especially for the Royal Academy, and 


f tlio finest public buildin ndon. Under the 

same roof arc the Chemical, Geographical, Astronomical, Anti- 
quarian, and Royal 8 

The British J . for the encouragement of native artists, 

frequently mentioned in this book, was established in 1805, bat 

has D It was the most im- 

int rival to the Royal Academy for upwards of half a 

Artists in London was incorporal 
the annua] exhibition and sale of the works of living 
ts of the l"i littil Kingdom, in the various branches of pain t- 
Bculpture, architecture, and engraving. The number of its 
members is not limited. For some years it supported school 

:i in drawing and painting, which silent in 

man} s, but which from want .of public patronage and 

support wore eventually abandon 

D annually daring the months 
of April. I . i July. All British artists are invited 

bibit I* is supported by the sale of catalogues, admission- 
. the comi: a of pictures, and a small annual 

.ent of the members. Many very prominent British art 
have belonged to this society. Its gallery is in Conduit bK 
» which it moved from Suffolk street in 1878. 
The Dudley Gallery in London , in existence since 

Its first exhibition was held in the month of April, 1865. 
r the public display of water-color pictures by 
painters who 1 _ r ular water-color sorie- 

md who in consequence were not permitted to send their 
works to those galleries. It b ular membership ; the 

pictu 1 or rejected by a committee of management, 

and the exhibition- D to all artists whose merit or skill 

entit. works to the consideration of the public. 

B» exhibitions of water-colors, there is an 

annual exhibition of cabinet pictures in oil, held in this gallery, 
in the m t and I >• 

exhibition of works in black and white. 
has * dun*' ; these works are often of great into 

and • tin to brii r in 

bition works of this kind has been ii. 

London, i-> the 
youngest institut; kind in in, but by 


means the least important. It was opened to the public for the 
first time in 1877. Like the Dudley Gallery, it has no member- 
ship. It is under the management of Sir Coutts Lindsay, to 
whom, on account of his efforts in behalf of this gallery, the art- 
loving world owes much. 

Its exhibitions are made up of the works of living painters 
and sculptors who are invited by Sir Coutts Lindsay to con- 
tribute upon these occasions. The pictures are not placed closely 
together, as is of necessity the rule in ordinary galleries, but a 
space of at least one foot is allowed on every side of each work, 
and all are hung in the light and position best suited to them. 
The consequence is that each work appears to the best advantage, 
and the whole has the effect of a private salon, richly and har- 
moniously furnished, in which is a superb collection of the works 
of the modern masters. 

The director of the Grosvenor Gallery claims that it is not 
intended to rival the Royal Academy, and the works of many 
Academicians are seen upon its walls ; but in it, nevertheless, are 
conspicuous the paintings of what is known as the Eomantic 
School, with which the Council of the Academy does not seem 
to be in sympathy, and which in many instances were not seen 
by the general public until the opening of the Grosvenor Gal- 

Among the better known of the contributors to these exhi- 
bitions have been, Millais, Sir Francis Grant, Sir Frederick 
Leighton, George D. Leslie, George H. Boughton, Burne- Jones, 
Alma-Tadema, Spencer Stanhope, Walter Crane, Albert Moore, 
Whistler, Heilbuth, Tissot, Mrs. Spartali-Stillman, and Mrs. 

The gallery is open during the London season, and annually 
receives the -attention it merits. The building it occupies was 
erected under the personal supervision of Sir Coutts Lindsay, 
by whom it is owned. It is artistic and commodious ; it has 
two large galleries for oil-paintings, a smaller room for water- 
colors, and a gallery for sculpture, all admirably designed for 
the purposes for which they are intended. 

In the early part of the present century, when water-color 
painting began to attract popular attention in Great Britain, a 
number of professional artists who had devoted themselves more 
particularly to that branch of their art determined to form an 
association for its proper recognition and their own mutual pro- 



n and improvement The result was the Society of PcU 

D 1^<»1. 

would appeal that at that time water-color sketches and 
draw not admitted, or, ii' received at all. ited 

with • by the Royal Academy, and the main ol 

insure an annual exhibition in 

Ion, when- the works of this still unpopular school of paint- 

introdnoed to the public and make themselves 

The lirst exhibition was held in Lower Brooke itreel in 1805. 

idle the Society w im.u r for the n 

nition it did nut at first receive, the members nut in each other's 
ud Btudioe by turn, where they presented studies and 
which wen' usually left with the host of the night 
The prejudi b1 water-colors was so stro: \cr, 

that I - Imit pictures in oil, and in 1813 

it was known as the ' and W 

in 1821 the old name was resumed, and only 
I >rs and by members of the Society were re- 
dhibitions. Since that time it has been gaining in 
ind prosperity, and is now to water-color art in Great 
tin what the Royal Academy is to Fine Aits in general 
It- President, like that .>f the Royal Academy, is knighted upon 

xhihitions of this Society were first held in 

-_'l they were removed to Egyptian Hall, 

.dilly, and at present | 5 Pall Mall. Bast The 

the months of M iy, June, ami duly. It 

thirty mem hers and forty-two A-- 

originally known as 
' mded in 

1831. I: is an offshoot i i the older society, and the resuli 
1 members. It has followed in a g 
tution and Ian parent organization, 

with marl — . and numb i its members many 

sninent and ; I the kingdom. It 


Its gallery 59 I 'all Mall, □ 

lose of th • W rld'i I 

London in 1861, when lized 


her inferiority to the continental nations in the matter of artis- 
tic taste in her manufactures and in her industrial educational 
policy, a new section was formed in the British Privy Council, 
called the Department of Science and Art, which devotes itself 
particularly to popular instruction in the industrial arts, chiefly, 
thus far, in drawing and the arts of design. 

The South Kensington Museum, founded in 1852, is the most 
important result of the working of this department. It cost 
originally upwards of a million pounds sterling, and during the 
quarter of a century of its existence between three and four 
millions sterling have been judiciously expended upon it. Col- 
lections have been made of pictures, casts, engravings, models, 
and objects of art of all kinds, from all nations and of all periods. 
These are systematically and artistically arranged, and are open 
to the free inspection of the public, and for the study and im- 
provement of thousands of pupils. 

The National Art Training-Schools of South Kensington form 
without question the finest industrial art college in the world, 
and are so regarded by competent judges of all nations. They 
were established for the purpose of teaching instructors in art 
throughout the kingdom, as well as for the instruction of students 
in drawing, designing, and modeling, to be applied to the require- 
ments of trade and manufacture. The course of study, which is 
very full and complete, is too extended to be described here. It 
embraces twenty subjects, with sixty subdivisions. The pupil is 
required to present drawings, paintings, and models ; to write 
papers on various art topics, and to sustain rigid and thorough 

More than a thousand students (women predominating) are 
fitted annually in all branches of art, — painters, sculptors, en- 
gravers, lithographers, architects, and designers, as well as public 
instructors. The sexes are divided in class-rooms and working- 
rooms, while the lectures, libraries, etc., are open equally to both 
men and women. The examinations are the same, except that 
women are not required to take the papers in machine-drawing 
or architecture. At the end of the course of four years, if the 
record of the pupil is satisfactory to the examining committee, he 
or she is given a diploma, which is accepted throughout the 
civilized world as the highest award of excellence in that partic- 
ular department. 

Subordinate to and connected with the schools of South Ken- 


nngton :iiv upwards of one handled and thirty free art training- 
stablished by the government in tin* more important 
I the kingdom, The method La timilai to thai 
of the parent school, and the teachers are graduates of it. 

important of these schools an those of Birmingham, 

bingham, Glasgow, Birkenhead, Belfast, Leeds, eta In 

!'ii there are about ten schools \ in Dublin, Edinburgh, and 

rpool, two or more each. It is estimated that at leasi three 

hundred thousand tudying art in some form in 

tain alone. Before the organization of the South Ken- 

•liege, the number of British art students did not oum- 

one thousand annually, and the large proportion of tl 

ting themselyes to High Art. 

The Royal 11 Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and 

rt in Dublin dates from 1803. It was incorporated in 

1823 and enlarged in 1861. It is under the patronage of the 

nd the vice-patronage of the Lord-Lieutenant of 

land. Its membership con-: micians, Associates, and 


The annual exhibition of painting, sculpture, and architecture 

opens in February ; students are admitted to the schools on pro- 

duei: bificate from the Department of and Art, 

stating that the applicant 1. I in the four papers of free- 

•metrical, perspective, and object drawing of the 

grade ; <>r they may be admitted by the Council of the 

inien drawings. An examination of 

\ork is held in the autumn by the President and 

r in conjunction with an inspector from the Department 

and Art. when medals are awarded. 
•fessors of sculpture, archit 1 painting are chosen 

: anatomy, hi-- 
and archsBology from the Honorary Members, or it may be from 
i ith the A idemy. 
Tom these Bchooli tents have the privilej 

working and copying the masten in the National Gallery of In- 

throughout r. There 

also excellent art in Dublin, subordinate to the South 

:n, at the I . titute, and si the \1'\a\ 

in 1808 held 


"burgh. It was followed by occasional but irregular exhibitions 
of the works of Scottish artists in other years, until, in 1826, 
the Scottish Academy of Painting, Sculpture, and Architecture 
was established, which afterwards became the Royal Scottish 
Academy and received the Royal charter in 1838. Its first 
President was George Watson, who died in 1837. D. 0. Hill, 
an early Secretary, held that position for upwards of forty years, 
resigning by reason of ill-health in 1869. Of the thirteen origi- 
nal members, not one now survives, Kenneth MacLeay, the last, 
having died in 1878. 

The general plan of the institution is based upon and is similar 
to that of the Royal Academy of London. The meetings and 
exhibitions were held in the Royal Institution, Edinburgh, until 
the erection of its present home in the National Gallery of Scot- 
land, the foundation-stone of which was laid by the Prince Con- 
sort in 1850. 

While the larger portion of the works sent to the annual 
exhibitions of this Academy are the productions of native and 
resident Scottish artists, many of the choicest works of modern 
painters and sculptors of Great Britain and of other countries are 
also received. 

Among other British academies', societies, and schools of 
art are, the Liverpool Academy of Arts, Liverpool Water-Color 
Society, the Adelphi Society of Arts, Society of Female Artists, 
Artists' Society of Langham Chambers, London, and many more 
in the metropolis and in provincial cities, whose workings and 
aims are identical with those of which more full accounts are 
given above. 

France. — Cardinal Mazarin granted letters-patent to the 
Academy of Painting and Sculpture at Paris in 1655. In 1664 
it received the Royal bounty. In 1671 the same minister estab- 
lished an Academy of Architecture. The Convention of 1793 
abolished both these Academies, but two years later they were 
revived by the Directory and called the National Institute. In 
1803 Napoleon I. reorganized this Academy under the name of 
the Imperial Institute of France. Again, Louis XVIII. called 
it the Institute of France, and each of its divisions was called 
an Academy, one of them being the Academie des Beaux-Arts. 
This consists of forty members, who have each been medaled in 
one of the departments of art (painting, sculpture, architecture, 



iving, and music), tea Honorary Academicians, and ten For- 

The meetings of the Academy occur weekly ; there an 
memoirs, trail . and one of its important duti- 

the Bnperintendence of annual examinations for prises foi the 
works in the departments already named. 
The I - is in the Roe Bonaparte, [nstruo- 

tion is here given to French pupils from fifteen to thirty y< 

not eligible to the highest prize (the 
Prix i. they are allow.-. I to enter the school when d 

than thirl L W imen are not admitted to this institu- 

mditions <>f sdmission are an introduction by a 
h artist i copy of a reg iste r of birth and 

. passport, a drawing from life executed in twelve 
hours which indicates decided artistic talent, and the passing an 
inati.ui in certain bran neral study. 

The Prix de Rome is the grand desideratum of all French stu- 
vith it such advantages as are well worth striv- 
ich Academy at Rome Lb presided over by a 
member of the Academic dee Beaux-Arts, and the gainer of the 
grand prix is entitled to four years' study there, with the sum 
of 4.000 francs annually ; also, at't.r his return to France, he 
me sum during four more years, from the prize of 
thus being freed from pecuniary care during i 

. or annual exhibition at Paris, is under government 
a. Its highest reward is the M.daill*- d'Honneur, the 

second, the Prix do Salon, and below these are medals of three 

the exhibition. The M.'.laille 

.id I nneur entitles the recipient to send thereafter any work to 

mitting it to the jury of admission. The 

of the 8 in many cases, the decora- 

f • he I. in various grades. 

irnment purchases from the Salon many w 
art, which are placed in the Gallery of the Luxembourg or in 
r public huildi:. ; Paris, or lenl to the museums or 
- in provincial cities. The Luxembourg 
essential!- I exhibition of the works oflivii 

or those deceased within ten years. 

i of works to the 8 

;• sculpt u : 


ture, and nine for engraving and lithography. Of these, two 
thirds are chosen by a vote of the artists, and the remaining num- 
ber are appointed by the Government Art Bureau. The Director 
of Fine Arts presides over another jury or committee, of the same 
number, which awards the prizes and medals of the Salon. 

To give any just resume of the various schools in France in 
which drawing is taught would require a small volume. France 
has been always anxious to provide for her people in this direc- 
tion, because not only in works known as those of the Fine Arts, 
but in all kinds of articles de luxe, in the manufacture of which 
artistic skill and taste are requisite, she has employed a great part 
of her industrial energy, and from them has reaped a rich harvest 
pecuniarily. Drawing of various kinds has been taught in the 
Ecoles communales, Ecoles commerciales, Ecoles professionelles, 
Ecoles de dessin, and many others. The schools under the 
charge of the " Christian Brethren " in all parts of France have 
done much for the cultivation of a rudimentary knowledge of 
art ; for example, that of St. Sulpice at Paris and that of St. 
Michel at Havre, which stand, perhaps, at the head of this class 
of schools. In short, the interest as well as the taste of the 
French nation has made art education a care of the State ; but 
since the great expositions of the last thirty years have put in 
comparison the advances made in the productions of all nations, 
France has been forced to look to her laurels, and great attention 
has been given to the revision and careful superintendence of 
many institutions where the rudiments of art in various branches 
are taught. In 1850 the Commune of Paris devoted to its In- 
dustrial Schools 30,000 francs; in 1875, 350,000 francs were 
expended upon the same object, and the Exposition of 1878 
showed the benefits which resulted from this expenditure. While 
the products of all civilized nations are constantly advancing by 
remarkable strides, it would seem that many of the manufactures 
of France have reached the very perfection of elegant beauty in 
form and finish. In Paris, in addition to the many schools above 
referred to, there are, every Sunday, at the Conservatory, lectures 
from eminent scientists and artists upon the application of art to 
industry. These lectures commence at eight o'clock a. m., and 
with short intermissions continue until ten o'clock p. m. They 
are each an hour long, and the halls where they are given are 
always crowded. There are also similar lectures in every ward 
in Paris. 


Wh< "1 Clf any one artist in Paris wo 

. ol quite separate from the government organ iza- 
s, each one being governed according to the wishes of the 
od pupils. I ganiring ; 

tse the master opens an atelier and the students 
pay a monthly tuition fee averaging mom one to two hundred 
francs. Each pupil furnishes himself with materials and 
•rk. The in I - ited times, usually twi 

rk and gives advice, suggestions, etc., for 

The second modi' is for a company of students to form a sort 
of club, hire an atelier, make all arrangements according to their 

9, and invite the master upon whom the] 
then :. They pay an admittance fee to the treasurer, 

whom they choose, and each month a sum, from twenty-live to 
one hundred francs, of the atelier. The master 

instruction in the same manner as under the first ar- 
rangement, but re pecuniary recompense, whereas by 
the other mode the professor reaps both fame and money. 

I: aly. — The earliest academies of Fine Art in Italy. 

That of St. Luke at Borne I lished in 1593 by Fed 

Zucchero, wh lent and who erected a building 

for it at his own expense. In the palmy days of Italian art 
aim* v had its schools and its academy. J>ur- 

tchoo] of each monarchy and 

republic was o its individual chars Of all 

b 'ols with their magnificent results much has been 

i of Borne, Florem i, Turin, 

Iilan, and other Italian cit moved quietly on, 

■in the political changes and uncertainties 
of the g< irhich thi L Now that the 

unity, so I ined, we may hope for new 

life in that country which has been fur centuries the fountain- 
head of ii. knowledge to the Pine Art- of tie- world. 
The skill of the Italians in wood 

uiversally admitted. I much of 

to these producti d 1 in 

^cuola Tecnica, where draw fully 

m only name a few of the principal schools 1. 


not having space for any detailed account of them. They are 
the Instituto Industriale e Professionale, and the Scuola di 
Ornamentacione del R Museo Industriale of Turin, the Instituto 
Tecnico of Alessandria, the Eeale Scuola Tecnica of Pavia, the 
Patrio Instituto Manin of Venice, the Scuola Tecnica Pareggiata 
of Ferrara, the Scuola Tecnica Diurna and the Scuola Tecnica 
Serale of Bologna, the communal school of Dante and other 
technical schools of Florence, the Scuola di Disegno Applicato 
alle Arti of Naples ; and even the schools of Salerno, Sardinia, 
and Messina are all worthy of attention, as well as those of the 
same order in Rome. 

The objection may be made to the Italian schools that they 
follow traditions, and repeat ad infinitum the old forms, — 
in a word, that nature is forgotten ; but we may well believe 
that the freer thought which prevails in all other directions in 
the Italy of our day will extend to art, and will find well- 
trained hands ready to obey its dictates and express its inspira- 

Bavaria. — The Academy of Munich is of great importance 
to the art world of to-day. The number of art students in that 
city is larger in proportion to the whole population than in any 
other art center of Europe. 

The Royal Bavarian Academy of Munich was founded in 
1808 by Maximilian I. Ludwig I. when Crown Prince was 
much in Rome, and associated with the German artists studying 
there. When he became King he gave the most enthusiastic 
patronage to art, and has been fittingly called the Lorenzo de' 
Medici of Germany. This Academy has given every encourage- 
ment to foreign artists to study and settle in Munich. There 
are no annual exhibitions, as in Paris, but generally one occurs 
every three or four years. 

The Kunstverein, an association of Munich artists, has a 
gallery in which are displayed the latest works executed by 
them. The pictures are sent there weekly, and after remaining 
one week are sent to other cities for exhibition unless purchased 
by the association, which is frequently the case when the price 
does not exceed fifteen hundred marks. The subscribers raffle for 
these works at the end of the year. Each member pays a yearly 
fee of twenty marks, and receives an engraving valued at ten 


. Ratisbon, Ibis, Gunzburg, Werdenfels, 

Lichach, Rosenheim, Wflnburg, Faith, Beyrouth, 

dng, and other cities and towns in Bavaria give attention to 

bing in their schools as Furnishes a good foundation for 

the art and art industry of the nation. Naturally Munich is at 

the head i>t' these matt 

In the Nuremberg achool the Fine Arts and Art Industry 
united. This institution was founded by Joachim von Sandrart 
in 1662, and though it was for a Long time thoroughly devoted 
and its traditions, it has gradually embraced the 
modern German and the Italian spirit. This, school is 
ad only to that of South Kensington, and in some points 
D that institution. 
The school for wood-carving at Werdenfels is worthy of Bpecial 
imendation, and many Bavarian schools have reached a high 
standard of exoeUen 

Pbubsia. — The Royal Academy of Fine Arts of Berlin holds 

iy important place in German art. Jt has recently 1 >< * ■ n 
reorg ind a chair of belles-lettres added to its profe 

ships. Biennial exhibitions have been established, which will 

i great impulse to art as their advantages are more widely 

Ti. . the highest award of this Academy, en- 

'.,) years of travel and study, and in c 
of unusual merit the time is extended. This prize is nol given 
to f The small gold me.hd and the large and small 

up ui artiste of all nations. The 
hibit uid continue three months. Many 

ks are pui ihased by the government 

Museum at Berlin was established in 
- much rapport from the state, and has the 
f the " Frederick William Fund" of L00 9 000 to 

ne, and its achools are in a 
flourishing condition. Then- fa a branch echo 1 al M 

b ukward than some other porti( D 

ail impor- 
• is more and m 
hibit •• in these directions. 

1 of the Museum Wallraf-Bicharti in < 


Austria. — The Royal Academy of Art at Vienna is princi- 
pally in charge of professors whom the Emperor has summoned 
from Munich. Prominent among them are Eeuerbach and 
Makart. Vienna ranks very high among the cities of Germany 
in her architecture, and what may be termed household art is 
here brought to exquisite perfection. The glassware of the 
Viennese is, in design and execution, the first of the present day, 
the artists employed in this department being as skilled as those 
of Sevres at its best periods. 

The Museum of Art and Industry at Vienna was established 
in 1864. Its permanent building was not ready for occupation 
until 1871. This Museum is liberally endowed by the State, 
and has also received valuable gifts both of money and of articles 
proper for its use and adornment. Pupils of all nationalities 
and of both sexes are admitted to the classes of this institution. 
There are many free scholarships for those who are unable to 
afford the reasonable tuition fee demanded of the paying pupils. 
There are several courses of lectures in connection with this 
institution, some of them being open to the general public. 
Artists and workingmen can profit by the collections and the 
library by a system of cards which passes them free to the 
Museum at all times and gives them books for use as they need 
them. The publications of the Museum are quite extensive, 
consisting of books, photographs, casts, a monthly journal, etc. 
On four days of the week the Museum is free, and on the other 
three days the charge for admission is very moderate, only about 
twenty cents. The branches taught in the schools of the Mu- 
seum are, Architecture in its Application to the Ornamentation of 
Buildings, Sculpture, Ornamental Drawing, and Figure Drawing 
and Painting in their relations to art industry. This school may 
be ranked the third of its kind in Europe, being the best after 
those of South Kensington and Nuremberg. There are in Austria 
a large number of art industry schools ; some in which but one 
branch of drawing or modeling is taught, and others where 
several branches can be pursued. Many such institutions have 
been established since the Vienna Exposition in 1873, which 
served to arouse a great interest in these matters and to give 
an impetus to the movements for their advancement. Among 
these schools may be named, a School for Glass-Industry at 
Steinschbnau, established in 1855 ; one at Haida for the same 
industry, and another at Gablonz, both established in 1870; 


•.:. 1 Modeling School for Clay-Industry at Znaim, 
lished in L872j w d-Carving Schools at Groden, Inns- 
brack (that of Sebastian Steiner), Im>t, Mondsee, Hallstadt, 
llallein, (imiiiul, YVallern, Bohemia, and Tachau, There an 
Is for BpeciaJ artistic training in various other industries, 
and some of those for weaving, embroidery, and the like i 

Since about 1850 tfa ;ally 

need in Austria, and that country lias now reason to congrat- 
ulate herself on the pi state of art within her borders. 

Tb mldorf was more prominent a quarter of 

than it is at the present time. However, within 

a few new manner of working has been introduced, and 

mk of the school is now much higher than it was a dozen 


Th /Arts at Dresden was founded in 1G97, and 

though not one of the most prominent of (German art schools, it 

sent forth a goodly number of men who have been an honor 

to their Alma Mater. 

The /.' at Carlsruhe is another important school, 

and that of Stuttgart merits attention. In the last-named city 

much interest in historical painting, and a society has 

oized there for the encouragement of this branch of art 

in < lermany. The different German sovereigns are subscribers 

-. as well as many artists and connoisseurs <>f all 

- of the Empire. An annual exhibition is held, and the 

artists send to the superintending committee color sketch. 

r approbation or rejection. After the exhibition 
some with the general fund, and are dis- 

| of by lotl ribera to ti. aion. 

Th( - Biberach, Ellwangen, 

• ii, and many othen have 

ir exhibits in the great exposition.-, and alsewl 

le to take high rank in all branch* 

in modeling carvin 1 Wurtemberg Ait 

Indi i dly prominent in the 

ana in 1873, and its landscape studies w 

There is probably no city in all Germany in which 

id to the teaching of drawing in its different 

lustry than in Hamburg, and it 


dustrial School ranks very high among institutions of a similar 

Belgium and the Netherlands. — The Imperial and Royal 
Academy of Sciences and Fine Arts of Brussels was established 
by the Empress Maria Theresa in 1772, and is one of the most 
important benefits which this sovereign conferred upon her 
country. But it was not until 1845 that a course of instruction 
for the study of painting, sculpture, engraving, architecture, and 
music was authorized in this institution, and professors in all 
these branches appointed. This academy has a system of con- 
cours and of prizes, which enables artists to profit by foreign 
residence and study ; and what may be termed the " Brussels 
School " of artists ranks high in the history of contemporary art. 
The academies of Rotterdam, Amsterdam, and other cities of these 
countries are of more or less importance in the consideration of 
these matters, but the attention to Fine Arts and Art Industry is 
not as great here as in other nations of Europe, and the glory 
of Dutch art essentially belongs to the past. 

Switzerland. — There are many drawing-schools and mu- 
seums and frequent exhibitions in Switzerland, but in the wood- 
carving, the principal art production of the country, little advance 
is seen. The old forms, the old naturalism, prevails. Professor 
Langl, in his report upon the Vienna Exposition of 1873, says 
that "the Swiss need a 'Frallim' to turn their skill to better 
account in more refined and more artistic productions." But 
since there is no academy, no art center in the country, and since 
little money is expended by the government for the advancement 
of art, it is not strange that the real artists of Switzerland go to 
Italy, to France and Germany, and that their adopted countries 
rather than their own reap the benefit of their achievements. 

Northern Countries. — The artists of the Northern countries, 
Sweden, Norway, and Denmark, go to Germany so largely for 
their education that their productions are essentially the same as 
those of the German schools. The only difference seems to lie in 
the characteristics of the scenery of their native seas and moun- 
tains, their waterfalls and fiords, rather than in any distinctive 
modes of representation. In fact, many artists from the North 
live permanently in Dusseldorf, Munich, Carlsruhe, and other 
German cities. They also travel much, and seek abroad the ad- 


INTROD l.\.w 

van! fcudy and artistic companionship which ai 

be had at home. 
The .: at Stockholm was established in 

by the exertions of Charles Gustavus, Count of Tessin. 
The A ipenhagen was established in 

3 and incorporated in 175 1. 
The Imperial / • drU at St Petersbor 

founded in 1765, and was also richly endowed by Catherine II. 
fa students are supported in Germany and Italy, which i- 
true, to a large extent, of all the Northern academies. 
The Society for (/<■ / the Arts at St. 1 

I the drawing-sch< it Moscow, with soiuo 

the uiily institutions in Russia known to 

here the people are systematically taught practical execution 

of mode: iter and clay as well as drawing of different 


\ix and PnRTur.AL. — The Royal Academy of Painting and 
at Madrid lished in 1 753. Prizes are dis- 

trfbul Of late Spanish art students make 

a name in Rome and Paris as frequently as at home. There are 
•vincial academies in Spain, and some attempts at the 
cultivation of art industry, but the unsettled state of the Spanish 
government and the isolated position of Portugal are causes which 
hinder tin- advance in these countries that is so evident in others 
which we hav red. 

T'mti: Of America. — The history of the National 

York commences with the beginning of 

story. In 18 York Academy of 

• of it- kind in that city) was established In 

,1808 it i : from ' . and was called 

The only professional artist 
amoi _ - .J"hn Trumbull, who was its t 

officer. Tli" Board of I 
of the ri: ions 

and occu] It had an Antique rial 

but not regular exhibitions, the first of which was held in c<\ 
wich il, and was finally 

absorbed in the 

In number of professional 


selves ignored as a body in the earlier association, established a 
society which was called the New York Drawing Association. 
This, under the leadership of Professor Morse, in 1826 formed 
the National Academy of the Arts of Design. The first ex- 
hibition took place on the corner of Broadway and Reade street 
in May of that year. Its first charter was received in 1828, and 
its present title, National Academy of Design, adopted. Of 
the original fifteen members, but two remain alive at the end of 
fifty years (1878), Asher B. Durand and Thomas S. Cummings. 
After holding its meetings and exhibitions in various buildings 
in different parts of the city, it took possession of its present 
structure on Twenty-third street, corner of Fourth Avenue, in 

The members of the National Academy are termed Academi- 
cians. There is also a subordinate body called Associate Acade- 
micians. The number of these Academicians and Associates is 
not limited by law, as is the case with the members of the Royal 
Academy in London. The Associates are nominated and bal- 
loted for at the annual meeting of the Academy in May, a vote 
of two thirds of the Academicians present being necessary to a 
choice. The candidates must be professional artists ; it is neces- 
sary that they should have exhibited in the galleries of the 
National Academy for at least one season before their nomina- 
tion, and they are required within one year of their election 
to present their own portraits (painted by themselves or other 
artists) to the Academy. The Academicians are chosen from the 
body of Associates, and are elected in a similar manner. They 
are required to send a " diploma work," a specimen of their art, 
to be preserved in the permanent gallery of the institution. 
There are at present (1878) but four women who are Associate 
Members of the National Academy, Miss Fidelia Bridges, Mrs. 
Bogardus, Mrs. Eliza Greatorex, and Mrs. H. A. Loop. 

Besides active members the Academy has a number of Honor- 
ary Members, consisting of distinguished artists and art lovers of 
different nations, and a body of Fellows, established in 1863, for 
the purpose of increasing the revenues of the Academy and pro- 
moting more general and intimate association between artists and 
their sympathizers. The Fellows are admitted to the reading- 
rooms, library, and exhibitions, and have the privilege of nomi- 
nating annually two students to the schools. A subscription of 
one hundred dollars constitutes a fellowship for life. The annual 


exhibitions of the National Academy open in March or April, 
and continue two 01 three months, no regular time being t. 
ral winter exhibitions have been held, but these are now 
The Bohoola of the National Academy aiv a very Important 
nization. They have existed sin.-.' its founda- 
tion in various forms, and are to tin- Fine Art schools of Ami 
what the schools of the Royal Academy arc t<> tic provincial 
Is in England, or IF Beaux-Arts is to the 1 

ace. They arc open day and evening, from Octo- 
ontil .hi: • i both sexes. All Btudents must tint 

r the Antique SchooL For admission to this the applicant 
[aired to p : shaded drawing of some part of a 

..• human form, of sufficient merit to promise bo] 
future advancement. A thorough course of study from the an- 
tique before the pupil is permitted to enter other 
St lents vi' the Antique School only are eligible for 
admission to the Life School. The studies here are from both 

draped and nude models. In the Painting Schools the studies 
are from living models only, and only students of the Life School 
are permit! enter. These different departments are under 

competent instructors, and the academic course is similar t<> that 
of like institutions in European countries. The lectures of the 

i technical and general, are open to all class* 
stud. -lit.-. An exhibition of selected drawings by the students is 
in the library rooms in May of each year, continuing two 
. anual distribution of awards of merit is made 
by the President of my. 

The .S'<, ■ aiii/'-d. June 1, 1877, 

donal painters and sculp 

I in Europe. In foreign study they had 

:id principles somewhat at variance with 
those hit. . adopted in the Unite I ling 

the members of the National Academy a- a body wen 
in full accord with their art ideas, and that they could only hope 

•ion in tie- annual exhibition 

institution, they decided to form a society which would 
to come before the public under more favoi 

was held in the Kurt 


Important works were contributed by the members, and by- 
other American artists at home and abroad who were in sym- 
pathy with the new movement. This exhibition was an artistic 
and financial success, and it is proposed to hold others of the 
same order, annually, and occasionally from time to time as cir- 
cumstances may demand. 

The Society at present (1878- 79) has twenty-two members, 
and will, at stated periods, elect others whose ability and feeling 
may qualify them to further its aims of " cultivating true art prin- 
ciples, fresh and vigorous technique, and progressive and catholic 
views in all matters relating to art." 

The Art Students' League, founded in 1875, and incorpo- 
rated in 1878, is maintained by a number of young artists of 
New York, for the purpose of securing the advantages of thor- 
ough academic instruction in their profession. Its course em- 
braces drawing, painting, or modeling, together with instruction 
in artistic anatomy, perspective, and composition. Being ex- 
clusively a life school, a high standard of admission is maintained, 
and as it is controlled by the students themselves, a practical 
management is secured, and the more advanced methods of 
instruction are followed. The membership of the League is 
composed of professional artists and students of both sexes, 
and the classes are open to all who have attained the required 
standard in drawing. Applicants for admission to the Life Class 
must submit a drawing of a full-length figure from a cast or from 
life, to the Portrait Class a drawing of a head from a cast or 
from life, and to the Composition Class an original design. The 
classes are open daily from the 1st of October until the 1st of 
June, and the price of tuition is placed at a rate simply sufficient 
to defray the actual cost of maintaining the several classes. It 
has over one hundred members, while double that number of 
pupils are annually received. Monthly receptions are given, at 
which pictures and studies by the best artists are exhibited. 

A few pictures upon a small screen in the Art Department at 
the exhibition in the Crystal Palace, New York, in 1853, which 
were classified separately in the catalogue as " Water-Color Paint- 
ings by Members of the New York Water-Color Society " may 
be considered the beginning of the water-color movement in 
America. The society, however, was short-lived, and soon after 
this effort it passed quietly out of existence. A few years 
later, some two hundred water-color drawings by English artists 


5 rk and wen offered fin Bale at auction. 

pricee bid fox these were oonsidered insufficient ; they were 

withdrawn, and tl. part of them weie returned to Engp- 

land. In 1868 tlu> collection of Mr. John Wolfe waa Bold in 

tin 1 same city. It contained tome very choice water-colors of 
the English school, and attracted much attention. In the fol- 
io wing year many French and German water-color painters con- 
tributed to the New York Metropolitan Fair. In the sprin 

i a number of water-oolor sketches were exhibited by the 
French Etching Club, and in the autumn of that year the Artists' 
Fund Society made a special feature of water-colors, devoting tlio 
gallery and corridor of the National Academy to their exhi- 
bition. These wei irks mainly of E urop ea n artists, for 
is known of this process up to that time on the 
tinent The collection excited so much interest 
that a call was addressed to professional artists and amateurs 
- imuel Column, William Hart, William Craig, and 
Gilbert Burling, to a meeting held in Burling's studio on the 
5th of Decemher. 1866, which led to the organization of the 
American Society of Painters in Water-Colors. Its first Presi- 
dent Dual Colman. Gilbert Burling was elected 
retary. and James D. Smillie, Treasurer. The initial exhibition 
took place in the National Academy in December, 1867. For 
thibited in the annual winter meetings of 
any, and under the control of that institution. 
In 1^74 it had gained so much in strength and confidence that 
it opened its serenth exhibition under its own management, 
and iN annual displays in the month of February 
d among the, moat important art features of each seas on 
in New York. Its success has been marked In 1*78-79 it 
numbered fofty-fbur active members, and eighteen non resident 
members; it had a fund of BBTesa] thousand dollars, and i; 
done very much for the sdTanoemenl r-color art and the 
ement of a taste for works in that medium in America 

Early in r it was g] • th*- works of fo] 

ta to fill up ; I hundred drawing 

nativ of necessity refuse. 1. I 

r, and only such foreign exampl will 

ptoreyaluabL lenta In 1877 it adopted a new constitu- 

tion, and is now known m '//• 

In 1 v ol M ik, in whose 


praise for his munificent gifts to his native city too much cannot 
be said, laid the corner-stone of the Cooper Institute, "to be 
devoted forever to the union of art and science in their appli- 
cation to the useful purposes of life." This building, at the 
junction of Third and Fourth Avenues, was completed in 1857, 
at a cost of $ 630,000, and transferred by Mr. Cooper to a Board 
of Trustees, under whose direction it has since been, and who in 
a period of nineteen years have expended $ 733,000 in giving 
free instruction to the public. The income of the institution 
has been derived from the rents of the large building and from 
the interest of a special endowment by Mr. Cooper of $ 150,000, 
to be devoted particularly to the formation and support of a 
Free Library and Reading-Eoom. Over two thousand young men 
and women are annually educated here. In the Art Department 
there are several branches under competent instructors, including 
mechanical, architectural, perspective, cast, and form drawing. 
In the evening schools women are admitted to the lectures and the 
scientific classes, but not to the art classes, a special Art Depart- 
ment being provided for them during the day, which forms a 
very important feature of the educational history of the Cooper 
Institute. There are free-hand drawing-classes and classes in 
photography, painting, and modeling ; besides classes in engrav- 
ing and drawing on wood, which make a distinct department. 
In the Normal Classes of these schools fully one third of the 
graduates are employed as teachers, and here particular atten- 
tion is paid to industrial design. Many of the students in each 
class are engaged upon work for the Decorative Art Society, 
with profitable results to themselves. The rules of admission to 
these schools are very simple. No pupil is received under the 
age of fifteen years, but only a fair knowledge of the rudiments 
of reading, writing, and arithmetic, and certificates of good con- 
duct are demanded. If talent for high art is shown students 
are recommended to the other schools of New York which are 
designed particularly for the instruction of professional artists, 
and not a few of the prominent painters of America to-day are 
indebted to the schools of the Cooper Institute for early devel- 
opment of latent power, and kindly encouragement to become 
what they now are. It is, however, as an academy for the 
industrial arts that this institution is particularly adapted and 
intended, and as such it ranks deservedly high. To the indus- 
trious youth of New York who are desirous of self-improvement 


it has b on for twent] ' n. ti Bill 

founder and originator it will ever remain a gloriona monument 

nuj <■/ ( ; 'Loll of 

..ty of the leading citizens of Philadelphia (forty-on 
whom were lawyers nned in that city in 1805, endincor- 

ted in its conatito- 
promote the cultivation of the Fine Arte in the 
Unit by introducing correct ami eleganl 

- "ft ho first Blasters in Bcnlptureand painting ; 
ishment of a Heries of painting and 

sculpture, of a library, and fa of design ; and by such 

r methods of instruct; ral and particular, as beal 

led proper to the committee, for the promotion and enjoy- 
ment of the Fine Arts in the city of Philadelphia," Th< 

of the association were held in the house of Joseph 

n, afterwards its President. It subsequently purcfa 

■ of ground, and erected a building for the preservation and 

exhibition of its W irt This was opened in 1807, and 

contained some lit * in the antique, selected by Nicholas 

Biddle, then Secretary of the Legation in Paris, and a few paint 

and other prominent artists. The regular annual 

exhibitions of the Academy did not commence until 1811. In 

~> the building, with its permanent collection of works of art, 

at that time of much value, roved by lire. The gener- 

of the people of Philadelphia, after this disaster, was so 

great that the new collection quickly surpassed the old. It 

now includes (1878) three hundred and forty-eight pieces of 

sculpture (forty-five in marble), one hundred and ninety-five 

of all periods and 
scho ay drawings, photographs, and a finely 

art 1. :t of the collection of en 

bequ \ Phillips in 1876. Tim present building, 

with the ground upon which it stands, cost about half a million 

bed to galleries, the 
r to schools, office-. 1 in the sprin 

i by a Hoard of Directors < 1. 
nt its stoekhol lers. [n th< 
ssional ai but 

•id William Push. Tli 
y made an effort i:. in in 1 71*1 to establish 

an art academy in Philadelphia, but without lOCCOSl, In 1 


with other active members of the Academy, they organized the 
Society of Artists of the United States, incorporated in 1813 
as the Columbian Society of Artists. Sully was the first Sec- 
retary of this organization. It exhibited in the Academy, and 
used the Academy building for its schools, but it was never in 
perfect harmony with the older society, and it went out of exist- 
ence in 1817. The most important of its successors was the 
Artists' Fund Society, still existing, but not in active opera- 

The first record of any school in connection with the Penn- 
sylvania Academy of the Fine Arts is found on its minutes, 
bearing date October 8, 1807, as follows : " Until the funds of 
the institution will admit of opening a school on a more extended 
plan, persons of good character shall be permitted to make draw- 
ings from the statues and busts belonging to the Academy." 
From this humble beginning, after many vicissitudes, it has now 
reached a condition encouraging and successful. It has (1878-79) 
two hundred and thirty-nine pupils, one hundred and twelve in 
the Antique, one hundred and twenty-seven in the Life classes. 
Of these about one third are women. The Academy states that 
it does not undertake to furnish detailed instruction, but rather 
facilities for study supplemented by the occasional criticism of the 
teachers. Its classes are intended especially for those who pro- 
pose to become professional artists. 

The Philadelphia Sketch Club is the natural offshoot of several 
institutions of a similar kind, organized by different generations 
of Philadelphia artists. It was founded in 1860. In the winter 
of 1865 - 66 it gave a successful exhibition of works of art in the 
Academy of Fine Arts. In 1873, in the absence of any regular 
classes of the Academy, the Sketch Club formed schools for study 
from the living model, open to members and non-members upon 
the payment of a small fee. They also gave lessons in anatomy, 
and secured the services of Thomas Eakins, who gave gratuitous 
instruction until the completion of the present Academy building 
in 1876, when the Sketch Club classes were discontinued. As a 
club, however, it still exists in a flourishing condition, has com- 
fortable rooms on North Pennsylvania Square, gives occasional 
entertainments to distinguished artists, and has a full roll of 
membership, including amateurs as well as professional artists. 

The Philadelphia School of Design for Women was established 
in 1853, "for the systematic training of young women in the 

TNTR01 lxxxiii 

fart, and kn ntific principles, with a 

impart to others a careful art edu- 

: instruction varies from two ami a half to 

four ami a half y. ling to the talent and industry of tin* 

pupil, and it includes drawing from caste, painting in oil and 

r printing wall-paper, etc., b 

aid lithography. The course of instruction Lb similar to thai 

of the English schools. 

of the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 

tutunm of l v 7". M '-mortal Hall, one of the finest and most 

important of the Exhibition building made I permanent 

museum of industrial art, similar in aim to that of South Ken- 

• <n. In 1*77 the trustees of this institution, feeling the 

-ome compreh' . of industrial 

ived to establish permanent schools for draw- 

■.ml modeling in their industrial application, opening these 

schools on North I n account of the distance of the 

museum proper from the center of the city. Although still com- 

ively in their infancy, they bid fair to supply a great want 


The I ixed in the month of January, 

1 855, by twen men, among whom were Joseph Ames, its 

I tadway, il lioses Wight, 

L Gerry, and Walter M. and Edward A. Bracket! 

>f its establishment originated with Mr. Ordway, and 

to the untiring ntleman much of uent 

ss is due. For the first fifteen years ol fcence the 

1 no local habitatj were held in the 

. and duri il War, from 18G2 

• entire];. led In 1*70 its 

present home on I built, 

and red. It has commodious apartments, and 

a library of art works and periodica] open to 

tors daily throughout the year, and conl 

■■ -ts of art in ti. rthy of inspection. In 

1878 the '.. ■:..'■ rsbip of t: five hundred 

an<l thir ibitione are held in each year, to which 

ibuted by the 
tiers as w 
of 8t 


regular exhibitions monthly informal meetings are held during 
the autumn and winter, when sketches, etchings, engravings, etc. 
are displayed, brought together for the occasion by the members 
for mutual benefit and examination, and occasional lectures are 
given. It is the most important institution of its kind in New 

In 1 850 the Trustees of the Lowell Institute of Boston estab- 
lished a free school of drawing, frequently mentioned in this 
book, which was placed under the direction of George Hollings- 
worth, and remained in active operation until 1878, when it was 

The attention of the Legislature of the State of Massachu- 
setts was turned particularly towards the subject of art edu- 
cation in 1870. Drawing was made a compulsory study for 
pupils of all grades in the public schools, and a law was passed 
requiring the establishment of at least one free evening drawing 
school for adults in every town of ten thousand inhabitants. 
In 1873 the Massachusetts Normal Art School was organized for 
the training of art teachers of both sexes. It was modeled upon 
the Training-Schools of South Kensington, and occupies a posi- 
tion in relation to the common schools of Massachusetts similar 
to that of the South Kensington School to the educational insti- 
tutions of Great Britain. The regular course is of four years. 
The first is devoted to drawing ; the second to form, color, and 
industrial design ; the third to the constructive arts ; and the 
fourth to sculpture. The standard is high, the system thorough, 
and the examinations very severe. The applicants for admission 
to this school must be more than commonly proficient in draw- 
ing before they are received as pupils at all. Professor Walter 
Smith, the State Superintendent of Art Instruction in Massachu- 
setts, is its principal, and under his direction it has been very 

The School of Drawing and Painting connected with the 
Boston Museum of Fine Arts was organized in the autumn of 
1876. It receives pupils of both sexes. The admission fee is 
ten dollars, with a monthly fee of the same amount. Professional 
artists, however, working and studying in this school, are charged 
but five dollars a month. A certain number of free scholarships 
have been established, which are assigned, on special examination, 
to students who are in need of such assistance. The students 
are exercised in drawing and painting from the living model and 


from still-life, arc permitted to copy tho pictures in tho galleries 
of the Museum, and to make original sketches of tin* galleries 
and tlie objecta they contain. The school baa a large number of 
pupils ; it lias met with encouraging Buccess, and is performing 
the work of a well-established academy. 

The School of Carving ami Modeling for Women in Boston 
eatabliahed in 1877 by the Woman's Education Association 
of that city. Tin- coune of instruction includes modeling in 
clay, in plaster, and carving in wood. Somo of tho 

pupils have worked directly from natural objects, and a number 
of sketches of fruits and flowers have been made from memory. 
Tiles have been modeled from time to time in terra-cotta clay from 
the original designs of the pupils, etc. The school has received 
some aid from the city of Boston and from other sources, and is 
partially self-supporting. 

The tirst regular exhibition of works of art held in Buffalo, 
N. Y.. was opened in the winter of 1861 under the auspices 
of the Young Men's Christian Association, and was so popular 
and so successful that it led to the establishment the next year 
of a permanent art-gallery in that city. Through the efforts of 
Thomas LeClear, William H. Beard, and L. G. Sellstedt, assisted 
by many non-professional gentlemen of wealth, the Buffalo Fine 
Art A''vlemy was organized and chartered, to promote and culti- 
and establish and maintain an exhibition and 
collection of paintings and sculpture. The Academy has purchased 
from time to time some valuable works of art, and fine paintings 
have been given to it by eminent American artists. Mr. Sell- 
nding secretary and superintendent of the 
institution since its organization, except during the years 1876 
and 1877, when he was its President. 

The Brooklyn Art A was instituted in 1861 and 

incorporated in 1864. Its object is the encouragement and pro- 
motion of art by a reunion of its members ; by providing for tho 
exhibition of painting. . and other works of art ; by tho 

holding of annual exhibitions, and by the establishment of a per- 
manent galler. ;/.ation it has given .--mi-annual 
exhibitions, with free admission to the public, at which hive 
been seen thousand original works of art ; it has aided 
in the sale of many pictures, and has erected an admirably plamu d 
building f^r the galleries and schools. In 1864, in aid ol 
United State.- S 


engravings, the first of its kind which ever took place upon the 
American continent, and which attracted great attention. In 
the spring of 1872 it exhibited a collection of works representing 
American art, arranged chronologically as far as was practicable, 
from 1715 to 1872, to which the public and private galleries of 
Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Yale College, etc., contributed. 
The result proved that there was in the United States a wealth 
of native art which few people believed to have existed. The 
educational department of this association is under the direction 
of excellent professors. 

The San Francisco Art Association was organized in the 
spring of 1871, "for the promotion of painting, sculpture, and 
the Fine Arts akin thereto, the diffusion of a cultivated taste 
for art in the community at large, and the establishment of an 
Academy or School of Design." The association is composed of 
professional artists and persons who are interested in the progress 
of art. It has a full list of active members, and a number of 
life members, made such upon the payment of a subscription of 
one hundred dollars. The society has a good library of books 
upon art topics ; and a fine collection of casts from the Greek and 
other ancient art, presented by the French government through 
Count de Remusat, who was Secretary of Foreign Affairs under the 
Presidency of Thiers. They were executed by direction of Jules 
Simon in the studios of the Louvre, and include eight life-size 
statues, twenty basso-rilievos from the frieze of the Parthenon, 
twenty-six busts, and one statuette. Besides these there are some 
sixty or more pieces purchased by the Association. The Schools 
of Design located on Pine street are now (1878) in their fifth 
year. There are classes in crayon-drawing and oil-painting, 
and special portrait, sketch, and landscape classes. The fees 
of tuition are small, and within the means of every student. 
Gold and silver medals and diplomas are annually awarded, and 
pupils preparing themselves to become art teachers are furnished 
with satisfactory certificates by the director when he feels that 
they are qualified for the positions they desire to fill. The San 
Francisco Art Association holds annual exhibitions for the dis- 
play of works of art, and occasional receptions. 

The Washington Art Club was established in the winter of 
1875. Its objects are to promote acquaintance and good-fellow- 
ship among artists, to encourage exertion and hard study, to 
exhibit the results, and to create an active interest in the artists 

INTR0DUCT1 Ixxxvii 

and their works imang the people of Washington, by inducing 

Bering them annual 

q the contributed works of the active members, or such 

othi •: i art as may belong to the club. Several valuable 

com- ;n>> on art subjects have been delivered before the 

club, and an effort is being made for the formation 

hington in connection with the Corcoran Gal- 
lery there. 1 the purpose of this i labor for the 
ilishment, by the Con gress of the Unit . of a " Bureau 
of Industrial and Kin md the appointment of a com- 
mittee to be called M The Committee on Fine Arts," whose duty 
it shall 1 le upon the merits of all works of art offered 
to the government for purch 
The School of Art connected with Yale GoUegt at New 
inded in 1864 by A. R. Street. Its ol 
education of practical artists, and the furnishing of a 
liberal education, with a knowledge of the practice, principles, 
and I I art. Pupils are receive. 1 for periods ranging from 
one to four y rding to their ability. Lectures are given 
in regular courses by competent instructors. It has a line Ait 
Building erected at a cost of two hundred thousand dollars, in 
which an ive picture-galleries, containing, among other 
art treasures, many works of the Italian school dating from the 
earli nib century, collected in Europe by 
.1. .1. Jan ;Ity of Yale College, by pursuing 

. methods in their school, have proposed to make, 
. an art standard higher and more effective than any 
other 1 in the United States, and to remove in great 

measure the necessity <-f foreign instruction to American arti 

id school- 
art a: importance, may he mentioned 

Pittsburg; Qtica, and St. Louis, the 
8 bool of I tasign of the 
innati. Free Institute of W : ■ ter, M 
Ladies' Art Association fork, tfassachua [nsti- 

tc, of which want 
II giving any complete history here. 


Abbey, Edwin A. (Am.) Born at Philadelphia, 1862. Pupil 
of the Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arte, In 1^>71 he was em- 

i by Harper & Brothers, and since that time lie has almost 
exclusively devoted himself to drawing for illustrated publications. 
He has designed for the Appletons, Houghton, Osgood A Co., and 
Scribiur. as well Sfl for the Harpers. His professional lile has been 
spent in New York. II was elected a member of the Water-Color 
SocR-tv in L876, of tin- New York Etching Club in 1877, and of the 
Tile Club i:. 1878. Among his water-color pictures are, "The Stage 

• Tiie Evil Eye - " ( 1 B< ly in a Garden," Del 

ing to J. W. Harper, and u A Rose in < October," belonging to John P. 
Townsend. II I Hike," the property of R. G. Dun, was at 

the Paris Exposition of 1 v 7n 

Abel de Pujol, Alexandre Denis. (Fr.) Son of the Baron de 
Pujol. Born at Valenciennes (1785-1*01). Mem- 
ber of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil at the 
f Valenciennes, of the Ecole del Beaux-Arts at Paris, and 
of David. He . id prix dt Borne in 1811. Among his 

the "Death <>f Britannicns" (1814), at the lioseam of 
Dijon; - reaching the Gospel" (1817), at the church * 

int-Etienne-dn-1 b explaining the Visions" (1822), 

at Lii " (1824), at the Cathedral of Blieinis ; 

I Tabitha" (1 the church of 8 I uai. 

.rti-t executed man] tiye works at the Museum of the 

Louvre, tfa ; Fontaineblean, the convent of ti but, 

etc. I painted some portraits. He was the \ r of 


" To our mind, the tal< I was ill enough at ease in subjects drawn 

.legends. 1 . <>f Greek statues, the si ." style 

of Dav. 1 badly with the tender grief* an<l al DMBt 

When C D Apollo, when the Apostle* borrow their attitudes 

from Antinous and Arhilles. we nu more recognize the Christ, we n rt the 

miracles of the Ai'Mtlc*. This fault, moreover, was not individual with Abel di Puj«>l ; 
It was the error of all the : 1 understood in th 

the insuflh i< : 

treating sainUy subject*." — ALrRXD Heuvt, GaitUe dt* Beauj mUt, 1861. 

1 A 


Absolon, John. (Brit) Born, 1815. Studied in the British 
Museum. Painted miniature portraits in London for some time 
with moderate success. Studied a year in Paris, and turned his at- 
tention to water-colors about 1836, joining the New Water-Color 
Society and remaining an active member of that institution for 
twenty years. In 1839 he exhibited " The Savoyard Boy " and " The 
First Sup," sending to the British Institution the same year " The 
Painter's Studio," in oil. His " Vicar of Wakefield," painted in 1842, 
first attracted to him the attention of the public and the critics. 
Among his works executed about this time may be mentioned, " Joan 
of Arc," " The Field of the Cloth of Gold," " The First Night in a 
Convent," " Captain Macheath betrayed by his Mistress," " Threading 
the Needle," etc. Among his later works are, " The Tete-a-Tete," 
" The Courtship of Miles Standish," "The Courtship of Gainsborough," 
" The Match, Lago Maggiore." After a secession of a few years 
(during which he exhibited at the British Institution and Royal 
Academy), in 1861 he again became a member of the Institute of 
Painters in Water-Colors, and was treasurer for some seasons, con- 
tributing " Home," " The Missal," " Facing the Storm," " A Waif," 
" Ready for the Ball, 1815," " Rescue of St. Arthur and Miss War- 
dour," " After a Walk to Islington," etc. His " Judgment of Midas," 
an early work, belongs to the Baroness Burdett-Coutts. A picture 
of his, in water-color, " The Beacon," was at Philadelphia in 1876. 

Achard, Alexis Jean. (Fr.) Born at Voreppe (Isere), 1807. 
Medals at Paris in 1844, '45, '48, and '55. Landscape-painter. 
Made his debut at the Salon of 1839. Has traveled in Egypt, and 
sometimes paints Eastern scenes. His " Autumn Effects in the 
Valley of the Isere" (1853) was bought by the State, and the " Cas- 
cade in the Ravine of Cernay-la-Ville " (1866) is in the Gallery of 
the Luxembourg. 

Achenbach, Andreas. (Ger.) Born at Hesse Cassel, 1815. 
Knight of the Order of Leopold. Member of the Academies of Ber- 
lin, Amsterdam, and Antwerp. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 
Medals of Prussia and Belgium ; also at Philadelphia. Pupil of 
Schirmer at the Academy of Dusseldorf. A picture of the " Acad- 
emy of Dusseldorf," which has often been exhibited, established 
his reputation as an architectural landscape-painter. After 1832 
he traveled much by sea and land, and his pictures reproduce the 
most varied aspects of nature. The wild seas of the North, the val- 
leys and mountains of Bavaria and the Tyrol, the classic Campagna, 
and the coasts of Capri and Sicily, have all been pictured by him. 
Some of his best works are in the Munich Pinakothek ; and they are 
seen in most German galleries. At Philadelphia he exhibited the 
" Storm at VHssingen." At the exhibition of the Royal Academy 
at Berlin, 1876, he exposed " Heldesheim," " Fish at Ostend," and 
" Storm and Flood on the Lower Rhine in 1876." At the Johnston 


sale. \ i J rk, L876, a Suni t, 9 - : . re," from the collection of 
Wm. P, Wright (16 Id foi *1,375; -A Norway Tow 

y ai), for J nd - Pishing Boats : Sunset" (18 by S3), ha 

New fork, L863, "Storm clearing off] 
Si £ly,"sold At the Strousberg sale, Paris, L874, 

-The Return of the Fishermen j Evening,* sold fox £236. Acben- 
- metimee executed water-color pictures, etchings, and litho- 

•Ui up : the tendency of Achenhaeh's genius is realistic in the highest an 

11. . splONI Nature in her im-st M6TO1 traits, in order to s. i/c upon 

. f.'rni, and color. In Ins manipulation, u regardl the 

quality and texture off various materials, lie is eminently successful, discriminating all 

point Off requirement. Vet without the slightest tendency to ekbontt tri- 

rall minuteness and elegance of detail, being that 

of a bold and free handling.* 1 - Hinky Ottley. 

Achenbacb, Oswald. (Ccr.) Born at Diisseldorf, 1827. Cheva- 
m of Honor. Brother and pupil of Andreas Achen- 
bach. This painter devotes himself largely to Italian views, and his 
manner may be called classic. He prefers subjects which combine 
baanty of landscape with the effect of movement, such as "A Fete at 
(Roman States) (1866), now in the Luxembourg; and 
* Villa Torlonia, near Frascati" (1866), in the National Galleiy, Ber- 
lin. At the annual Berlin Exposition in 1876 he exhibited " A View 
Twilight," "Market-Place in Amain," and " The Fes- 
tival of Saint Anna at Eschia." At the Strousberg sale, Paris, 1874, 
: Storm Effect " sold for £ 388. At the Blodgett sab-, New 
York, 1876, u The En vironments of Naples'' brought 52,100. 

Achtermann, Guillaume. (Gtr.) Bom near Minister, 17!)!). 

Thi- sculptor received no instruction until he was thirty years old, 

when he studied with Ranch. Schadow encouraged him to go to 

. u The Descent from the I I several other works by 

in the Cathedral of Mm. 
Adam, Albrecht. Ifhr.) Bon at Nordlingen (1788-184 

oompanied the French army in L812. "The 
BsttL 'and "Napoleon surrounded by his Staff" 

D III. and Maximilian II. of I'.ava- 

...iniiiU-i-:. . II - last picture, executed forthe 
Episode at the Battle of Zorndorf/ 1 
onmanded in person. Bis picture 
rically truthful, and remarkable f<<r accuracy of detail. 
Adam, Jean Victor. ris (1801 - 1866). Med- 

als in \^i\ and L836L Pupil of Iftsynier and Elegnault 

i>t are in the gallery at Versailles, some <■!" 
whi I ! in part by Alaux. After I s Hi he devoted him- 

— If I j'hy, in which he produced "Views in the Environs of 

Studies of Animal*," "Designs Cor an Edition of Boflbn, 


Adam, Franz. (Ger.) Born, 1815. Member of the Academies 
of Munich and Vienna. Chevalier of the Order of St. Michael of 
Bavaria. Medals at Paris and Berlin. His " Eeturn of the French 
from Russia " is in the National Gallery, Berlin. His pictures rep- 
resent battles and dramatic subjects. He also painted equestrian 
portraits. Several of his works were bought by the Emperor Francis 

Adam-Salomon, Anthony-Samuel. (Fr.) Born at Ferte-sous- 
Jouarre, 1818. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. This sculptor was 
educated at Fontainebleau, and was for a time engaged in business. 
About 1838 he executed his " Beranger," which is the most popular 
likeness of that poet. After that time he went to Paris to study 
sculpture, and has traveled in other countries. He has made several 
well-known portrait busts ; those of Lamartine and Rossini were sent 
to the United States of America ; that of Amussat was for l'Academie 
de Medecine ; that of Leopold Robert for the Gallery of the Louvre ; 
that of Marie-Antoinette for Madame de Rothschild. His funereal 
monument for Madame Lamartine is much admired ; that of the Due 
de Padoue is at the Invalides. He made the " Genius of Music " for 
the new Louvre. Of late years Adam-Salomon has devoted himself 
to photography. At the Salon of 1878 this artist exhibited a bust in 

marble of E. Chadwick, and one of Madame E. in tinted 


Adams- Acton, John. (Brit.) Born, 1834. Pupil of the Royal 
Academy, receiving first silver medal in the antique school ; first 
silver medal in the life school ; gold medal for original composition, 
and the Traveling Studentship. He also received a medal at the 
Vienna Exhibition. His professional life has been spent in Italy and 
England, studying for some years under John Gibson in Rome. 
Among his statues are those of Gladstone at St. George's Hall, Liver- 
pool ; of Sir Titus Salt, at Bradford ; and of Eyre Powell, at Madras. 
He has executed busts of Sir Wilfred Lawson, John Bright, Cobden, 
Lord Brougham, Spurgeon, Dickens, Cruikshank, and many others, 
for public institutions. The more important of his ideal figures are 
" Cupid and Psyche," " Lady of the Lake," " Elaine," and " Ruth " ; 
of his monumental works, John Wesley, in Westminster Abbey ; Sir 
Titus Salt's Mausoleum, " Angel of the Resurrection " ; and the 
monuments of Bishop Waldegrave and of George Wood in Carlisle 

" Mr. Adams-Acton's statue of Gladstone at St. George's Hall is certainly the most 
pleasing portrait of the eminent statesman and author we remember to have seen, while 
both in design and execution it is a work exceedingly creditable to the artist." — Art 
Journal, August, 1876. 

"'The Widow's Cruse ' (R. A. 1869), by Adams-Acton, shows much poetic feeling 
with felicitous artistic grouping." — Art Journal, June, 1877. 

Adan, Louis Emile. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal in 1875. Pupil 

.'■/■/ \ ill CENTURY. 5 

of T. net Exhibited at the Balon of 1877, incing 

Less The Amateur*; in 187< Lrrival 

at t:. i " ; in 187ft, "The Leal 1 » iy ,," 

Afinger, Bernard. (Gsr.) Bora at Nuremberg, 1813. Bis father 
was a weaver, and intended the eon for a trade, but tin; boy gave all 
his leisure to drawing, and in early youth attracted attention 

the Madonna *•!' Nuernberg which he made, lit- was then 
rij the antique. B himaalf to religions 

subjects, and executed works fox churches, following the traditii 

i. In I860 be executed a statue of Bachel ; thuacom- 
: raits, which have established his Gennan reputation. 
Amons them of Humboldt, Bench, Cornelius, Kanlbach, 

hi. Dahlmann, Kngler, etc One of his largesl works fa ■ monu- 
ment for the tJnivei raid, on which there are tour statues. 
Afinger has returned to religious subje " Madonna 
and Child" is in the 1 ' iseum. At Berlin, in 1^7<'>. hi- ex- 
hibited ■ group, " Spring Awakened," and a portrait bust (in planter 

^ Agneni. Eugene. (Ital.) Born at Sutri, 1819. A favorite pupil 

of Ooghetti. During the revolution of 1848 this artist became a soldier, 

and for political reasons afterwards exiled himself, settling in Paris in 

He had already executed several works for churches in Rome, 

Sutri, and Savons, in which last place he worked with his master in 

the church of the Mission. In 1855 he sent to the Exposition six 

hes representing phases of human life, and a picture of " Eve 

9 ; 'ent, which recalled to her her first Sin." 

In 1^.">7 be exhibited at the Salon "The Dream of an Exile,* "Zampieri, 

cal - the Great Florentine 

Agrasot, Joaquin. (Spem.) Born at Orihuela. Pupil of l'tfcole 
des . il at Philadel- 

reheexhi be Two Friendi 

siesand 1' -pain." " A Wounded Soldier" (1*71). in 

t, is in the collection of Mr. Samuel V. Wright 

Agricola, Filippo | Born in Rome (179.")- 1857). Mem- 

ber of vai lemiee. In 1812 he gained the tir-t prize at the 

:tol for a picture of u Marius contemplating the Ruins oi 
thage," which i> in the A f St. Luke, at Borne, where if 

in a position of honor, hit u As sumpti on of the Virgin." It was hi 
work, ami was a commission from XVI. Two other famous 

pictures of hi- 

Hi- - If i ilioo "' in England ; 

hess of Devonshire ; and the 


Ahlborn, August Wilhelm Julius. (Qtr.) Born at Hanover 

Studied at the Academy of Berlin, of which he is now 


a member, and later, in the studio of Wach. Painter of interiors and 
landscapes. Traveled in Italy. At the National Gallery in Berlin 
are "A View in the Hartz Mountains " and a " Florentine View taking 
in San Miniato." Ahlborn has made many portraits, principally of 

Ainmuller, Maximilian Emmanuel. (Ger.) Born at Munich 
(1807-1870). Member of the Academy of Munich and Knight of 
several orders. This artist is celebrated for the restoration of glass 
painting in Germany. He first studied architecture under Gaertner, 
but at the age of nineteen he had made discoveries in the use of colors 
which entitled him to be appointed director of the newly founded 
school for glass painting. Here, with the aid of Wehrstorfer, he per- 
fected his processes. The restoration of the glass in the cathedrals of 
Batisbon and Cologne, the church of Notre-Dame de Bon-Secours, at 
Munich, and many other important works, are due to the labors of 
Ainmuller. He went to England, and made sketches of monuments 
and the interiors of abbeys and churches. As a painter of archi- 
tecture he has represented St. Mark's at Venice, the Cathedral of Ulm, 
the church of St. ^tienne at Vienna, etc. In the National Gallery, 
Berlin, are his " Poet's Corner in Westminster Abbey," " A View of 
the Northern Nave of same Abbey," etc. Ainmuller was a favorite 
with Louis L, and received many honors at his hands. 

Akers, Paul. (Am.) Born in Maine (1825-1861). Proper name 
Benjamin Akers ; called " Paul " as a youth, by his familiars, because 
of his serious and religious characteristics, and still so known to the 
world. Lived for some time in Portland, Me., studying painting, 
but finally turned his attention to sculpture, taking lessons in plaster- 
casting, under Carew, in Boston, in 1849. After making several por- 
trait busts of decided promise, he went to Europe for the first time, 
studying for a year (1852) in Florence. He went again to the Conti- 
nent in 1854, remaining six years, working in Rome, Venice, Switz- 
erland, and England, with one short visit to the United States. In 
1860 he returned to America, broken in health, dying the next year. 
Among the better known of his works are, " Benjamin in Egypt," 
burned in the Portland Exchange, " Peace," " Una and the Lion," 
"Girl pressing Grapes," "Isaiah," "Schiller's Diver," "Reindeer," 
" St, Elizabeth of Hungary," " Diana and Endymion," " Milton," 
" The Lost Pearl-Diver," etc. Among his portrait busts are those of 
Longfellow, Tilton, the artist (his warm friend), Samuel Appleton 
of Boston, Prof. Cleveland, Edward Everett, Gerrit Smith, Sam. 
Houston, and others. 

He wrote, occasionally, valuable papers on art subjects for several 
leading periodicals of the country. 

Akers, Charles. (Am.) Bom in Maine, 1836. He studied 
sculpture, with his brother " Paul," in Rome, in 1857 - 58. Among 
his earlier works are busts of Gen. Neal Dow and Gov. Washburne, of 


'" ( '. K. X :: ::. >. W. B >WSe, B. W. 

gfellow, an>l o. W. Holmes are in tlu- possession of James Russell 
11. in Camblidf ial of them were on i-xhil »it i« >n at 

the Boston Athenaeum in L867. He spent t\\ 
in Buffalo, N. V.. where lit- modeled portraits of many prominent 
iiH-n in that section. Two small riluvot in marble, u Undine * and 
1 about this time, are in the Buffalo Academy <d 
Fine Arts. He ipenl aome yean in llinnesota, where be executed a 
shop Whipple. His bust of Lncivtia Mott was in tin- Xa- 
lemy, New York, in 1871* The same year, on account of 
ill-health, he was obliged to abandon sculpture, and turned his atten- 
tion to drawing in crayon, in N\-w Fork, where his studio now is. He 
me time a pupil of i Among hie portraits in black 

an»l white are those of O. B. Frothingham, of C. X. Wayland, and of 
bildren of John B. Scott, of New Fork. 

tributed several faluable articles, on art subj 
D journals, the most notable being "Sculpture in 
the Unite I fi In the Atlantic Monthly, in 1866. 

Albano, Salvatore. (Ital) Born in Calabria. Pupil of Angelini 
an<l Q. Dupre. lives at Florence, Medal of the third class at Paris 
where he exhibited the M Inferno of Dante" (a marble 
statue) and M 01d Age" (statue in plaster). 

Albert-Lefeuvre, Louis-Etienne-Marie. (Fr.) Born at Pari-. 
Is in 1^7"> and '7«;. Pupil of A. Duinont and Falguiere. In 
Joan of Arc, as a Child listening to the Cell 
itatue, marble) ; in 1876\ "Youth " (statue, plaster). 
Alcott, May (Madam Ernest Nierker). (Am.) Born in 
Mass., 1841 tudied in the School of Design, Boston, 

in K: rk and. at different times, under S. Tuckerman, 

I>: Runnier, Hunt, Vautier, Johnston, and Muller, spending her pro- 
:ial 1 1 F*- ir. '. »ndon, and Pari-, occ upy ing, since her nnr- 

' idio in t: - made oil and water-color 

'.In- painting of Turner, which an- highly 
prized in England, and ai the pupils of the South Kensing- 

ton s work fr<>m. Besides these, she has made many still-life 

studies, flower] I bes from nature; has exhibit. -din Amer- 

Salon, Dudley (ialh-ry. London, etc By 
her : med her present enviable 

" Miss May Alcott. who is still pursnins her art 1 n little ptctaf* 

txt season which li In .1 votam just pnl>- 

lirttrf , containing mention of th* tru-it notewort' 1 1..11, tin- M 

Ilii-* psjpfl r has 

painted a >- bar master 

could it be otherwise, with talent tu> adaptable to all <;• 
Alcott is an ase, and ought to attempt subjects of a hight 

A Loudon Journal. 


" The picture of still-life sent to the coming Salon by Miss May Alcott is very highly 
praised, and is one of the two thousand accepted out of the ten thousand submitted for 
competition." — Moncure D. Conway, 1877. 

"The number of American ladies studying art in Pans steadily increases, and 
among those now here Miss Alcott bids fair to take a high rank,— possessing energy, 
patience, and an ardent love for her profession. Ruskin admired her copies of Turner] 
in London, and they command a ready sale in America, where she took, some time ago! 
the best collection of copies of Turner's various works ever seen in that country" — 
Paris Letter to Boston Paper, April, 1876. 

Alexander, Francis. (Am.) Born in Connecticut, 1800. In 
1818 he turned his attention to art studies, beginning his career in his 
native state by painting in water-color without instruction. A few 
years later he went to New York and became a pupil of Alexander 
Robertson. He worked a few months in Providence, R. L, and 
opened a studio of his own in Boston, where he was popular and 
successful as a portrait-painter. In 1831 he went to Europe, settling 
in Florence, where he still remains. He has painted but little during 
the later years of his life. 

- Alexander, Miss. (Am.) Daughter of Francis Alexander. Na- 
tive of Florence, an artist of some repute, excelling in pen-and-ink 
drawing, in which manner she has beautifully illustrated several 
books. One of these, containing an unpublished Italian legend, was 
much admired in Florence in the winter of 1877-78, and was pur- 
chased by a Boston lady. 

Aligny, Claude Felix Theodore Caruelle D\ (Fr.) Born at 
Chaumes (1798-1871). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, Corre- 
spondent of the Institute and Director of l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts at 
Lyons. Pupil of Regnault and Watelet. This painter's works may 
be termed historic landscapes, and before his death he was almost 
alone in France in that department of painting. In the Luxem- 
bourg are " The Chase ; Setting Sun " (1865), and several etchings by 
Aligny. His " Tomb of Cecilia Metella " (1861) was purchased by the 
Baroness James de Rothschild ; and his " Souvenir des roches Scyro- 
niennes" (1861), by the Ministry of State. We may also mention, 
" A Souvenir of the Campagna at Rome," and " Hylas and the 
Nymphs " (1867) ; "View on the Island of Capri" (1869) ; and draw- 
ings of the "Baptism of Christ " and the " Preaching of St. John" 
(also 1869). The etchings of Aligny are much admired. 

" The noblest sites of Greece and Italy have been sketched by him with a firm, cor- 
rect, and sober hand, with a quality of imperious austerity and severe elegance. If the 
Greeks had made landscapes they certainly would have made them thus. The beauti- 
ful blocks of marble, the green oaks, the olives, the rose laurels, the trees with shining 
leaves, all the precise vegetation of the noble countries which are loved by the sun, pre- 
serve, under his pure brush, their native grandeur It is true that he often carries 

his system to the extreme, more and more disdainful of reality, depriving himself of the 
power of communication with the public ; but these stern obstinacies please us, and we 
love those who sacrifice success to the integrity of their ideal." — Theophile Gautier, 
Abecedaire du Salon de 1861. 


Allan, Sir Wm., EL A. (BriL) Bom in Edinburgh (178J 1 
Pupil of the Ti demy in Edinburgh ami of the Royal A 

:n London. Painted portraits lor tome time in St, P 
and, returning to Scotland, settled in Edinburgh in 1814, lb 
I member of the Royal Academy in isi.">. President of the B 
ish Academy in I B38, lucceeded Wilkie as " Limner to the Queen 
for Scotland 1 ' In L841, and was knighted in 1848. Se was maaterof 
tho Trusteea Academy f*»r many yean before his death, and num- 
his pupils some of the most prominent of tin- Scottish 

artists of the present day. Amnmg his work- are, "Sir Walter Scott 
in his Study at Abbotsford " (engraved by Burnet) ; u Exiles com 
beria," belonging to the Emperor of Russia; "The Circa 

llection of the Earl of Wemyss; "Battle of Wa- 
terloo." bought by the Duke of Wellington ; "John Knox admonish- 
f 8 Bis "Arah- dividing their Spoil" 

is in the National Gallery, London. The "Stirrup Cup,'' "Black 
Dwai Battle of Bannockburn " (the work upon which he 

I tin- time of his death) are at the National Gallery, Edin- 

Allen, James Baylis. (Brit.) Engraver. Born at Birming- 
ham, England (lS<»:j- L876). At the age of fifteen he was apprenticed 
- brother, an engraver in his native city, and attended the drawing 
nt Barber. He went to London in 1824, and between 
ited a large number of engravings of the 
: -color drawings of Turner, and of the works of other arti-:-. u A 
Bal Mi- [lie in the Grand 0p< : gene Land, is one of 

Down and most successful plates. It has been highly pri 
* ail and iti light and hot atmosphere. 

Allingham. Helen Paterson. {Brit) Bom near Burton-on- 

■ for art at an early age, studied at 
rmingham l and, London, entered the 

school of: emyinl867. In 18( at to Italy on a 

phor: .--tour. Under the nam.- of Helen Paterson she first ex- 

hibit- - Wait for lie " and " The Milk- 

maid." In 1871 i. Allingham) il lected an 

of the So< - ontributing hibi- 

by "Spring Day," in l^Tn ; " Th<- 
Old M -j.ital/' in 1-77 : "The Robu 

and "The Bathi . in 1-7-. Among her pictures contributed 

to the Dudley I to 1874 may be mentioned, "The 

tomers," in war. - in i-7-. Sh<- hai also been • 

successful as a worker r, ting for the Graphic, 

Cornhill liagaaiiie, and other jour: 

appens can only drawing of which the memory remain* with mo 

as a possession out of the Old Water-Clur Exhibition of this year - Mr*. Allin fe - 


' Young Customers ' — should be not only by an accomplished designer of wood-cuts, but 
itself the illustration of a popular story. The drawing, with whatever temporary purpose 
executed, is forever lovely ; a thing which I believe Gainsborough would have given one 
of his own paintings for, — old-fashioned as red-tipped dresses are, and more precious than 
rubies." — Ruskin's Notes of the Academy, 1S75. 

Allonge, August e. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of M. L. Cogniet. 
This artist paints iu oils and sketches in charcoal, and frequently ex- 
hibits in both manners at the Paris salons. His charcoal sketches are 
very highly esteemed and much sought by connoisseurs. At the Salon 
of 1878 he exhibited (in oils) two views in Yonne, and (in charcoal) 
"Le gour du moulin de Givry" (Yonne); in 1877, "A Brook in Mor- 
van " (in oils), two landscapes, and (in charcoal) " A View in Yonne," 
" The Mill of the Soucy " (Calvados), etc., his subjects being always 
landscapes, and most frequently views with lakes, streams, or water- 

Allston, Washington, E. A. (Am.) Born in South Carolina 
(1779-1843). Graduated at Harvard College, 1800. Entered the 
schools of the Eoyal Academy in London soon after. His first work 
of importance, " The Dead Man Revived," gained a prize of "two hun- 
dred guineas from the British Institute, and was purchased by the 
Philadelphia Academy of Fine Arts. This was followed by " St. 
Peter liberated by the Angel," " Uriel and the Sun," " Jacob's Dream," 
and several smaller pictures, which are in private galleries in England. 
They w T ere generally exhibited at the Royal Academy in London, of 
which he was a member. In 1818 he opened a studio in Boston, and 
spent the remainder of his life in his native country. Among the 
better known of Allston's works are, " Jeremiah " (in Yale College) 
and " The Witch of Endor " ; " Miriam," owned by the late David 
Sears of Boston ; " Rosalie," owned by Nathan Appleton ; " Belshaz- 
zar's Feast," in the Boston Athenaeum ; " Madonna" ; " Spanish Girl " ; 
and " Spalatio's Vision of the Bloody Hand," painted in Cambridge, 
Mass., in 1832, for H. S. Ball, of Charleston, S. C, and sold in the 
collection of John Taylor Johnston, in 1876, for $3,900. It has been 
made familiar and popular by means of the engraving. It was at 
the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, as was also a landscape of Allston 's 
belonging to the estate of Mrs. S. A. Eliot ; " Rosalie " ; " Isaac of 
York " (propertv of the Boston Athenaeum) ; and " The Head of a 

In 1831 he published " The Sylphs of the Season," a poem, and a 
little later, " The Paint King " and " The Two Painters." His romance 
of " Monaldi," which followed these, attracted some attention in the 
literary world, and has been dramatized. 

Among Allston's portraits are Benjamin West, in the Boston Athe- 
naeum, and Coleridge, the poet, in the National Portrait Gallery of 
England. His portrait of himself, painted at Rome in 1805, sold at 
the Johnston sale, in 1876, for $925. 


" The method of Allston was to suppress all th. . iti.-.s whieh make Op the 

substance of riuni: \ l>ri_:lit Sjes, mils ami OOOfcHirS, gfcuielllf 

; OOOtnstS, and inlors too erode for harmony, lie reduced his U-auty to 
elements, so that an inner U\iuty Slight play through 

. ^hiiij,' attitudes, in. taking n>r admiration, l.iit a teTON an«l <. 'haste 
restraint, a modert sweetness, a ilamberiDg, Intellects*] atmosphere, ■ grsosfoJ self- 
possession, eyes so sincere and pan that Heaven's light ahlnei through them, ami. be- 
tas] htV that makes eaeh form . - Allstun's Heads, 

•• Wuii tin- name of tins great painter [Allston] painting reached its seme of excellence 

awon^ r, life, and feeling be emulated the Italian masters, par* 

t' their spil ' .t the mellow richness Of their tints From an 

Alpiue landscape luminous' with frosty atmosphere and tky-piercing mountains to 
moonbeams Bickering on a qniet stream, from grand siriptural to delieate faney ligures, 
from mgged and solemn Jewish beads to the most ideal female OOnOSptiona, from 

.' and from ' Miriam ' to ' Rosalie,' every phase Of mellow and trans- 
parent, alii. - :. graeeful contours, deep expression, rich conti 
tints, the mature. I rsatile triumph of pictorial art as we have known and 
: World, then and there justilied the name of ' American Titian ' be- 
stowed on Allston at Bone." — Tickerman's Book of the Artists, 18G7. 

- Alma-Tadema, Laurenz, A. EL A. (Dutch-Brit.) Born in Weal 
FriesLand, Holland, 183& Educated in the Gymnasium of Leeuwar- 
tlen, where he devoted much of his time to the study of Roman and 
tiao antiquities. He entered the Academy of Fine Arts, Ant- 
Lying under Leya. AW-nt to London in 1870, where he 
still : 1 in L864 a medal from the Paris Salon, a 

medal of tl i at the Universal Exposition of l^CT, and in 

1^7:i he v. diei of the Order of the Legion of Honor in 

Fran thibited at the Royal Academy, London, in lSTn, u Un 

in" and " On Jonglier," which attracted much atten- 
tion, his \v..rk- at that time being new to the English critics. II 
hibited, in 1^7!. my, a A Roman Emperor, A. I). 41" 

(which was. al the Pari- Salon the next year), and u The Qrand Cham- 
;:i of hi< Majesty Kin- - ": in 1^7l\ "The Mummy " 

(whi Paris in is::>). " Th.- - The Dinner," " The 

ithofthe Pint-Born tf were in the Royal Academy 
in 1-" Gallery* and " Joseph Overseer of Phai 

■ in 1-74 ; "The Sculpture Gallery " and - Water Peta" in 
1^7~>. In i -7<;. when he was made an Associate of the Royal Academy, 
be exhibit An Audiei ind "After 

the D . I -77. 'Tin- Beaaona " (four pictures) and " Bet 

in 1878; "A ScolptcVi Model" and - A I 
nor Gallery, in 1-77. he contributed, M 8un- 
. - Tarqni - • bus," M Phidiai ihowing 
iithenon to hi : in l -7-. •• A 

hitectnre," u Sculpture," and 
iting." 1: > exhibited in the P , tending to the 

»sition of 1878 ten worka, Many of hi 


"The brilliancy of the coloring of this picture ['Fete Intime,' Paris, 1872], the spirited 
design, and the charm which it owes to archaeological research, are qualities common to 
all of Alma-Tadema's pictures, but not less precious on that account. The artist has 
bestowed more pains than usual on its execution, so that the result is splendid, and solid 
in a high degree. It is one of the most original of modern works." — London Athencetim, 
June, 1872. 

"This ['The Sculpture Gallery'] I suppose we must assume to be the principal his- 
torical piece of the year, a work showing artistic skill and classic learning, both in high 
degree, but both parallel in their method of selection. The artistic skill has succeeded 
with all its objects in the degree of their importance. The piece of silver plate is painted 
best ; the statue of the Empress worse than the griffins , and the living personages worse 

than the statue The execution is dexterous, but more with mechanical steadiness 

of practice than innate fineness of nerve." — Ruskin's Notes of the Academy, 1875. 

"In their technical qualities these pictures, 'The Vintage Festival,' 'The Conva- 
lescent,' and * The Mummy,' are no less admirable than for their learning and beau- 
tiful conception. It may be said advisedly that no pictures of the present day exhibit 
more thorough excellence than those of Mr. Alma-Tadema. Though for the most part 
Greek and Roman Antiquity are the sources from which the inspiration of his art are 
derived, Mr. Tadema's pictures as works of art are never sacrificed to the mere pedantic 
display of skill and learning. "— Prof. Weir's Official Report of tlie Am. Centennial Expo- 
sition o/1876. 

" In this picture [' An Audience at Agrippa's '], as in all of Alma-Tadema's works, 
one's attention is absolutely riveted in astonishment at the extraordinary imitative de- 
tail exhibited in the drawing of the marbles." — Am. Journal, August, 1876. 

"TheTadema school, with its yellow-haired women in impossible attitudes, its flat 
interiors, and its pre-Raphaelite exaggerations, encourages a flashy and artificial style." 
— London Letter to N. Y. Times, June 14, 1877. 

" It is unnecessary to observe, perhaps, that Mr. Alma-Tadema finishes every part of 
his compositions in a way to astonish. All manner of textures are imitated in his pic- 
tures to a miracle, — metals, marbles, silks. His faces may not boast much expression, 
.but they are well modeled and defined to perfection." — London Standard, May, 1877. 

Alma-Tadema, Laura. (Brit.) An English lady, wife of Laurenz 
Alma-Tadema, painting in her husband's studio in London, but not 
in her husband's style. She has exhibited occasionally in London and 
elsewhere. Her " Blue Stocking," which was at the Royal Academy in 
1877, was also at the Paris Exposition in 1878. The same year she 
sent to the Royal Scottish Academy " Daffadowndillie." 

Alvarez y Espino, Gonzalo. (Sptm.) Medal at Philadelphia, 
where he exhibited " Annual Fair, attended only by Men," which was 
commended for distinguished merit. His " Preparations for the First 
Communion " belongs to Mr. James H. Weeks of Boston. 

iLmaury-Duval, Eugene Emmanuel. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1808. 
'Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Ingres. Made his debut at 
the Salon of 1833 with some portraits and designs which immediately 
gave him a reputation. He has executed important decorative works 
in the churches of Paris and its suburbs, among them, the chapel of 
Saint Philomena at Saint-Merry, the chapel of the Virgin at Saint-. 
Germain-l'Auxerrois, and the church of Saint-Germain en Laye. 
This artist has traveled in Morea and in Italy. At the Luxembourg 
is his " Study of a Child " (1864). In 1867 he exhibited at the Salon 
" Psyche " and a portrait of General de Brayer ; in 1865, " Daphnis 


■nd Chloe," and efetehea for two portraits; in 1863, "The Birth of 
Venus " and a portrait ; in 1861, portrait of Mile, Emma Flew 
the ComeVlie Francaise, eta 

SMiy to rank Amaury-Ihnal UDOBg tttCS4 <1<1 i'-at .-. t.-n-l.r. ami ivlin. | 

m tiu- brutality of gross effects \> repafnant H. • has exhibited ■ porta 

ited with tin- i let] of erbtcb be baa the secret, end which 

leaves to the bead all its importance. The yonng aetresa ween ■ simple dreM of Mack 

knot "f Her hands adjust themselvea grscefully, one 

other, and her face is turned a little, so that aha looks over her shoulder: She 

passes ami dose m>t post- herself. It requires all the mind of Amaury-Duval to under- 

and all his talent to render It" — Thjowum Gautisb, Abicalaire 

., is, in truth, the distinctive mark of the 

talent D ival, when his talent is neither disconcerted i>\ too grand propor- 

ahia task, nor p ie oocupt ed beyond measure with ancient modi anmo- 

dates himself with difficulty to eoniplicati ! eubjecta which require iii the 

moral • D abundance, a certain power of invention, ami in the pictur- 

esque arrangement eotnethtng more than architectural symmetry. From that i 

M to take refuge under the authority of traditions, 
uncertainties under the appearance of a voluntary escriJice, and of a 

On the other hand, when he undertake! simply to arrange in a narrow 

frame the lines of a BgUTC surrounded by some at ben he attempts to Inter* 

itnre in a portrait, or to idealize it in some type chastely nude, such as the V. nus 
tahJbil \:uaury-Duval takes counsel before all of himself ami his 

own taste. He listens to and proflta by the advice of the inward voice which leads him 
to invest the truth with elegance without disguisiny it for all that, — to refine its appear- 
ance, i \cd ayatem of archaism, but on account of his personal 
aspirations, and his fine p er ception of things. Here, neither self-abandonment, nor in- 
(niflk-iency, no pretension to make art immovable, by imitating without mercy a past 
from which we a; by live centuries; in that which involves a pure, me* 
leproduction, I detect no excess of docility nor any souvenirs of the studio of 
Ingres - ncere and refined manner, and his brush at once truthful and 

reality with a delicacy so much the more nieri- 
- as it ham. with models of a character aomewhat complex, and to 

aplicity and knowledge which, in the world of the nineteenth century, 
- called 'distinction.' .... Not only has Amaury-Duval never ex- 
amined into the success of his neighbors in order to comport himself accordingly, or 

to buy public favor at a low price, but he has ac- 
: no task which did not assimilate itself exactly to the demands of his asthetic 
to the inclinations of his talent, to the particular preferences of his test 

ibttaaDy a painter of j>ortniits rather than a pointer of history, he has not 

I ait to the eompleisanoea which the occupation 
seems to authorize ; .... and to convert his function of artist into an easy or lucrative 
itudio into a little shop well patronized." — His i:i Im.i..w;okl»e, G'u- 
Mttedcs Beaux-Arts. May, 

Amberg, Wilhelm. (flfcr.) Born at Berlin, 1828. rand 

\ ademy "t" Berlin, \% h« i .• he was once a pupiL 

•■•I al-<> ander I . and Leon Oogniet (at Parts). 

it traveled in Italy. In the National < tallery, Berlin, ii u x*bnng 

1870). At tlit* Annual Exposition at Berlin, 

in 1-: .I 1 Hunt/' and 

•• II- : this artta for ills iblicationa 

ranch prui 


Amerling, Frederic. (Aus.) Born at Vienna, 1803. Chevalier 
of the Orders of Francis Joseph of Austria and Saint Michael of 
Bavaria. Pupil of the Academy of Fine Arts at Vienna. He 
struggled with poverty in his youth, but by hard work at painting, 
coloring prints, etc., he earned enough to go to England, where he 
worked under Lawrence, then to Paris, where he was associated 
with Vernet. After his return to Vienna he gained the prize at the 
Academy of Fine Arts in 1831, by his pictures of "Dido abandoned 
by iEneas " and " Moses in the Desert." He went later to Italy, where 
he studied the old masters. His " Judith " and " Ophelia " are fine 
works ; the last was at Paris in 1 867. His portraits are good ; among 
them, that of the Emperor Francis I., with his crown on his head and 
the scepter in his hand, is quite celebrated. 

Ames, Joseph, N. A. (Am.) Born in New Hampshire (1816- 
1872). Began his professional career in his native state, painting por- 
traits for some years, and winning a fair local reputation before he 
opened a studio in Boston. Going to Rome, he studied the higher 
branches of his art, and painted a life-size portrait of Pius IX., which 
was greatly admired. On his return to America he remained in 
Boston for some time, resuming the active duties of his profession, but 
settled finally in New York, where he died. He was elected an As- 
sociate of the National Academy in 1869, and Academician in 1870, ex- 
hibiting his " Death of Webster " in 1871, and his own portrait, belong- 
ing to the Academy, the following year. Among his portraits are 
Ristori in character, Prescott the historian, Blanche, daughter of Ben- 
jamin F. Butler, half-length of Clarence H. Seward, R. W. Emerson, 
Webster, Rachel, Choate, and many more. Although Mr. Ames occu- 
pied at one time a high position in his profession, it has been difficult 
to obtain reliable information concerning his artistic career. A well- 
known artist of Boston, still living, but contemporary with Ames, says 
of him that 

" He painted portraits, for which he received fifty dollars each, in Boston ; one of 
these, on exhibition at the Boston Athenreum, then on Pearl street, attracted the atten- 
tion of Washington Allston, who praised it for its fine color, which was one of Ames's 
strong points; and this favorable criticism was the means of starting the fame of 
this afterwards celebrated portrait-painter, whose power was genius, and genius alone, 
for he studied under no one. His earliest works were the best, when liis style and color- 
ing were original and pure, and before he attempted to imitate a style entirely opposed 
to his own." 

Mr. Theophilus Walker, of the Gore Place, Waltham, owns a num- 
ber of his pictures, "Miranda" (an early work), "Night," "Morn- 
ing," and other ideal heads, besides a portrait of Mr. Walker, and one 
of the very few landscapes ever painted by Ames. 

" Mr. Ames stood confessedly at the head of his profession. He has probably con- 
tributed more to the portraiture of distinguished persons than any other artist in this 
country." — Boston Advertiser, November 3, 1872. 

" His chosen specialty was portrait-painting, and not a few of his many works of 


rare exeeDi • r, naturalm . bam Wen widely known and do- 

lly admired Bereralof tbna wi tf quite noted representative j 

and others ideallaed whilst preoerving the Ukeneea of well-known proftwaionaJ oeleb- 
Mr. Ames waa prostrated l>y an illness from which h. me his 

pencil with little Of M lOM of his marked characteristic as a paintft of repute I 
aptituile in composition ami skillful interpreting treatment of his aubjei | 
Transcript. November, 1^ 

Anastasi, Auguste. (/•'/'.) Boni at Emails, 1819. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Delaroche and Corot His pictures 
are landscapes. Since 1849 he has devoted himself to lithography, 
and especially to tin- illustration of u [/Artiste" and "Artistes Con- 
temporaina." At the Luxembourg is his M Terrace at tin- Villa 
Pamfili, at Rome " (1864). Iii L865 he exhibited at the Salon, "The 
Roman Forum; Setting Sun," -The Hanks of the Tiber," and two 
in water-colors ; in 1866, "Terrace of a Convent at 
Bome," " A View at Tivoli," and a water-color of an Italian villa ; in 
iiseum'anda "Brook in Autumn"; in 1868," A 
L-House near Naples," "A Bit of the Village of Leidschendam in 
Holland," and a water-color of the M Winter Garden of the 1'ii. 
Mathilde," belonging to that princess. He has painted many Dutch 
landscapes, and Theophile Gautier, in the " Abecedaire du Salon de 
1861," compared him to Van der Neer, anil expressed his surprise at 
the wonderful manner in which this artist with an Italian name had 
himself in r ep r e s en tin g Dutch Hews, with their peculiar 
n and forms. He declared that in fifty yean the works of Anas- 
tasi will be worth as much as the works of Van der Neer now are. "A 
Landscape," by Anastaai, is in the collection of Mrs. EL E. BCaynard 
Anderson, Alexander. (Am.) Engraver. Born in New York 
(1775-1870). Said to have been the earliest American wood-en- 
r. lie was entirely self-taught, manufacturing his own engrav- 
es. 11.- began by cutting on copper before be was fifteen j 
_•--. After receiving his diploma as a doctor of medicine, he 
turned his attention to engraving as a profession about the beginning 
of th iry, hi> first work of importance being the illus- 

ntitled " Looking-Glass for the Mind." 

About 1810 he i. devoting himself thereafter 

ly to that branch of his profession, and illustrating many stand- 

.merican books. He reli: . live work in W;.">, at the age 

of nin 

art of engraving on wood waa first undertaken in tliis country bj Alexander 

•. stll alive 
and in full 
cian, and ha/1 prad • ,,f |,j s febon in the pro* 

aaeond Bewick 

Anderson, A. A. (Am.) Born in N".-\\ - 17. II. • has 

idying in the 


former city under Bonnat and Cabanel. He exhibits at Paris salons, 
New York Academy, etc. Among his more important works are, " A 
Street Scene in Cairo," painted in 1875, now in the possession of 
J. Milbank, Esq.; "The Young Oriental," Salon of 1876 ; life-size, 
full-length portrait of Mrs. A. A. A., Salon of 1877 ; and " Palm 
Sunday," a life-size Italian girl, in the Paris Exposition of 1878. He 
is a member of the American Water-Color Society. 

" Anderson's portrait [Paris Salon of 1877] is excellent ; the sheeny blue satin of the 
dress extremely well rendered." — Lucy Hooper, Appletons' Art Journal, September 

^Andre, Jules. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1804-1869). Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Jolivard and Watelet. He made his 
debut at the Salon of 1841. He traveled in France and Belgium, 
and was then attached to the manufactory at Sevres, but did not al- 
low his labors there to divert him from painting on canvas. His 
" Bridge of Tauron on the Torrion " (1855), and "A View in the Val- 
ley of Streture " (1863), were purchased by the government. Andre 
executed several decorations in the pavilion Mollien at the New 
Louvre, and others in the Hotel d'Albe. He exhibited, in 1864, 
"The Fountain of the Oaks" (Gironde) ; in 1865, "The Banks of 
the Oise at Saint-Leger-sous-Bois " ; in 1866, "A View at Saint-Die," 
and many other views of French scenery. 

-Andrews, Joseph. (Am.) Born at Hingham, Mass. (1806 - 1873). 
His inclination towards his art was early developed, and when fif- 
teen years old he commenced the study of wood-engraving with Abel 
Bowen of Boston. Mr. Hoogland taught him copperplate engraving. 
In 1827 he established himself in Lancaster, Mass., with his brother, 
who was a printer. In 1835 he went to London, and studied for nine 
months under Joseph Goodyear, at which time he executed the plate 
of " Annette de TArbre," after W. E. West. He went to Paris with 
Goodyear, and there made an engraving of the head of Benjamin 
Franklin, after Duplessis, now in the Boston Public Library. In 
1840 he went a second time to Europe, and while in Paris executed 
six plates of portraits for the Historical Gallery at Versailles. These 
were published under the auspices of Louis Philippe. At Florence 
he commenced his plate of the " Duke of Urbino," after Titian. 

His head of Washington, after Stuart, and his " Plymouth Bock, 
1620," after Peter F. Rothermel, are among the best American engrav- 
ings. His plates not already mentioned are, Oliver Wolcott, head 
and bust, after J. Trumbull ; John Quincy Adams, half length, 
sitting, a book in his left hand, after G. P. A. Healy ; Z. Taylor, full 
length, head only finished ; Jared Sparks, after an unfinished picture 
by Stuart ; Amos Lawrence, three quarters length, head only fin- 
ished, after C. Harding ; James Graham, head and bust, after Healy ; 
Charles Sprague, three quarters, sitting, head only finished ; Thomas 
Dowse, half length, sitting, after M. Wight ; " Passing the Ford," 


after Fisher ; "Tin- Panther Scene from 'The Pioneers,'" after 

." after W. s. Mount ; u Pax- 

- and his Wife,* 1 ■ The Pilgrim's 
after Hammatt Billings ; ami a few others done in connec- 
tion with T, Kellcy and C. 1-. Wagstaff. 

Andrews. E. F. (Am.) An Ohio artist He studied paintin 

- in Germany and in Pari-, where hi- was s pupil of Bonnat. 
II spent the winter of 1^77-7^. in Washington, 1). ( '., painting 

He exhibited at the Corcoran Gal- 

in 1878, a full-length portrait of Bin. Washington. His "Little 

ie " ana two portraits were at the Centennial Exhibition in L876. 

Angeli, Heinrich von. (A us.) Medal at Philadelphia. This 

artist is s favorite of royal families, and has made many portrait 

nohle personages. His manner re s em bles that of Lenbach. He went 

to England, where he painted a portrait of the Queen to be hung in 

the dining-room at Windsor ; a picture of the Prince and Princess of 

ii their children, for Osborne; portraits of the Duke and 

Duchess of Edinburgh, the Princess Louise and the Marquis of Lome, 

the Prince and Princess Christian, and the Princess Beatrice, Sir 

John McNeill, the Duke of Argyle, and many other notable pei 

I Von Angeli with choice tokens of her ap- 
.tion. and the Prince of Wales not only entertained him in his 
familj it introduced him to his tailor, Poole, who made for the 

artir-: The oft-named servant, Brown, so admired 

the v. Lngeli that when the Queen showed bim her por- 

trait, that be exclaimed, u Your Majesty should hum your 

I a justice ! " The Queen desired 
It to paint the portraits of the Princess Alice 
and her family. Naturally this sort of patronage gives him a popu- 
what irksome. He is invited everywhere, and 
I with persons desiring to be made famous by his 
brush. At the Annual Exposition in Berlin, 1871, he exhibil 
genre pict : of his Honor"; and at Vienna, 

LthfoJ Love." In his report upon the Philadel- 
phia Exposition, John p. : — 

"Two portraits by Henry von Angeli are characteristic, though not rapfi 
this artist at Mi best It would have added greatly to the interest of the Austrian ex- 

g in genre, as, for instance, such ■ work us 
the ' Avenger of his Honor,' m 

Anker, Albert. (Swiss.) Born at An. t. Medal at P. 
Pupil n of 1^77 he exhibited a "Scene from 

1 "The Little Embroid- 
and • New Win.-.*' At the 
few fork, "The Knitting School *(30 '• 
K At the Salon I ' wva- 



Ansdell, Richard, R. A. (Brit.) Born hi Liverpool, 1815, where 
he was educated. First exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 1840, 
" A Galloway Farm " and " Grouse Shooting." " The Drover's Halt " 
(1856) was his first contribution to the walls of the Biitish Institu- 
tion. Among his historical pictures may be mentioned, " The Death 
of Sir W. Lambton at Marston Moor," in 1842 ; and " Mary Queen 
of Scots returning from the Chase," in 1844. He is better known, 
however, for his paintings of animals, in the well-known style of Sir 
Edwin Landseer. Among the more famous of these are, " The Death," 
in 1843 ; " The Combat," in 1848 ; " The Shepherd's Revenge" and 
" Fox-Hunting in the North," in 1855 ; •" The Highland Cattle- 
Fair," in 1874, and " The Wolf-Slayer," and " Turning the Drove," 
for which he received a gold medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1855. 
In 1850, and during some years later, he painted, in conjunction with 
Thomas Creswick, the landscape-artist, several pictures, " The South 
Downs," in 1850 ; " The Drover's Halt " and " The Park," in 1855. 
In his " Feeding the Calves " (1855) the animals only are from his 
brush, the milkmaid being executed by Firth. In 1856 and 1857 
Mr. Ansdell visited Spain for the purpose of work and study, the 
result being his "Water-Carrier" and "Mules Drinking," in 1857 ; 
" Crossing the Ford, Seville," in 1858 ; and the " Spanish Flower- 
Seller," in 1859. Among his later works are, "Feeding the Goats in 
the Alhanibra," in 1871 ; "West Highlands " and " Found," in 1872 ; 
" Gathering the Herd " and " The Tethered Yowe," in 1873 ; " The In- 
truders " and " The Anxious Mother," in 1875 ; " Peat-Gathering" and 
" The Wandering Minstrel," in 1876 ; and "Rejected Addresses" and 
" The Home of the Red Deer," in 1877. He was made an Associate 
of the Royal Academy in 1861, and an Academician ten years later. 

" ' The Goatherds of Granada ' is one of the most beautiful representations of a special 
phase of Spanish rural life Mr. Ansdell has ever painted. The composition of the group 
is very effective, and the whole subject most pleasing." — Art Journal, June, 1877. 

" Ansdell is a very accomplished artist, and when he does not think about etching at 
all, but simply sketches as he would with a finely pointed pen. he does work of a cer- 
tain value, which value depends on his knowledge of animals, and not on his knowledge 

of etching, in which he does appear to be especially interested Considered 

specially as etching, ' The Sentinel ' may rank with such German work as that of Gauer- 
man, but the draughtsmanship is so intelligent as to surpass even the best designs of 
Gauerman, and I suppose no one could have drawn such a stag better." —Etching and 
Etchers, 1876. 

Anthony, Mark. (Brit.) Born in Manchester, 1817. At the age 
of thirteen began the study of medicine, but quickly relinquished it for 
practice in landscape art. Went to Paris in 1834, and studied on the 
Continent for six years. He first exhibited at the British Institute in 
1840, and was elected a member of the Society of British Artists in 
1845, where he remained until 1851, exhibiting there in 1847 his 
" Harvest Home," in 1848 his " Prayer for the Absent," in 1849 his 
" Old Country Churchyard," and in 1850 an " Elm at Eve." In 


185] be exhibited it the Royal Academy* 4 I ind Pent"; in 

1852, "The Monarch's Oak"; in L854, "Nature's Mirror"; in 1859, 

; in 1863, "A Belie of the Feudal Time"; in 1864, 

h the Common " ; in L866, M The Peace of the Valley " ; 

in L€ la, Spain"; in L871, "Night and Storm and Dark- 

(alaoal the Paris Exposition), and "The Return after Labor w j 

in 1872, "Haxlewick Mill, Sussex"; in 1873, "Evensong"; and 

in l-:-. -An Incident by the Wayside." 

may's picture, a village church seen between tall tr> ■ r Om 

Weary." R A., 180V. is manly ami unaffected, aixl skillful in tin- OM <>f gray, li 
last gleam of crimson Ugh! rests for a moment on the upper battlement of the tower ; the 
evanescent look of this faint flicker is well suggested." — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

Anthony, Andrew Varick Stout. (Am.) Born in New York, 

lied drawing in hi> native city under Thomas S. Cum- 

graving under T. \Y. Btrong and Edward Vollum. He 

spent his professional life in New York, California, and Boston, 

where he now resides. Be was one of the original members of the 

American Wat ty, bat has devoted himself particularly 

to engraving with mirk. 1 success. He has contributed to illus- 

I books published by the Harpers, Appletons, and Scribners, 

and, since l^f><;. has done the larger part of the finer work of that 

kind f>r Ticknor and Fields, Fields, Osg od A Co., James EL Os 

., and Bought 1 & Co. The li-t of hooks illustrated 

by Mr. Anthony i- ?ery large, among the most successful being "Snow- 
llads of New England," 1870, "Mabel Martin," 
m in Armor," 1-77. "Scarlet Letter,'' 1878, etc. 

England'] is by A. V B Anthony, who ranks with 
at the bead of living artists in this specialty, in England or America. The 
ittons cannot bat charm one. The tender 
expressiveness, the fine g tbnent of the land- 

scape in its varied aspe* t . f the waves, the subtle drifting mists, the power 

and s -• nial warmtli ami -low o: , all s.-.-m ex- 

pressed in t • with the truth .. r s Uriag pictnrs 

That the of New sbould be so tharooghly 

imitated and suggested with such 1. rfuL"— N. T. 


The foil written by Mary Ilallock Foote, in No- 

aluable opinion, as only the arti.-t who makes 

- oi failure of the engraver 1 ! work. 

" • The S j-art Is, as italways Is, earnest, strong, and faithful. 

•• • Beater valk 

sad middled oorser ti 

'; so Is the. ;.' I think some . 

strongest and U rk is in this 1 

"England baa long I nty in the art of wood-cngra\ 

art wi | n engravings in the illustrated edition of W! 


'Snow-Bound.' For delicacy of touch, clearness of line, and every other quality that 
distinguishes good work in wood, these engravings are unsurpassed." — American Pub- 
lisher and Bookseller. 

" The Pall Mall Gazette unintentionally bestows very high praise upon an American 
engraver, Mr. A. V. S. Anthony. In a notice of Whittier's ' Snow-Bound ' the English 
critic mistakes Mr. Anthony's work for Mr. Linton's. Of the pictures mentioned two are 
engraved by Mr. Anthony. " — Every Saturday. 

Antigna, Jean-Pierre- Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Orleans (1818- 
1878). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Medal at Philadelphia, 
1876. After studying at Orleans he entered the atelier of Delaroche, 
and made his debut at the Salon of 1841 with a religious subject, such 
as he continued to paint for a few years. He then exhibited his 
" Poor Family," which brought him into favorable notice. " The 
Bathers " (1846) was purchased for the Museum of Orleans ; " Light- 
ning " (1848), for the Museum of Avignon. " The Conflagration " 
(1850) is at the Luxembourg. His works are very numerous. In 
1877 he exhibited " The Game of Strength" and " The Fire of the 
Fete of St. John " ; in 1876, " The Women and the Secret " (Fon- 
taine) ; in 1875, "Yvonne and Marc" ; in 1874, "A Rising Sea" 
and " After the Tempest." In 1878 he exhibited " L'Enfer " and a 
portrait. His " Industry and Revery " is in the gallery of Mr. T. R. 
Butler of New York. 

" This artist created realism long before Courbet, but, as Jourdain created prose, 
without knowing it and without pride in it. He copied nature honestly as he saw it 
without preference or research, — his models were not always beautiful, but he flattered 
them not, neither made them more ugly. His painting was a good, full, frank painting, 
healthy, robust, a little bise and agreeable sometimes, as is home-made bread after a 
series of fine suppers. Antigna merited and obtained honest successes, and sustains 
conscientiously the reputation which he has acquired, and lacks little of being a truly 
great painter. What ! a sunbeam, a light, a thought. That which he seems to have 
caught in the ' Fontaine verte.' " — Th£ophile Gautier, Jbecedaire du Salon de 1861. 

Antigna, Mme. Helene-Marie. (Fr.) Born at Melun. Pupil 
of Delacroix and of Antigna. Her pictures are small genre subjects, 
and are praised by artists. In 1877 she exhibited " On n'entre pas !" 
and " The New Cider " ; in 1876, " An Interior at Saint-Brieuc " and 
" A Stable " ; in 1875, " Tant va la cruche a l'eau," etc. 
^Appert, Eugene. (Fr.) Born at Angers (about 1820-1867). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. He painted historical and genre 
subjects. His " Vision of St. Oven" (1844) was purchased by the 
government; also, "The Adoration of the Magi" (1853). In 1865 
he exhibited at the Salon, "The Confession at the Convent" ; in 
1864, " The Pope Alexander III." (being proscribed by Calixtus, he 
goes to a monastery disguised as a beggar), also " Bullfinches " ; in 
1863, " Venice " and a portrait ; etc. 

/ Appiani, Andrea. (Ital.) Born at Milan (about 1812-1866). 
Several medals at Rome, and the grand prize at the Academy of 
Milan. His pictures of " Petrarch at Avignon " and " A Young Ital- 
ian Emigrant pressing to her Heart the National Colors " were seen 
at the Paris Exposition of 1855. 


Appleton, Thomas G. (Am.) Born, 1 - 1 12. A son of the late 
Nathan Appleton of Boston, Although not a professional artist, Mr. 
Appleton studied art under Brown ^\' England and Doughty of Phil- 
adelphia, and has painted in oil and water many orLpnaJ landscapes, 
"k-s of the masters in the various art-centres of Europe. A 
collection of his works, exhibited in Boston a few yean ago, after 
his return from Egypt, attracted much attention. Mr. Appleton is 
known, however, asa patron of the arts, rather than an artist, having 
done much tor the art education of the people of Boston, and for the 
encouragement of worthy artistic talent lit- bass large Dumber of 
fine works by foreign and home painters, which arc frequently 
in public art exhibitions ; and he needs no other monument to his 
and artistic judgment than the collection of engravings 
donated by him t«» the Public Library of Boston, which is daily doing 
so much for the improvement of the popular taste. Mr. Appleton has 
deeply interested in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts since its 
auation, and lias given it a valuable collection of Greek vases. 
Archer, Wykehara. (Brit) (1806-1864.) Went to London at 
the age of fourteen, studying under an engraver of animals for some 
In 1^7 he made a series of etchings of several of the cathe- 
drals of England, and a little later etchings and drawings of the old 
buildings and streets of Edinburgh. His specialty was the delinea- 
tion of architectural ruins and ancient edifices. He was a member 
of th >f Painters in Water-Colors, and the author of a 

book entitled u Vestiges of Old London/' which he illustrated with 

Archer, James. (Brit.) Borr^ 1824. Educated at the Tru 

my, Edinburgh, devoting himself to drawing in chalk during 
the fii uonal life. In 1849 he sent to the |: 

Last Su] < xhibited picture in 

oil. lb- was eled d Scottish Academy in 

: in in 1858. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, I 
: r the first time in 1854, crayon portraits ; in 1856; "Musing 1 ' 
: in 1867, - In Time of War" ; in 1-:.-. ■• A Hidden 
Sorrow*' ; in 1S.">9, "Fair Rosamond and Queen Eleanor 11 ; in 1861, 
II* removed to London from Edinburgh in 
I idemy. in 1864, " How the Little I 
iuea w ; in 1865, "The Puritan Suitor"; in I 

-t Cromwell" ; in I 

'" : "in 1873, "Henry Irving as Mathiai in 

: in 1-::}. -Irving as Charles I. - ; in 1-71. -The 

'irk*': in ]-::>. "Springtide"; in l-:<;. 

in 1878, "The Try-tin many 


the International Exhibition of ] M d,,n. Archer 

"Summer Time, — Gloucester " ; to Pari*, in 1867, " Buying an In- 


diligence" ; to Philadelphia, in 1876, " The Three Sisters" ; and to 
Paris, in 1878, " Rose " and " Little Miss Primrose." 

" John Stuart Blackie [by James Archer] is an entirely well-meant, and, I should con- 
jecture, successful portrait of a man much deserving portraiture. The background has 
true meaning, and is satisfactorily complete ; very notable in that character among por- 
trait backgrounds of the year. The whole is right and good." — John Ruskin's Notes 
of the Academy, 1875. 

" 'Rose,' by J. Archer [R. A. 1877], a remarkably sweet girl, full-faced, fair-complex- 
ioned, standing in a light dress and quilted satin petticoat, is one of the most fascinating 
pictures in the room." — Art Journal, July, 1877. 

Argenti, Giosue. (Ital.) Of Milan. At Philadelphia he ex- 
hibited " Dreams of Youth," " Hope," and " The Florist," and received 
a medal. He also received medals at Vienna in 1873, and at Paris in 
1867. At the Universal Exposition of 1878 he exhibited a marble 
statue called " The Rose of the Loves." 

Arienti, Carlo. (Ital.) Bom at Arcore (1801 - 1872). Professor 
of painting in the Accademia Albertina. Cavalier of the Order of SS. 
Maurice and Lazarus. Pupil of the schools of the Brera at Milan. His 
most notable works are, " Beatrice di Tenda," " Jeremiah," " Orestes," 
" Phedra and Ippolito," " Francesca da Rimini," and the " Origin of 
the Lombard League." The last is in the Quirinal at Rome. His 
portrait of Bellini, now in the Conservatorio at Naples, is the only one 
of the great composer in existence. 

Arienti was remarkable for his accurate drawing. He was greatly- 
honored by the House of Savoy, and received many commissions from 
the nobles of Milan, Turin, and other cities. His " Barbarossa " was 
painted for Charles Albert, and is in the Hall of the Pages of the 
Royal Palace of Turin. 

Armand-Dumaresq, Charles Edouard. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 
1826. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Couture. His 
" Martyrdom of St. Peter" (1853) is in the Cathedral of Caen, and a 
" Christ " in the Palace of Justice at Paris. He painted the " De- 
parture for the Crusades," for which he received the Cross of Saint- 
Sylvestre. Later he turned his attention to the painting of military 
subjects. He accompanied the army to various places in order to 
make sketches. In 1877 he exhibited at the Salon " Charles XII. at 
Bender, 1713" ; in 1875, "The Surrender of Yorktown, 1781" ; por- 
trait of Caleb Cushing, and water-colors of " A Prussian Uhlan " and 
an " Officer of Pennsylvania Artillery" ; in 1874, " A Council of War 
at a Bivouac" and "The Spy" ; in 1873, " The Signing of the Dec- 
laration of Independence of the United States of America, 1776 " ; 
in 1872, "The Defence of St. Quentin, October 8, 1870" ; in 1869, 
" The Evening of Austerlitz " and " The Day after Solferino." Ar- 
mand-Dumaresq has also made many drawings, among others a collec- 
tion of the uniforms of the army, which is at Versailles. 

Armitage, Edward, R. A. (Brit.) Born in London, 1817. Pupil 
of Paul Delaroche in Paris, whom he assisted in the decoration of the 


olofFinc Art-. Among his earlier work- are, "Prometheus 
. IS4£ ; "The Battle of Ifeaaee," for which In- received a 
in 1M7. and which was subsequently purchased by the 
d ; "Samson at the Mill." "Aholibah," and u Betribution," in 
1858. 1! i eived a pi for lii> "Landing of Julius 

enl tit the Westminster Hall Exhibition in 1843, 
and t . "The Spirit of Religion," in L84& 11. • exe- 

ented two frescos in the New Parliament House in London. Spent 
yean in study in Rome, 1849-61, and painted "Inkerman" 
and " Rilaklava," the result of a visit to the Crimea during the Rus- 
sian War. Be exhibited at the Royal Academy, in l s <*><>, "The Mother 
I ees hiding after exposing her Cliil.l " ; in 1861, "Pharaoh's 
- iter " ; in 1863, " Burial «-t* a Christian Martyr in the Time of 
" : in L866, "The Remorse of Judas" ; in 1867, "Christ heal- 
"Herod'fl Birthday Feast" ; in L870, "Detu- 
ne"; in L873, "Simplex munditiis"; in 1878, "Julian the 
itate presiding at a Conference of Sectarians "j in L876 > "The 
Hymn of the I-i-t Supper"; in 1^77, "Serf Emancipation," which 
Exposition of 1878. 
11 ■ - the Royal Academy in W>7, and Acade- 

mician in 1874 

-mitage still j>ainLs with a dry, aseetic sort of bnish, so to speak ; but when an 

met t<> his w(.rk with a broad, historic grasp of Ins suhjeet, meh as m 
.: would be hyj-en. i minor maiters." — Art Journal, July, 

•uitage is an artist rather of the past, good in composition and drawing, p"or in 
ntii) ' at the Royal Academy."— Benjamin 
ran/ Art in Europe. 

" Mr. Armitage appears to be one solitary English pointer in a rla- vhi-h 

the French have followed with much success. His ' Ihirial of a Martyr* IL A., 1803] 
represents what may have been a not uncommon mmm in one of the Imperial ]■• 
tions. 80 far as we can judge, from the in.sition allotted to the work (on tin- walls of 
the Academy . it is most carefully drawn ami worked out, and the .sentiment of the 
occasion — grief, almost • • • aion — truly rendered. This picture 

would -1 for representation in fresco." — Pal/jrave's Essays on Art. 

Armstead, Henry Hugh, A. I:. A. (flriL) Contemporary Eng- 
Ling in London. He i- an Associate of the Royal Acad- 
let having furnished occasiona] d< 

is by profession a sculptor, work- 

Among his different productions may be 

■ Partington Shi. -1.1 

diibited at the Royal A< sdemy ; mural decorations 

Paul," - David," and u II 

(in i:. Westminster Abbey ; t:. Lllus- 

forming part <<f the frieze 
of v. < fhemi try," M Rhetoric/* and 

roups (in marbl 
and •• Painting," on eight ol 


the podium of the Albert Memorial in London, besides the monument 
to Frederick Walker, A. R. A., to be erected in Corkham Church ; 
bronze statue of the Earl of Pembroke, for Inner Temple Hall ; " Re- 
ligion," " Philosophy," and statue of " Henry VI." (in bronze), parts 
of a fountain in King's College, Cambridge ; etc. 

" No small share of the sculptured honors of the year are due to Mr. Armstead for 
his beautiful and carefully studied bronze statues for King's College, Cambridge. We 
noticed these statues when they appeared in plaster, but fresh praise is due to the 
artist on account of the judgment displayed in adapting his notions for expression in 
bronze. The execution and fine and graceful style of the figures will be appreciated by 
all who know the canon of true and pure sculpture." — London Athenaeum, Maj T , 1877. 
,^A.rmstrong, Thomas. (Brit.) An English contemporary figure- 
painter. He is a native of Manchester, but has lived in London for 
some years. He studied in Paris under Ary Scheffer. Exhibits fre- 
quently at the Royal Academy, sending to Grosvenor Gallery, in 1 878, 
" Three Female Figures on a Marble Seat, with Orange-Blossoms 
and Marigolds," and " Ariadne abandoned by Theseus." He has sent 
to the Royal Academy, " Poppies," " A Music Piece," " Winter," " A 
Girl watching a Tortoise," " Feeding Pigeons," etc. 

He sent to the Paris Exposition of 1878 " A Music Piece." 

[No response to circular.] 

" Armstrong's modern range of decorative motives, as well as the quiet and almost 
Quakerish harmony of his favorite combinations in color, are altogether personal to 
himself. What he does endeavor is to make every picture a careful and calculated ob- 
ject of satisfaction for the eye, in the arrangement of its forms and colors, neglecting at 
the same time no material fact that he can manage, but choosing the subdued and deli- 
cate dealings of nature rather than those which thrust discord or brandish difficulties 
in the face of the spectator." — Sidney Colvin, in English Artists of the Present Day, 187*2. 

Armstrong, D. Maitland. (Am.) A native of Newburg, N. Y. 
He graduated at Trinity College, Hartford, studying and practicing 
law in New York for some time. He studied painting in Rome and 
under Luc-Olivier Nierson in Paris, spending his professional life 
chiefly in Italy and New York. He was for four years United States 
Consul-General for Italy at Rome, and was Director of the American 
Art Department at the Paris Exposition of 1878, receiving the decora- 
tion of the Legion of Honor. He has been a member of the Artists' 
Fund Society of New York for a number of years, exhibiting fre- 
quently at the Academy of Design, New York, and elsewhere in the 
United States. 

To the Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 1876, he sent " Twilight on 
the Tiber" and " The Column of St. Mark's, Venice." 

Artaria, Mathias. (Ger.) Born at Manheim about 1815. 
Studied at Diisseldorf, and settled in his native city. Paints histori- 
cal genre subjects, especially those connected with the Tyrol, such as 
scenes from the history of Andreas Hofer. Artaria has painted some 
pictures from sketches made in Spain. 

Artz, Adolph. A Dutch artist, who resides at The Hague, and 
paints in oil and water colors. Pupil of Mollinger. His subjects are 


principally from rustic life. Of "No Hope," exhibited in 

in L874, a writer in the Art Journal said : — 

"It It A fcmehlBg epis.vle. Tho woman's attitude well apMSSei tin* QJUlflk pang of 

despair wh; I the hand <>f tii«> wasted Bguia on the bed has just awakened." 

the Glasgow Fine Art Loan Exhibition, 1878, there 
three pictures by this artist,— a "Dutch Interior," belonging to W. L. 
m ; •• A Mother and Child," belonging to J. Napier ; and - The 
Fisherman's Return," lent by John Dansken. 

Aube, Jean-Paul. (/•>.) Bom at LongWJ, l s 37. Medals at 

the Paris Salons of 1874 and 76. Pupil of Dantan and Duret. At 

the Salon of 1^7^ he exhibited a statue (in marble) of "Galatea"; 

in L877, a fragment of a group (in plaster) called " Portraits of my 

iivu." and a portrait bust (in terra-cotta) of Mme, A. 1). ; in 

1^7''>, a atatue(in plaster) of "Pygmalion"; in l>7-~>, a group in 

btonse, " Tin- Siren," purchased by tin- Ministry of the Fine Arts, and 

now *>n the public promenade in Montpellier ; in 1874, the last-named 

group (in plaster), when lie received his first medal (second class). 

•lie preceding works, with a bust (plaster) of Count Simeon, 

ition of 1878. A French critic write-: •• |\ 

it artist. He has as much talent as 1) 1 but 

he never met good lot tune." Auk' is one of the sculptors whom 

[uemond has had the wisdom and good fortune to employ in the 

making of the Haviland faience. Anne* Bigns with his full name the 

- which he models. They are separately modeled a la fi 
and never molded. 
Aubert, Jean-Ernest. (/•>.) Born at Paris, 1884. Prixd* Rome 
1844; medal, third class, m ik:,7, for lithography, and 
.-Id, third class, in 1861, lor painting, ami 
ri-.oh- dee Beaux-Arts in 1- ; 
a P«P«1 ol I tinet He remained five yean in [taly, 

1 himself to engraving until is.-,:>. w i„. n betook up lit 
r-phy. ]l 1 copies after Raphael in wal 

on of Butterflies" and "The 

11 ■'■■> " : > i "Galati La boutique a 

fter Samoa ; - Palestrina," after Heilbuth ; and "Cal- 

DuvaL In 1-77 he exhibited paintings of " The 

'■ aeils"; in 1^7:.. - At the Fountain" ; in 

1872, "The Broken Thread"; in l-7<». -A Fonng Qirl"and a por- 

th" ; in I 
ander Diocletian" : in i-<;i. "Confidence" and two 
■ Fork, 1878, "Cutting the Th 

• th- Salon of L878 
The Lesson in Astronomy "and "Love, Merchant of 


Audubon. John James. (Am.) (1788 1861.) Went to F 

under David. In 17:» tied on a 



farm in Pennsylvania, remaining until 1810, when he sailed down the 
Ohio on a bird-sketching expedition, going for the same purpose to 
Florida in 1811, and continuing these trips for some years, making 
his home in Philadelphia. In 1826 he went to Europe, and shortly 
after began the issue of his great work, "The Birds of America," 
which was completed in 1839, in 87 parts, containing 448 plates, 
life-sized and colored from his own drawings. His " Ornithological 
Biography" was published also in 1839. The next year he returned 
finally to America. In 1844 he published a reduced edition of his 
works. Many of Audubon's original drawings are in the possession 
of the Historical Society of New. York. Two of his pictures in oil 
belonging to Edward Harris, " A Covey of Blackcock " and " Canada 
Otter," were at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

Augur, Hezekiah. (Am.) Born in New Haven, Ct. (1791- 
1858). He was a graduate of Yale College. As an artist he was en- 
tirely self-taught. After some experience in business, he turned his 
attention to art, carving first in wood and then in stone. His " Wash- 
ington," " Sappho," and " Apollo " attracted much attention when 
first made, and his last and most important work, " Jephthah and bis 
Daughter," in the Trumbull Gallery in Yale, has been highly praised. 

Ayvasowsky, John. (Russian.) Born at Theodosia (Crimea), 
1817. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Professor at the Imperial 
Academy of St. Petersburg, and at Theodosia, where in later years 
he has resided. Painter to the Court. Chevalier of the Order of St. 
Anne of Kussia and of the Order, of the Lion (Netherlands). Medal 
at Philadelphia. . He was educated at the Academy of St. Petersburg, 
where he rapidly advanced until he was esteemed the first marine 
painter in Russia. His works are very numerous, and usually repre- 
sent naval battles famous in Russian history, or marine views ; they 
are seen in all Russian collections. At the Salon of 1874 he exhibited 
" The South Coast of the Crimea," " Tempest on the Black Sea," and 
" Setting Sun in the Steppes of Southern Russia" ; at the Exposition 
of 1867, "View on the Coast of the Crimea," etc. This painter has 
also sent some works to the Exhibitions of the Royal Academy in 

" Perhaps among all living artists in Russia the most famous, the most notorious, the 
most successful in a commercial sense, is John Ayvasowsky, closely identified with the 
Crimea. Yet his landscapes are too vague and decorative to pretend to local truth. 
Ayvasowsky's career is not exceptional ; he served a pupilage in the Academy of St. 
Petersburg, in which at a more mature age he became a professor. Now advanced to 
his fifty-sixth year he finds himself court painter and moreover professor in Theodosia, 
the ancient Chersonesus Taurica, wherein he has taken up his residence. Among his 
best-known pictures is a landscape of the neighboring town of Kertch, the ancient Greek 
city which yielded the vases, gold crowns, and other treasures now transported to the 
Hermitage. The pictures of Ayvasowsky are so numerous and in art quality they take 
so wide a range from good to bad, that the conclusion seems inevitable that the painter 
is a trader working for lucre. His monetary success has been great ; it used to be said 
in St. Petersburg that he lived like a prince, and it came as a cheering fact that Russia 


coul J place a mere n. The art rolflo: 

tie number of his landscapes scattered over the II 

10 I have foun.l his works m M 
-e, as a nutter of eourse, in divers International Exhibition*, When I pi 
' for art purpOMI t<> Russia. I was told that, at all events, I should And in Pi 
Api- ■ m. But when I eneount< r« d * The Creation Off Qm World" at. I 

• whether to pronounce the painter a gonial or a 
madman. To comparv, as some have done, Ayva-ovsky with Turner would he an in- 

Turner. The two are comparable only when their works v. 
insanity. Ayvaaowsky is habitually vaporous and inflammatory, his highly 
landscapes^: ital Palace <>r in tl 

. ut form, detail, or nature. Kveii in small canvases, when then ■ 
no act-: . such m in 'At Koont Athos,' • a View on the 

1 'Carters in the Crimea,' severally present at the Inter- 
.1 Exhibition of 1S7J, the arti.->t shows supreme dis(lain fox truth. And yet f"r 
each of these insults u]H>n natu: y presumes to ask the modest sum ol 

.... XetAyvai n Bag aa a phenomenon. HetoalmoaitheonlyRiiaaianart* 

nrith imagination or with a sense of color. His hmdeeepi 

ptotaiei are visions; they are produ I .and 

aerte t. ia art, like the Russian elimate, comprises OOOtl 

lea asunder." — J. Beavisgtos Atkinson, An Art Tour to Northern Capitait of 

Azeglio, Massimo d\ (Ital) Born at Turin (1796-1866). This 
;• was Prime Minister of Sardinia onder Victor Emmanuel, and 
was distinguished as a scholar as well as an artist. His Landscapes 
- on in the- Louvre, in the Royal Palace of Turin, and in many 
places. Many of his pictures remain in his villa upon Lake 
• Origin of the Sforza Family " is one of his best-known 
Baader, Louis Marie. (IV.) Bom at Lunnion. Medals in 
nd '74. Pupil of YTon and 1*1 Beanx-Arts. Exhibited 

■■ L i I : '■ ' ' ■ : An Epic de of the v 
of th ; in I87rj Qt&BJ on the Hurdy-durdy " ; in 

1675, : in 1 -74, u Posthnmons 

.ii and Dog "is in the collection of Mrs. H. K. 
In 1-7- Baader exhibited M A Ifiatake ; Jean- 
<-ks the Kitchen/' ami "The Mender se, — Tim 

Louis XVI" 

Bacon. Henry. [Am.) Bom at Haverhill, Ma-., in 18 

. by wounds while serving in the 13th Begimenl Inn- 

teers during the I . il War. be went to 

L864, and becoming also ■ pnpil 
'. In I860 lied onder Edward 

■ • r.illv been ipenl in 1 
■ •-. Among his more importanl world ■<■ 
.1." at the d i.-i 1870 j - B 

Gage," Sal«»n of 1876, now tl aila- 

. I '». 
.-*.; and •• Let - il<>n of i 37 


His "Boston Boys "was at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876; 
" Land ! Land ! » at the Paris Exhibition of 1878. 

" The only important pictorial result of the Centennial inood which we have thus far 
observed, is Mr. Henry Bacon's large and effective work, based on the homely but ex- 
cellent episode of the Boston Boys' petition to General Gage. This picture is a very 
decided gain on any of the artist's previous performances, and equally a gain to the 
public. We do not at the moment think of any American painter so well qualified by 
his whole tendency as Mr. Bacon to attempt the reproduction of this scene, for it needs 
precisely the realistic manner which he has for so long a time and so consistently been 
developing. Moreover, he has a faculty of getting color out of themes that apparently 

refuse to yield color, which was quite essential to success in this case Much 

might be said of the variety of good manipulation in different sections, but we have only 
space enough to express the hope that this honest and spirited picture, not only im- 
bued with a national feeling, and valuable for its local historical commemoration, but 
also as an excellent work of art, may meet with generous appreciation, and be secured 
to the city of Boston or the Museum of Fine Arts." — Atlantic Monthly, April, 1876. 

Badin, Jules. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal in 1877. Pupil of 
Cabanel and Baudry. A portrait-painter. In 1877 exhibited por- 
trait of M. E. S. and portrait of Lilie. 

Bail, Jean-Antoine. (Fr.) Born at Chasselay. At the Salon 
of 1877 he exhibited "At the Inn." At the Salon of 1874 was 
seen his " Sunday Morning in Auvergne," now in the Corcoran Gal- 
lery, Washington, of which the catalogue says : — 

" This picture of the interior of a French cottage is full of interest. The gladsome 
light in the child's eyes as her mother puts the last pin in her dress ; the patient atti- 
tude of the grandmother, waiting, prayer-book in hand; the girl descending the stairs, 
the natural air of the old woman arranging her cap, and the two men taking a cup of 
wiue before leaving for church, are all told with marked character." 

Bailly, Antoine Nicolas. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1810. Member 
of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. He was appointed 
Architect Inspector of the city of Paris in 1834. He was employed in 
finishing the Hotel de Ville, and improving the Fountain of Moliere. 
In 1844 he was made Government Architect, and was charged with 
the dioceses of Bourges, Valence, and Digne. At Digne he almost en- 
tirely rebuilt the Cathedral. At Valence he reconstructed the tower of 
the Metropolitan Church, and at Bourges he restored the religious edi- 
fice which is so much admired. Bailly was then made chief architect 
of the sixth district, of the works in repairs in Paris. In 1860 he be- 
came chief architect of the third district, and was charged with the 
reconstruction of the Lycee Saint-Louis, the erection of the new Tri- 
bunal of Commerce, and some buildings for the new mayoralty of the 
fourth district. In his private profession he has superintended the 
building of the Hotel Schneider, that of the Prince Montmorency- 
Luxembourg, the chateau of M. Largorette at Choisy-le-Koi, the 
restoration of the chateaux of Cany and Theuville, etc. 

Bailly, Joseph A. (Am.) A native of France, but the better part 
of his professional life has been spent in the city of Philadelphia. He 
began his art career as a wood-carver, and was very successful in that 


branch. He tamed his attention t<> sculpture in marble, and baa for 
aome jean been Professor In the Pennsylvania Academy <>f Fine ! 
Among the better known of hi^ works are the statue of Washington 
in front of [ndependence Hall, Philadelphia ; tin- colossal statue of 
Witherapoon in Fairmount Park ; portrait i>u>t> of Gen. Grant, Gen. 

le, and others; and "The First Prayer" and M Paradise I. 
companion groups in marble. 

the Centennial Exhibition of i s 7<; he contributed an equestrian 
statue of Antonio Guzman Blanco, President of Venezuela, and 
in ideal figure. 
Baily, Edward H, R. A. (Brit.) Bom in Bristol (1788- L867> 
! a Bhip-carver. Brought up to mercantile pursuits, but began 
his professional career in his native town as a modeler in wax with 
lerable 8u I ingto London in 1807, he became a pupil 

of Flaxiuan, and of the Royal Academy, gaining a gold medal tor his 
•• 11 : ales restoring Alcestis to Admetus." In L810 he executed 
the Fountain," followed by "Apollo discharging his Ar- 
-." M Preparing for the Bath," M Eve listening to the Voice of 
tin* Tempter," u The Fatigued Huntsman," "The Bleeping Nymph," 
tc Se was the author of the colossal statue of Nel- 
>n thf column in Trafalgar Square, of statues of Sir Robert Peel 
and Karl (nay. and of many portrait busts and statues of other distin- 
guished men of Great Britain. He was a member of the Royal Academy 
for many years, and was placed on the Honorary Retired List in L863. 
Baker, George A., X. A. (.1//;.) Born in New York, 1821. lb' 
red hi- first instruction in drawing from his father, an artist of 
»le merit, Studying later at the National Academy. His 
earlier works were miniatures upon ivory. He has devoted himself 
particularly t<» portrait-painting, his favorite subjects being Ladies and 

child] professional lite has been spent in his native city. He 

! UOpe in 1844, Studying and working for two years upon the 

tent lb La member of the National Academy in 1851. 

His | mmand high prices, and in his particular branch of his 

. he i- without a rival in America. Among his idea] works 
u Wild-Flowers, and "Children of the 
<>. Roberts ; and - Faith" and "The May 
:i " in the Walters Collection of Baltimore. Bis portraits, gen- 
erally of private individuals, are in pru ties throughout the 

"Geo. A. Baker is highly esteemed for his portraiture of women ami eliililn-n. Ti 
often a clear and vivid flesh-tint, agr. tad a beautiful refinement in his 

portrait* w!.. tad anthenti H i . 

with' .' ofc of the Artists. 

Baker, "William H. (Am.) (] ",.) Brought up to mer- 

cantile pursuits in N«\v <)j! quently studied art and 

ttled in New Fork 


about 1865, devoting himself to the painting of portraits and ideal 
subjects. He first exhibited at the National Academy, in 1866, 
"Cupid Disarmed." In 1869 he sent "A Floral Offering," and in 
1871 " Cupid Reprimanded." He removed to Brooklyn in 1869, and 
assumed control of the schools of the Brooklyn Art Association in 
1871, exhibiting there, in 1870, " May-Flowers" ; in 1871, "Red 
Riding-Hood"; in 1872, " Morning-Glories," "Home Regatta," and 
" Cherry-Time " ; in 1873, " Lilies of the Field "; and in 1875, " Tru- 
ants from School." 

"Mr. Baker never aspired to greatness as an artist, but he was painstaking and as 
conscientious in his professional duties as he was gentle and unassuming in his private 
relations of life. He showed conclusively that he was an accomplished teacher as well 
as an artist, and during the season just closed the work produced in his schools, par- 
ticularly in the antique class, will stand the test of comparison with that of any insti- 
tution in the country." — Art Journal, July, 1875. 

Baker, Miss M. K. (Am.) Native of New Bedford, Mass. A 
young artist whose aim is the painting of figures and portraits, and 
who has so far devoted herself to the representation of flowers and 
still-life, as the best training for color. She resides in Boston, but 
has studied in no school of art. She exhibits at the Boston Art Club 
and at the New York Academy of Design. She exhibited " Azaleas," 
at Philadelphia, in 1876. 

Bakker-Korff, Alexandre-Hugo. (Dutch.) Born at The Hague, 
1824. Pupil of J. E. J. Van der Berg. At the Wilson Exhibition at 
Brussels, in 1873, there was a picture by this artist, painted in 1867, 
called " La marchande a la toilette," which was a remarkable work 
of its kind. 

Ball, Thomas. (Am.) Born at Charlestown, Mass., 1819. As a 
young man, was a portrait-painter in Boston, but soon devoted himself 
to sculpture, among his first works being a small bust of Jenny Lind, 
then at the height of her fame and popularity in America, and a life- 
sized bust of Daniel Webster. Ball studied in Europe for some years, 
executing there " Truth," " Pandora," and the " Shipwrecked Sailor- 
Boy." Returning to America, he made busts of Rufus Choate, statu- 
ettes of Webster and Clay, and the equestrian statue of Washington 
for Boston. He went again to Florence in 1865. Among his later 
works are the statue of Edwin Forrest as " Coriolanus," eight and a 
half feet high, purchased by Forrest from the original subscribers, and 
placed in the Actors' Home, near Philadelphia ; the statue of " Eve," 
statuette of Lincoln, bust of Edward Everett, in the Boston Public 
Library ; Webster, Central Park, New York ; " Emancipation," Wash- 
ington, D. C. ; Charles Sumner and Josiah Quincy for Boston. 

"The spirited equestrian statue of Washington, of colossal proportions, destined for 
the city of Boston, on which Ball is now engaged, is creditable to him from a realistic 
point of view, but fails to represent the ' Father of his Country. ' He has made him a 
captain of dragoons." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

" The character of Mr. Ball is modest and generous, almost to a fault. Still, while he 
is silent about himself, his works are speaking for him, and we doubt not he will enjoy 


the r> That he 1> 

have seen his work, will M tkttOWiadjje." — Ti N kikman fc 1 feci of the 

.-• of Thomas Ball has ac qu ired celehrity in art since tliat day. hut the 

inoa ' will ai" i proud landmark In his 

ie work i>f love not less than of ambition. . . , 
rest was indeed fortunate in the peaceful and time-enduring victory achieved tor him hy 
the ar I n lpin rad 'Ooriolan— >' WBOM haughty U-auty and ri^li t (bOi instip- 

i all Imperimu Koine will speak his quality 

/ FurruL 

Ballu, Theodore. (/•>.) Born at Paris, 1817. Member of the 
Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. In 1840 Ballu took the 
I prix in architecture at I'Eooledes Beaux-Arts. His first appoint- 
ment was that of Inspector of the works ofSainte-Clotilde, which were 
then conducted by Gen, whom Bella Bucceeded in I860. He finished 
the new church, and in 1859 was charged with the restoration of the 
Saint-Jacqnes-larBoucherie ; in L858, with that of the church 
int-Grennain-1'Auxerrois. He lias since built the church of the 
Trinity and that of Samt-Ambroise, in the Roman style, In 1860 
Ballu was made chief architect of the fourth division of Paris, and a 
member of the council of l'£cole dee Beaux-Arts. 

Baltard, Victor. (/->.) Born in Paris (1806-1874). Member 

of the Institute and Officer of the Legion of Honor. Grand prix de 

On his retain from Italy he was made Architect of 

the Government and of the city of Paris ; then Director Architect 

_ -d with tin- superior inspection of the Beaux-Arts. H>- superin- 

: 'ration and decoration of the churches of Baint-Ger- 

i in, and Sfint-Eostache ; the building of the 

new church of - ;<tin and the completion of the new Hotel de 

Timbre. With Victor Caller he directed the building of the Halle.s 

made many designs for books concerning 

architecture, historical monuments, etc. He has continued the publi- 

Is prix d'architecture," commenced by his father ; 

for a splendid monograph upon the Villa Medicis. 

One of hi> last work- was the design for the uuumincent cradle pre- 

I to the Prince Imperial by the city of Paris. 

Baize. Jean-Etienne-PauL (/•'/•) Born at Rome, of French per- 

1M.">. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. of I: 

went to Italy, when- he received commissions for 

icfa m the "School of Athens," and the 

illions in the loggia of the Vatican. His painting of 

purchased hy the government Be 

in various decorative work- in the Louvre and at 

. and is the inventor <>f the process of painting on enameled 


Baize, Jean-Antoine-Raymond. (i'r.) Born s4 B ffl 

i ]• of .' 


to Rome. He assisted his brother in some of his large copies, and has 
painted two works which were purchased by the government, " Christ 
calming the Tempest " and the " Apotheosis of St. Louis." 

•Bamberger, Fritz. (Ger.) Born in Wiirzburg (1814-1874). 
Pupil of the Academy of Berlin, under Gottfried Schadow, then under 
W. Kauser, and at Cassel, under Primavesi. At Munich, where he 
finally went, he found such influences as tended to unfold his talents, 
and he excelled his companions. In 1845 he visited France, and made 
many sketches in Normandy. He visited England, and went three 
times to Spain. His fine picture of the Alhambra was a result of his 
last visit there, in 1868, when he was sent by the Grand Duke of 
Mecklenburg Schwerin for study in the South of Spain, His pictures 
of the Spanish Islands were novel, as few German artists had sketched 
there, and they were much admired. The continued study of south- 
ern nature so affected the color of Bamberger that even his northern 
scenes had a tone of violet and yellow. The criticisms made upon 
him together with failing health so discouraged him that he rigidly 
excluded himself from the world until his death. 
— Bandel, Ernest de. (Bavarian.) Born at Ausbach (1800- 
1803). Studied at the Academy of Munich. Made many busts and 
some monuments, and at length a statue of " Charity," upon which 
he spent ten years. It is called one of the finest pieces of German 
modern sculpture. The chef-d'auvre of this artist is the monument to 
Hermann, the prince of the ancient Cherusques at Detmold. The 
statue itself is forty feet in height. He has also made a statue of 
" Thusnelda," wife of Hermann, chained and led as a prisoner by the 
Romans. Bandel has traveled in Italy, and there executed several 
portrait busts. This sculptor has kept aloof from the various schools 
of art which exist in Germany. 

Banning, William J. (Am.) Born at Lyme, Ct. (1810-1856). 
Pupil of the National Academy under Samuel Waldo, exhibiting in 
its gallery in 1840 and '41. His professional life was spent in Con- 
necticut and Long Island. His specialty was portrait-painting. His 
uneventful career was creditable, and his works prove that he was a 
man of unusual natural ability and fine feeling, an enthusiastic and 
devoted lover of his art. 

^Bannister, E. M. (.4m.) Born at St. Andrews, N. B., 1833. He 
studied art principally in Boston, Mass., at the Lowell Institute, and 
under Dr. Rimmer, spending the greater part of his professional life 
in that city. He went in 1871 to Providence, where his studio now 
is. He has been a regular contributor for some time to the Exhibi- 
tions of the Boston Art Club. His most important work, " Under 
the Oaks," was at the Philadelphia Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 
It received a first-award medal, and was purchased by Mr. John Duff 
of Boston. Other pictures of his are in private galleries in Boston, 
Providence, and elsewhere. 


Barabas Nicolas. (/. .) Born at Moldavia, 1810. 

Studied .it Vienna and traveled in 
Italy. Settled at Pesth, where he has succeeded at a portrait-painter. 
He made the designs for a gallery of all the notables of Hungary, 
published under the title of "Divatlap." Baiai tinted 

historical subje 
Barabiuo. Niccolo. (Ital.) Born at St PSer d'An-na. 1833. Be 
studied art in Florence, where be painted " Consolation for the Af- 
flicted," for the Hospital ofSavona, which gave him reputation. In 
aed to fresco the nave of the Cathedral of 
. and later to execute the decoration of the ceilings of the 
church of his native city, and Other works tit' the same sort 

il Moments of Boniface VIII." was much admired, and purchased 

- hmidt, the Turkish Consul at Leghorn. In all his works Bara- 

thown a fertility of invention, correctness in drawing, and 

a color. His skill in execution and his good taste place 

him among the first painters of the day. 

Baratta, Francois. {Ital.) Born at Genoa about 1806. This 
arti-t is a member of several academies. lie paints historical suh- 
"Jacqui tgine " is an important work of his, and ren- 

ts an incident in the war of the Guelphs and Ghibellines. 
Baratta, Eumene. (Ital.) Born at Carrara. 1825. This sculp- 
tudied at the Academy of Modena. He took the grand prix de 
ace then attracted attention to his work 
the various Italian expositions. One of his principal i i ping 

Paris in the Exposition of 1m;7. At Munich, in 
. he exhil 
Barbee, Herbert. (Am.) Son of William R. Barbee, the sculp- 
i. of Virginia. Herbert Barl ently re- 

turn' Florence. He has brought a second copy of 

•• Fisher Girl," be] Mrs. A. T. St. -wart. The first 

ther; the second one, aa well as a bust in marble 
from tin- • made by I 

Barbetti, Angelo. (/>«/.) Born at Siena, 1^<>3. Metfalfl at 
:i. This Kulptor in wood i- best known by his 
beautiful I Siena and Orvieto, which 

beauty and 
Barbier, Nicolas-Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Paris (about 18< 

lier of the Pupil of Leprince, He 

i l.tnd-'a; 

Barcaglia, Donate (Ital) of Milan. At Philadelphia this sculp- 
: ime," '• The First Visit," M The First Friend," 
and •■ Blind," and received a medal Hii 

1 blinded by Cupid " took the first prise and the gold medal 
i a medal at Vienna in 1^73, and 


Barclay, J. M (Brit.) Born in Perth, Scotland. Member of 
the Royal Scottish Academy. Barclay resides in Edinburgh, and de- 
votes himself to portrait-painting, his subjects being generally private 
individuals. He has, however, made portraits of the Marquis of 
Lome, the Duke of Athol, and some other prominent personages. 

Barker, Thomas Jones. (Brit.) Born, 1815. Son of Thomas 
Barker, an English landscape-artist of some note, from whom he re- 
ceived his first instructions in art. At the age of nineteen the youuger 
Barker went to Paris, and entered the studio of Horace Vernet, where 
he remained for some time, following his master in subject and style. 
He first exhibited in Paris in 1835, and in 1836 received from the 
Salon a medal of the third class. A few years later he painted, by 
order of Louis Philippe, " The Death of the Grand Monarch." Among 
his works are, "The Meeting of Wellington and Blucher on the Even- 
ing of the Battle of Waterloo," engraved by Chas. G. Lewis ; " Wel- 
lington crossing the Pyrenees," " Wellington in his Private Cabinet," 
" Nelson's Prayer in the Cabin of the Victory," " Nelson receiving the 
Swords of the Spanish on board the San Josef," " The Secret of Eng- 
land's Greatness," " The Lesson of Humility," etc., many of which 
have been engraved. Among his later works, exhibited during the 
last ten years, may be mentioned, "Chevalier Betreating," in 1867; 
" Sunny Hours at Sunnyside," in 1868 ; " Dean Swift and Stella," in 
1869; "A Poacher's Cottage in the Olden Time," in 1871 ; "The 
Melee," in 1872 ; "Riderless War-Horse, after the Battle of Sedan," 
from a sketch made on the spot, in 1873 ; "Balaklava, — One of the 
Six Hundred," in 1874 ; " The Return through the Valley of Death," 
in 1876 : all in the Royal Academy. 

Barlow, Thomas Oldham, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born near Man- 
chester, 1824. As a lad he was apprenticed to a firm of engravers in 
Manchester, studying in the School of Design in that city. He set- 
tled in London, where he engraved " Courtship," after John Phillip, 
R. A., and many other works of that artist, including his " Prison 
Window," " Spanish Gypsy Mother," " Donna Pepita," " Prayer," 
and the portraits of Prince Albert and of Augustus Egg. He has also 
engraved " The Mother and Child," after Sant ; Millais' " Huguenot " 
and "Death of Chatterton " ; Frith's portrait of Dickens; Sant's 
" Queen, and the Children of the Prince of Wales " ; Landseer's 
"Little Strollers," and many more. He was elected an Associate 
of the Royal Academy in 1873. 

Baron, Henri-Charles-Antoine. (Fr.) Born at Besancon, 1817. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gigoux. Made his 
debut at the Salon of 1840. He paints genre subjects. Among his 
works are, " A Corner of a Street in Catana, Sicily," and " Harlequin's 
Tricks" (1876), " The Old Jester of His Highness," "His Eminence 
at the House of his Nephews," and "Playing Bowls" (1874), etc. 
His " Harvest in Romagna" (1855) and a water-color of " A Fete at 


the Tuileries during the Exposition Uni vereelle of 18 d of 

.: the Luxembourg. 
Barre, Jeaii Auguste. (/•>.) Born at Paris, 1811. Chevalii 
the Legion of Bonor. Studied sculpture under Cortot. In L874he 
exhibited at the Salon, "Berreyer" (statue, bronse), for tin- city of 
illos ; (marble bust) Mlle< Schneider, actress ; and a portrait <»f 
Mine. II. de P.j in l s 73. portrait of Mine, la Marquise d'O. (bust, 
niarble) : etc, 

Barrias, Felix-Joseph. (/>.) Born at Paris, 1822. Chevalier 

of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Leon Cogniet In 1*44 Barrias 

for his picture of "Cmcinnatua receiving 

the Deputies of the Senate." In 1847 he made his deonl at the 

.. and has continued to send works there up to this time. In 

1877 he exhibited an M Eve M and a portrait; in 1875, " L'homme 

; in i^7a. " Electra 

• i the Tomb of her Father" and u Helen placing 

If under the Protection of Vesta"; in 187«», "Luisa, l'Alba- 

. 1866, -Tin- Bepose"; in 1864, "An Epistle to Augustus ; 

Horace, Augustus, and Ifsscenaa " and M A Dancer of the Triclinium." 

inted, on the grand Btaircase of the Museum at Amiens, a 

allegorical picture called "La I'icardie." His "Exiles under 

Til>erius" (1859) is in the Luxembourg He also made the dee 

for the lithographs in the edition- of the works of Horace and 

.. .:. published by Didot. This painter has executed frescos in 

hurch of Saint-Eustache, in the Grand Hotel du Louvre, and in 

One of the important later works of Barrias 

nation of the chapel of Sainte-Genevieve in L'Eglise de la 

Trim Tie- entin- story of the saint is depicted. OfitB 

Ballu says (in t!. IVl.ruary, 1878) : — 

short, the decoration of the chaj*l <>f st . O e n erl e re, at the Trinity, is an excellent 
- worthy «>f an artist who is always distinguish..! ),\ | * • [on, a happy 

imagination, and a grao' BflftfceWBOk efeet. A peJafeat <>f styl.- 

Barrias has neither the solenmil f those who usually claim this tit 1»* ; 

very careful ty of his art, I i of eeey painting, he has never made 


tive art. his name is written in 

In 1878 he exhibited u The Fairj <-f the Pearls" and a - Portrait 

Barrias, Louis Ernest. (J n at Paris. Chevalier of the 

d of II -n. . r . Medal of Honor &l the Salon of 1878, where he 
■up in plaster,, u The Firsl Funeral; Adam and 
i of Cavelier, Joufl 
n of 1^77 he exhibited two port 
le : in l v 7 mb, in marble ; in 1875, 

: and in 1^74, a funeral monumest having 
statues — rble and four in bron 


Barry, Edward M., R. A. (Brit.) Born, 1830. Son of Sir Charles 
Barry, an eminent architect, whose pnpil he was, and whom he suc- 
ceeded in 1860 as the architect of the English Houses of Parliament at 
Westminster, completing the structures. Among the better known 
of the buildings designed by Barry are, Covent Garden Theater, in 
1857 ; Charing Cross Hotel, and the new portion of the National 
Gallery in London, as well as the Star and Garter at Richmond, Fitz- 
william Museum at Cambridge, and many other important buildings 
throughout Great Britain. He was for some years Vice-President of 
the Royal Institution of British Architects. He was elected Associate 
of the Royal Academy in 1861, Academician in 1870. In 1873 he was 
appointed Professor of Architecture to the Royal Academy, and has been 
Treasurer and Trustee since 1874. 

Bartholdi, Frederic Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Colmar. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Medal at Philadelphia. Pupil of Ary 
Scheffer. His first work was a bas-relief of Francesca da Rimini, exe- 
cuted in 1852. Among his most important works are, "Le Vigneron " 
(1870); " Vercingetorix " and "Lafayette" (1872); Monument to 
Martin Schongauer at Colmar (1863) ; " The Lion of Belfort," and 
the grand American monument, now in process of execution. At 
Philadelphia he exhibited " The Young Vine-Grower," " Genie Fu- 
nebre," " Peace," and " Genius in the Grasp of Misery " ; all in 
bronze. At the Salon of 1878, "The Lion of Belfort" (in plaster), 
and " Gribeauval," a statue in plaster belonging to the government. 

Bartholomew, Valentine. (Brit.) Born, 1799. Appointed, early 
in her reign, " Flower- Painter in Ordinary to Her Majesty," and hold- 
ing a similar position to the late Duchess of Kent. He has been for 
many years a member of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors, con- 
tributing regularly to its annual exhibitions flower-pieces, with an 
occasional fruit subject. In 1875 he sent " St. George's Chapel Win- 
dow, painted on the Spot in 1835." His work is popular in England. 

Bartholomew, Anne. (Brit.) Wife of Valentine Bartholomew. 
Born at Norfolk (about 1802 - 1862). Painted flowers and minia- 

Bartholomew, Edward S. (Am.) Born in Connecticut (1822- 
1858). Displayed a taste for art as a child, but did not begin its study 
until somewhat advanced in youth. Was in the Life School of the 
National Academy, New York, for a year, and went to Italy, settling in 
Rome, where with the exception of an occasional visit to America his 
professional life was spent. Among his works are, " Blind Homer led 
by his Daughter," "Eve," "Sappho," "Campagna Shepherd Boy," 
" Genius of Painting," " Youth and Old Age," " Evening Star," " Eve 
Repentant," " Washington," and " Flora." A large collection of his 
figures and busts are in the Wadsworth Gallery, Hartford, Ct., of 
which institution he was Curator before going abroad for the first 


Bartlett, Truman H. (Am.) Born at He 

studied in i under Etoberl K. Launitz, monumental sculptor* 

tnd later in Pari-, Rome, and Perugia. He hai spent bis professional 

life in New Haven, Hartford, and Waterbury, Ct ., and in New \'< >rk 

tong his important works ere, "The Wounded Drummer- 

and the Wells statue tor BuahneU Park, Hartford. These were 

exhibited in Pari-, and were both cast in bronze, cadi in one | 

a< them dels came from the bands of the sculptor. At Hartford is 

1 of Life "(Clark family monument). His to Wisdom" 

family monument) is at Waterbury ; the Ooffing Memorial 

■■ . I ;. Hie statuette of Lincoln was made for 

tell, Van. : New Fork. All the above works arc in 

Bartolini, Lorenzo. (Ital.) Born at Ycrnia, Tuscany (1777- 

pondent of the Institute of France. Knight of the 

: Sculpture in the Academy of Flow 

and member ol Lcademiea. When a boy, in the shop of his 

father, who was a blacksmith, la* had a difficulty with a workman, on 

at <>f which he went to Florence. There he was employed as a 

: of alabaster, and, later, in Volterra he pursued the same art, 

D account of an altercation with his employer, he returned to 

rhere the Commandant of the French forces enabled him to 

pursue his w^rk in alabaster. Hani as he was 

I to work while at Paris, he, nevertheless, studied continually. 

At th ined the second prize for his bas-relief of 

i ami Bitone," which attracted much attention. He received 

ounission for a bust of Napoleon ; h< oted 

» of the column Venddme. In 1806 Napoleon 

] for sculpture, where he re- 

l until the fall of the Empire. He then established himself in 

Lo in Florence. Heisconetd L only to Canova among 

.••try. Among his works larity," a 

• of four figures, in the Pitti Gallery, Florence ; ■ u Bacchante," 

ronshire ; " Pyrrhus precipitating Astyanaz 

h Tower of Priam"; a itatue of Napoleon, 

i the tomb of Prince Demidoff, of which the 

.rity " and " Mercy " were executed by this sculptor, 

and the remainder from his designs, finished by his pnpfls. Among 

rtrait bust Mm--, de 9 

rubini, I> ailed the " Prince 


Barye, Antoine Louis. (Fr.) Born at Pal i. M-in- 

itute and < KBcer of tl 4 Honor. Bculptor and 

in bronxe. [n early life he was an apprenti r. He 

ingwith Bono and design under Gh 

nd work- 


manship of his art. He sent back to the foundry every bronze which 
he felt to be unworthy of his signature, and put the final touches to 
every work that left his studio. He was famous for fifty years, and 
a list of his works would be surprising in length. His statues in the 
Louvre show how great was his knowledge of the Human form, but 
he preferred animal subjects. He executed a magnificent table for 
the Duke of Orleans, the elephant on which has become classic in rep- 
utation. Among his works may be mentioned, " The Tiger devour- 
ing a Crocodile," " The Bear-Fight," " The Lion strangling the Boa- 
Constrictor," etc. 

His " Combat of the Centaurs," a large group (1850), is one of his 
most important works. At the Luxembourg are his " Jaguar devour- 
ing a Hare," bronze (1852), and twenty pieces in bronze, wax, lead, 
and plaster, which have been placed there since his death. From 
1848 to '51 he was Conservator of the Gallery of Plasters and Director 
of Castings at the Louvre. Personally, Barye was brusque in his 
manner. He observed closely and carefully, but said little, and pos- 
sessed an extraordinary faculty of judging men at first sight. He re- 
ceived one day a visit from a wealthy snob who wished to have his 
bust made, and was particular that it should bear his signature in 
full. " Impossible," said Barye, " I have given up making busts, and 
devote myself entirely to animals. I cannot accommodate you. Go 
to Carrier-Belleuse or Carpeaux." " But," insisted the man, " you 
know I have plenty of money. My name and position are known, 
and I don't mind paying a good price for what I want." " It is of no 
consequence to me how much money you have," said Barye; "my time 
now is occupied with beasts, not fools." 

At the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, there are 114 bronzes by 
Barye, the largest collection of his works in any country. In the 
same gallery are two water-colors by Barye, and in the Walters 
Gallery at Baltimore are seven drawings by him, of which the Sun- 
day Bulletin, February 12, 1876, says : — 

" We may say that those seven uncouth, unreasonable, and eccentric drawings that 
are signed ' Barye ' were among the choicest treasures of the greatest sculptor of animals 
that the world has known. For Barye had no rivals in history but the sculptors of 
Nineveh, and the makers of those colossal and stately images of ancient Egypt before 
which our modern art stands silent and awe-stricken. These strange drawings were 
made by him in the Jardin des Plantes, and were in a measure the original notes from 
which sprang some of his imperishable bronzes." 

Barye, Alfred. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Son and pupil of the pre- 
ceding. This artist executes birds in bronze. His group of " Fright- 
ened Partridges " (1875) is well known as a fine work of its kind. 
He very rarely exhibits his works. 

Barzaghi, Francesco. (Ital.) Born in 1839. Studied at the 
Academy of Milan. At Milan and Bologna he received two gold and 
twelve silver medals. In 1857 the Emperor of Austria granted him 
a three years' pension for the continuance of his studies. He was 


r,hted by the King of Portugal for a statue of I><>n Pedro, to be 

ed at Lisbon. He hat also been decorated and knighted by the 

late King of Italy. In lst>7 the present King of Italy offered s prize 

1,000 franca for the best work of art Banaghi's " Blind-Man's 

Buff" ( M ) t.»»»k the prize overall other exhibits of sculpture 

ami painting. Among his works are, " Hercules strangling Am 

"Silvia at the Fountain," "The First Lesson in Riding," M Katla«ll.," 

His u P r e s en tation of the Child Moses M is much admired in 

England : it was bought by Sir Dudley Coutta Majoribanks from the 

■rudio of the artist At Berlin, in 1871, he exhibited "The Fisher- 

: in 1878, "The Child Moses "(in marble> At Philadelphia 

Blind-Man's Full',' M Vanity,"' M A Young Smoker," and 

"The rending of Moses," and receiyed a medaL 

At tin* London Academy Exhibition, in 1875, he exhibited " Rlind- 

i Buff" and -A BH of Vanity" : in 1872, - My First Friend" 

(marble statue), and u Phryne unrobed before her Judges." The 

Buff" again appeared at the Paris Salon of 1877. This 

sculptor also receiyed • medal at Vienna in 1S73, and sent to the 

- Exposition, in 1878, three statues and one group, all in marble. 

Bastiariini, Giovanni. (Itnl.) Horn at Ponte alia Badia, Fi 

(1890 — 1868). II'- commenced life as a stone-cutter in the quarries 

near Fiesole. Here tlu- Cavalier Enghirami of Florence, seeing his 

ability, took him in charge, and he was instructed in drawing and 

modeling of ornamental work, has relief, and small figures. Later, 

under Fedi, be studied the rules of sculpture, and afterwards under 

Torrini became familiar with the art of the cinque-cerUo. His copies 

of the great m re so remarkable as to be taken for originals, 

ami th«-ir authenticity was discussed in the French and Italian jour- 

The truth was not known until after the death of Bastianini. 

twenty years old, the antiquary Giovanni Freppa 

offered him const an t employment with a good -alary. At this time 

he copied s bas-relief of s Soly Family, which was so well done that 

\\U'V leaving Freppa, he mad.- a statuette 

iiovanni delle hand'- Nere, in terra-cotta (bought by s Paris 

tnd a bust of "SaTonarola," now in the Museum of San 

Hi- boat of the lamo 

rieni, became famous. Hem I ideal sculptures, which 

sight by M. Andres «-f I 

1 Bastianini. whnw countrymen allowed him to starve on Um vntehei 
•Upei. : was a 

noteworthy exception to the general « 
era Italian sculptors. I 

mony to hi* capacity of aortoHm ;>■ manner of t)i<- wbool of 

I • • . • F tt» Florentine poet 

who flouris!.- -.1.- then in 

rogue. It was modeh-d frr.m V n bl • f tlie 

poets time, and sold to an antiquary : 


of whom his government bought it, installing it among the genuine works of Michael 
Angelo, Settignano, and Cellini, even after the proofs of the imposition were given to the 
public. Other specimens of his ability to recall the souvenirs of the past Italian sculp- 
ture have been from time to time, through no connivance of his, passed off as genuine 
mediaeval work." — Jaiwes, Art Thoughts. 

, Bastien-Lepage, Jules. (Fr.) Born at Damvillers. Medals in 
1874 and 75. Pupil of Cabanel. At the Paris Salon of 1877 he ex- 
hibited a portrait of Lady L. and ". Mes parents " ; in 1875, " The Com- 
municant " and a portrait ; in 1874, the " Song of Spring " and a por- 
trait of " Mon grand-pere " j in 1878, " Les foins " and a portrait of 
M. Andre Theuriet. 

Koger Ballu praises very highly the picture of " Les foins " in his 
article upon the Salon of 1878 in the " Gazette des Beaux- Arts " of 
July of that year. 

Bates, Dewey. (Am.) Born at Philadelphia, 1851. He went 
abroad to study art at an early age, entering the Boyal Academy at 
Antwerp. He spent some years in Paris in the School of Fine Arts 
and under J. L. Gerome. His professional home at present is in 
Philadelphia. Among the better known of his pictures are, " Dutch 
Comfort," exhibited at the Society of British Artists, London, in 
1875, belonging to F. James of Philadelphia ; "Little Jannetje," also 
exhibited in London in 1875, and belonging to Mrs. Landis of Indian- 
apolis, Ind. ; portrait (half length) of General Pleasanton ; etc. 

" It is a simple enough little picture [' Dutch Comfort. '], a couple of Dutch girls in pic- 
turesque costume, one knitting, the other with great contentment eating a plate of soup, 
seated by a table in a quaint Dutch room, a fire on an open hearth in the center of the 
floor, in the background a shelf covered with shining delft, and on the right, over the 
table, an open window through which the light strikes down upon the figures and 
brightens the whole tenter of the picture. In this work the light and shade are admi- 
rably managed, and a very nice feeling for color is displayed." — Philadelphia Evening 
Bulletin, September 22, 1877. 

Baudry, Paul-Jacques-Aime. (Fr.) Born at la Roche-sur-Yon, 
1828. Member of the Institute. Commander of the Legion of Honor. 
Pupil of Sartoris at la Roche and of Drolling in Paris, where he was 
sent with a pension from his native city. He gained the grand prix 
de Rome in 1850. In 1857 he exhibited, "St. John the Baptist," 
bought by the Empress ; " Fortune and a Child," now in the Luxem- 
bourg ; " Execution of a Vestal," now in the Museum of Lille ; " Leda" ; 
and a portrait of Beule. These works were favorably received by the 
critics and the public. " The Pearl and the Wave " (Persian fable) 
(1863) was bought by the Emperor. "Charlotte Corday" (1861) is 
at the Museum of Nantes. We have a list of nearly 200 works by 
Baudry, consequently no account of his pictures at all satisfactory can 
be given here. He decorated the ceiling of the grand foyer of the New 
Opera-House in Paris. This work has attracted much attention from 
artists, and much discussion has ensued upon its merits. His decora- 
tive paintings are numerous, and are illustrative of very varied sub- 
jects. The portraits by Baudry are fine. 

ARTISTS OF THE XI. \ : i /:). 41 

**The ions of amateurs ami merchants have pursued liini with n<> 

the i\ take oommleelone. The world hM no 

seductions for him ; he I it only when constrained ami breed to do 

•ui'. my .ind holdl his rank in it better than any mu'. We may say 
-: envied have conic to him without his dicmim- <>f them. 0&€ 

himself ami running through Qreeot sad Egypt, be wee made 

tnderof the Legion of Boner. Another tfam the Academy of Pine Arts elected 
him a BM1100T while be was itndytng I know not what Old master in Italy. To a 
friend who offered him the hand of a rieh heiress, he replied, showing his atelier encum- 
bered with immense picture-frame-*. 'Where ean I take time to marry'.' And am I not 
already keeping house with two jealous women, Solitude and Painting? 1 Behold why 

be has found time to marry his sisters and give 
thera dots, and to edueato admirably his young brother and godson, Ambroise Baudry, 
who has become a learned, original, ami bold architect. He has found time to serve as 
a soldier, in 1S70. with the infantry, while Ambroise was .... under tire of the enemy. 
.... His literary education, Which he has htnioelf acquired, leaves nothing to be desired ; 
he has I writer with a turn more free and a form more living; the 

eulogy upon \ :z which he pronounced at the Academy will remain a model 

of its kind A hundred volumes chosen with care make his library; the history of 
France occupies at least half. For two or three years he has sought documents n 
to Jeanne d'Arc, whose life he wishes to retrace in a series of twelve pictures. He has 
rented for this purpose a large atelier in the street Xotre-Pamc-des-i.'hamps, and is there 
comfortably installed for the first time in his life. One devoted servant composes his 
household ; the house is hospitable, and is frequented by some old comrades. The least 
inprtssioniste has a greater train than this undisputed master of the French school. Do 
you wish to know why? Many of his works have been given to his friends ; many others, 
and the most important ones, have brought him ridiculous prices. I believe that I 
remember that in 1S74, after his great work on the foyrr of the New Opera, Baudry bad 
6,000 francs of income. This is the moral of this short Biography." — About, V Art, 1876. 
" Baudry and his class are a revival of the wide-spread feeling for the Iascivious- 

•f the Boucher coterie of the last century, with greater fascination of color and 
style. Wantonness of this sort is far from being eliminated. Indeed, it bids fair at 

pres en t, by a revived love of the nude, to become i tone than ever If 

the whole nude is done like Baudry's silly ' Diana,' — a tempting pure of flesh-tinting, 
— the goddess of chastity is rendered with her divine attribute omitted, and trans- 

.nto a wanton coquette." — Jar ves, Art Thrujhts. 

have seen all the grand d lintingl executed in Europe since the com- 

mencement of this century, and we experience a sort of patriotic pride in thinking that 
none can bear a comparison to tbe/ot/«"r of the Opera. A country which, after so many 
•;i produce such works, has no right to despair of the future, for if 
art is not a force in itself, it is assuredly a d. f the vitality and intHli- 

iof a nation. The French school will count henc e fort h one more glory : M. Haudry 
to take the first place a; . and a high rank among 

the masters of all ta t Mf:s uu>. '•azeUe da Beaux-Arts, October, 1874. 

Baugniet, Charles. (I:- i<i>'<in.) Born at L814. Knight 

of the order* of Leopold, ache Ernestine de Saxe ; of Christ, 

of Portugal, and "f [ssbells tin- < Satholie, "f Spain, Pupil <>f Drolling 

t known from hia lithograph portraits, 
of which be made more than .'},<><*» j n Belgium and l. 500 in England, 
i to draw them directly from nature on the stone. At 
h he went to I* I the painting ol 

in which art he ha« f<»r I inuint.iii positioiL He 

is beti 1 than in hia own cou: 


At the Johnston sale, New York, in 1876, "Lydia" (6 by 4) sold 
for $ 300, and " Improving the Eyelids " (17 by 14), for $ 800. At 
the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " The First Trouble of the Heart." In 
the gallery of Mr. T. R. Butler of New York are his " Difficult An- 
swer," " The Dead Canary," and " Dressing the Bride." At the Paris 
Exposition of 1878 he exhibited " The Fourth of July, 1876," and 
" Autumn." 

" Baugniet represents French girls and women who have nothing to do but to be charm- 
ing, to prepare for confirmation in the church, for the social sacrifice and social aggran- 
dizement that are illustrated in the civil and religious rites of marriage, but upon whom 
the disfiguring blight of labor never falls. He represents opulent and charming women, 
— women who live in voluptuousness, and talk about the sentiment of the heart, but 
commonly live withdrawn from the rudest and most heroic and religious experiences of 
the personal life ; who belong to the race of women who, in France, have shown them- 
selves capable of devotion and heroism and resolution ; who have shed the highest glory 
upon their sex ; who, on the great occasions of life, have not been less, with all their 
charm, than the more reserved and austere women of England and America. Baugniet 
represents Frenchwomen in the agreeable and ordinary but luxurious conditions of 
home-life in France, — in curtained and perfumed boudoirs, in elegant saloons ; he grati- 
fies us, but does not exalt us with such subjects ; he appeals to our feelings of enjoy- 
ment and our taste for refinement ; his work is the outcome of a person without any 
deep moral sentiment, and who seldom if ever concerns himself with what has made, 
what makes, the glory and grandeur of our race. In the place of passion fashionable 
society substitutes pleasure ; and Baugniet illustrates it in his pictures ; in the place of 
labor, a worldly and fine society substitutes amusement, and Baugniet's works show us 
what amusement. His beautiful woman painting her eyelids before the mirror of an 
exquisite sky-blue toilet-table ; his bride being adorned for the sacrifice, — these indicate 
his tastes, and how the contemporary Parisienne prepares for the social world in which 
she lives and moves and has her being. His pictures are remarkable for exquisite finish, 
purity of tone, and admirable rendering of the texture of silks and satins, of marble and 
gold. He enjoys painting these lovely women and girls in opulent nests ; his sense of 
art is satisfied with the familiar objects of the life of elegance. In a word, he is an ac- 
complished painter of women of the world, of women who would resent a breach of taste 
in manners more than a breach of morals." — Eugene Benson, Art Journal, November 
13, 1869. 

Baur, Albert. (Ger.) Professor at Dusseldorf. At the Exposi- 
tion of the National Academy in Berlin, in 1876, this painter exhibited 
" An Antique Genre Picture," " Hunting Amazons," and "Paul preach- 
ing at Rome for the first Time." He has painted " The Christian 

^Baxter, Charles. (Brit.) Born in London, 1809. Turned his 
attention at an early age to the painting of portraits in miniature with 
success, receiving instruction in that branch, for some years, under 
George Clint. Later, he devoted himself to the painting of ideal 
figures. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1834, and after- 
wards regularly, for many years, sending, among others, " Love Me, 
Love my Dog," " Peasant- Girl of Chioggia near Venice," in 1869, 
and " Rich and Rare were the Gems she wore," in 1872, since which 
his works have not appeared in that gallery. He has been a member 
of the Society of British Artists for thirty-five years, sending to its 
exhibitions " The Vicar's Daughter," " The Bouquet," " The Lily," 


The Ballad," u Smfling Morn," - sun>hine," 
"Olivia." •• Little Red Etiding-Hood^* eod muij moore. 

Baxter, Elijah, Jr. (itm») Bon in Hyannk Ma-., IM!>. 
ied in the Antwerp Academy from 1^71 to 73, since which he 
copied a studio in Providence, EL I. Ee peinti chiefly land- 
scapes with figures, and rmraatnnil fruit tad flower pieces, li 
hibita at the Boaton Art dab, Academy of Design, New Fork, and 
Bayard, Emile. (/•>.) Born at Ferte^eous-Jouarre. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Bonor. Papil of Cogmet At the Salon of i s 77 he 
exhibited two decorative panels, "The Bathers "and "Skaters" ; in 
1876, another panel, "A Gtamguette of the Eighteenth Centui 
in 1875, "The Day after Waterloo" ; in 1874, "The Narrow Pass" 
•• Daring the Siege of Pari 
Beard, James H., N. A. (Am.) Born in Buffalo, N. Y., 1814, 
and carried to Ohio when still a child. He settled in Cincinnati, 
where lie lived and painted for many years. In the early part of his 
r he devoted himself almost exclusively to portrait-painting, 
havi: Ilnny ( 'lay and Presidents John Q. Adams, 

I orison. He went to New Fork in L846, and was one 
of the originators and charter memben of the Century Club. In 1848 
he was made an honorary member of the New York Academy of 

_'u, hut he did not settle permanently in New York until I 
In 187S Academician. Among his earlier work 

"Ti. g BUI" ; and "The Carolina 

- lihitcd at the National Academy in 1846, and sold to 

:■■ W. Anatin i I to have been paid 

f'-r any American picture up to thai time. In later years he has 

turned his attention chiefly to animal painting, with decided success. 

In t: tinted, " Poor Relations," one of hii earliest 

pictures; u A Peep at Growing (1871); -The Widow" 

Mutual Friend" and •• I 

"Though I Jit, to Ifemorj 

•• Blood will Tell "and ••' 
6ultation." in l- d Quixote and Saneho Panm," in 1878. 

Be -■: • anial Exhibition, in 1878, " The Attoi 

and his Clients," commended by the Judges, "Out All Night," 

Hi- "Old Browney" was sold in Mr. 
tion in 1878 

>es H. Beard in seen at his b»- I :tual Frirn-1 

worthy of hi* pencil and Luteful in iU moth.- .... Tin- fcTMip is spirited, tad il 
fot h iem and finish it forma a strn 

L an d seer of America,' and if he may be Judged from this work the till.- has not been 
■{•placed. " — Art Joumn 

Beard, 'William H., 

■' ; 


career as a traveling portrait-painter, when twenty- one years of age. 
In 1850 lie settled in Buffalo, N. Y., remaining there and painting 
portraits for some years. About 1857 he went to Europe, studying 
and practicing his art for a year or two in Rome, Switzerland, and 
Diisseldorf. Returning to America, he lived for a short period in 
Buffalo, finally settling in New York in 1860. Beard was made a 
member of the National Academy in 1862. Like his brother, he has 
devoted himself in later years to animal painting, in which he has 
been very successful. His subjects are occasionally allegorical, as 
" The Guardian of the Flag," one of his earlier works, but usually 
quaintly humorous in character. He humanizes the brute creation in 
a cleverly satirical way, as in his " Bear on a Bender," " Court of Jus- 
tice," and other works in a similar vein. Among his well-known pic- 
tures are, " The Astronomers," " The Watchers," " Bear's Dance," 
"Raining Cats and Dogs" (1867) ; "Naughty Cub," "Death and 
Chivalry" (1869); "The Bar-Room Politicians" (1870); "Pets on 
a Spree" (1871); "Old Time Club Life," "Hark!" and "The 
Wreckers" (1874); "The Approach of Spring," "Oh My!" and 
"Horse-Market in Brittany" (1875) ; "Worn Out" (1876); "The 
Eagle," " Lo, the Poor Indian," and " The Dancing Lesson " (1877) ; 
" Who ! Who-o ! " " How d' do, Wabbit ? " and " Ain't you Ashamed 
of Yourself?" (1878). His "March of Silenus," belonging to the 
Buffalo Fine Art Gallery, and " Lo, the Poor Indian," were at the 
Centennial Exhibition of 1876. His " Gunmaker's Dream " and 
" Santa Claus " belonged to John Taylor Johnston. To the Paris 
Exposition of 1878 he sent " The Wreckers." His " Runaway Match" 
was sold in the Latham Collection in New York, in 1878, for $525. 

"Somewhat in the vein of Kaulbach, hut with thoroughly American, humorous traits, 
Beard has painted what an art student calls ' jokes vital with merry thought and healthy 
absurdity.' His ' Court of Justice,' wherein all parties are represented by monkeys, is 
a most suggestive satire, and his ' Bear's Dance ' has all of the phases of a ball-room 
with four-legged humanity to emphasize its naturalness." — Tuckermah's Book of the 

"We have in Beard, fresh from the Western wilderness, an artist of the genuine 
American stamp, of decided originality and versatility. He paints animals from the 
humorous point of action, passion, and sentiment. With him humor is fine art. He 
has an exquisite sense of the ludicrous and sensuous. His brutes are four-legged hu- 
manity. In his own vein he has no equal." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

Beard, Harry. {Am.) Son of James H. Beard, N. A., occupying 
a studio with his father in New York. He inherits the family taste 
for animal painting, and has exhibited at the National Academy since 
1877, when he sent " A Group of Portraits," belonging to Tiffany. 
In 1878 he exhibited "Charles, drive me to Stewart's!" At the 
Mechanics' Fair, Boston, 1878, he exhibited " The Young Knight," 
and " Who Boke Dat, Now 1 " 

Beaume, Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Marseilles, 1798. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gros at Paris. In 1819 he exhibited 


and KaphtaH," now ;it FontainebleaiL Hi> robjeoti ire his- 
torical, iic/i.T, marine, and portrait Between L836 and '43Beaume 
npied in painting battle aoenoa for the Gallery at Ver- 
Bailies, where there are at least nine inch worka of his. Since i s 7o 

all his pictures at tin- salons have been of oenra character, inch as (in 
1-77) "The Breakfast of the Banter" and "The Mother of the 
Family," (in 1878) M Marguerite " and M Bancho Panaa." 

Beaumont, Charles-Edouard de. {Fr.) Born at Lannion. 
la in 1870 and 73. PnprJ of Boiaaelier. At the Salon of 1877 
In- exhibited *• A Neat o\' Sirens" belonging to O. 11. Warren ; in 
1873, _" and "Oudiable I'amourva-t-il senicher!" 

in 1^7<>. "Qtuarena qnem devoret " and "The Women are Dear!" 
" The Part of the Captain ■ (1868) is in the Luxembonj 

Beauverie, Charles Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Lyons. Medal in 

L877. Pupil of Gleyre and l'j£cole dea Beaux-Arts of Lyons. In 1877 

[hibitod at the Paris Salon, "The Rising Moon, in Dauphiny," 

and "The Valley of Amby, Morning" ; also, four etchings of land- 

■ '.-views. 

Beavis, Richard. (Brit.) Born at Exmouth, 1824. Entered the 
S imeraefl House, London, in 1846. From 1850 to 
l in the employ of a London decorating and upholstering 
liahment, hia deaigna carrying off first-class prizes in the Inter- 
national Exhibitions of London of 1851 and '62, and that of Paris in 

■ exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 1855, '58, and 
lever deaigna for painted ceilings, Among his pictures sent to 

•A Mountain Rill," in 1862; "In North 
in 1S64 (engraved for the Illustrated 
Loud og Timber," in WW. ; " High Tide, Mouth 

of the Mass," in 1868 ; M Hauling op a Fishing-Boat, Coast of Hol- 
land." in 1870; ^Autumn Plowing, — Showery Weather," in 1871; 
tat, Brittany," in 187 ry-Boat in Old Holland," 

in L87 louin Ctravan" and "Flowing in Lower Egypt," in 

ling-Floor at Qilgal"and M In the Forest at Fontaine- 
.." in I -77 : u Hall I Edward alter the Battle of 

CuUoden," in 1878. He has been for aome yens a member of the 
Water-Colors, contributing regularly to its 

ivis is an artist of considerable strength In oil and water color." — Benjamin's 
Contemporary Art in Europe. 

'• \V? cannot call Beavis a disciple of any particular school, nor a follower of any spe- 
cial artist; he is a close and diligent Student <»f Nature iloMy and works out his 
■objects — and they are varied — with taste, judgment, and skillful execution." — Art 
Journal, Apr.. 

Becker, Jakob. (Oar.) IV.rn at Dittt-l-h.-iin. 1810L Director of 
Stadel Lnatitute at Frankfort Pupil ofthe Duaaeldorf Academy. 

• hi-* earlier worka repn ties from 

•■ A Knight and much adm 


His later subjects are drawn from the every-day life around him. He 
has freshness of feeling and brilliancy of execution. His water-colors 
are numerous and excellent. At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, 
" The Reaper's Return Home " (58 by 80), from the old Diisseldorf 
Gallery, New York, sold for $ 5,100. At the Wolfe sale, New York, 
1864, " Vintage Fete on the Rhine " sold for $ 950. 
y Becker, Carl. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1820. Member and Vice- 
President of the Academy of Berlin. Member of the Academy of 
Vienna and of the Royal Society of Letters and Fine Arts of Bel- 
gium. Officer of the Order of Leopold. Medals at Berlin, Vienna, 
and Munich, and still other honors and decorations. Pupil of Berlin 
Academy, of Von Klober, of Heinrich Hess, and Cornelius. At Paris 
and Rome he was a pensioner of the Berlin Academy. He settled in 
Berlin, but has made various visits to Italy, Paris, etc. His subjects 
are from the times of the Venetian and the German Renaissance. His 
technique is skillful, and he paints magnificent stuffs with success. His 
" Charles V. being entertained by Fugger" (1866) is in the National 
Gallery, Berlin. At the Berlin Annual Exhibition in 1876 he ex- 
hibited " The Emperor Maximilian crowning Ulrich von Hutten at 
Augsburg," now in the Walraff-Richartz Museum at Cologne ; also 
" The Venetian Girl " and " Gratulantin," both bought by Mr. S. P. 
Avery of New York. At the Latham sale, New York, 1878, " The 
Promenade " (48 by 36) sold for $ 1,450. " The Emperor Maximilian 
receiving the Venetian Embassy " (1877) belongs to W. Schaus, New 

" Carl Becker, who for a time successfully followed the lead of the Venetians, has 
strayed far away from them. Instead of gaining in clearness and depth, he has lost 
himself in a superficial, decorative mannerism that is not very far removed from carpet 
decoration." — Zeitschrift fur bildende Kuust, 1S76. 

" Among the German genre painters of the day Carl Becker takes a distinguished and 

distinct position His talent has two beautiful and unusual peculiarities ; it does 

not allow itself to be turned from its course by any irritating expressions of ill-will, nor 
is it by flattery lulled into self-satisfaction and inaction ; he works on unweariedly, 
with a desired goal ever before his mind. In this way he has succeeded, in his own 
manner, in accomplishing unusual things ; he excites popular approbation most unex- 
pectedly, and by his last works silences the voices of the critics and disarms his oppo- 
nents. " — Lud wig Pietsch, in the Illustrirte Zeitung, 1861. 

" Richter and Becker are both professors and fellows of the Royal Academy of Ber- 
lin, and are probably among the German artists most known in America,— the former by 
the chromos of his paintings, the latter by works in private galleries. They are men of 
very decided ability, and similar in artistic traits, although generally handling different 
subjects ; they deal chiefly with the dashing and more obvious effects of brilliant com- 
binations of color, rather than with the more subtle, and perhaps intellectual, harmonies 

of quiet grays There is, however, sometimes perceptible what is termed a certain 

' sweetness ' in the style of both these artists, which is not quite so pleasing to the 
artistic eye of some as more vigorous treatment, and one soon cloys with their pictures 
because of a certain sensuousness apparent in most of them." — S. G. W. Benjamin's 
Contemporary Art in Europe. 

Becker, Ludwig Hugo. (Ger.) Born at Wesel (1834-1868). 


.1 at Hets. Studied at Duaeeldoff under thi directioD of 
Bchirmer. In i>"><"> he made his dohal before the public with hie 
picture of a A Sacrifice of the Ancient Greratana/ 1 This irork gained 
him much reputation. Bis "Approaching Btorm," M Sunday Morn- 
u The Waaherwocuan, etc^ are Weatphalian subjects. All his 
pictui kindred .</■ an moti* 

Becker, Georges. (/•>.) Bon at Talis, tfedalfl at Paris in L870 

and 71, and at Philadelphia in 1^7<;. Pupil of Grerome. At the 

Salon of 1^77 he exhibited a portrait and " St. Joseph " ; in 1^7."). 

ah protecting the Bodies of her Bona from Birds of Prey " (also 

hiladelphia) ; in 1^7l\ "The Widow of a Martyr"; in 1870, 

..1 the Furies" ; in 1878, two portraits. 

" In a grand fi.nire of a woman, which is less a portrait than a study, George Becker, 
the author of* Biapsh,' km ab o w il I mot ran- pit <>t subjectivity. Hfl has painted 
not only one woman in bar particular imli\ iduality. hut woman in one of hat general 
.s standing, full-fa..- ; she i> dnoaad in a white robe, with arms ami neck 
i. and holds in her hamU. CfOaeed below tin- waist, a pale yellow 
scarf. At her fee! red Carpet, and behind her tall the folds of a heavy cur- 

tain of a sea-green tint Neither the costume nor the deconition belongs to any epoch, 
but this WOtDU would not ha an anachronism in any time or in any country where 
she tn - 1 tinus would have remarked her in the theory of tin* I'ana- 

thenea: tad would hive naked her to poee for one of the Canephonc of the 

Casar, who was, it is said, • tlie husband of all women,' WOOld have placed 
at her feet one of those hundreds of thousands of eeatercea which lie had brought back 

;i of our time would make her a favorite Sultana, 
and at Paris, at a 1: I rthm, a return from a promenade, or BO oflecial ball, one 

could only admire her majestic and serene beauty, her etatae like carriage, her marble 

impassibility of face, after prahung tin- g f the Ignre we >i pn 

origin.. • :.- linn modeling, theetrong relief of the breast, which rises and falls 

beneath the laj of the anus, and the elegance of the hands, which 

are not those of an affecU-d woman."— Hi. sky H tfitmdat, June, 

ry small an d 1 work of M. Becker This good adopted 

gives a little lesson in carpentry to the little Jesus, a (harming early-headed 
who comes from the Oaill— Bf the Tuih-i lam. and BeeOM to lend, for a 

r of an hour, an obi m to the tactici of the ptomb and the handling of 

me. Sage in nfft In nolor mm hi rtnihjn AH la pretty, all m 

: his missal engrivin^. when the taste for the immense Ix-trays itself only in 
the nimbus of gol., md that of the Darling. They are so convenient 

• ^s to paint, so much the lam to think. They aay that Becker 

mimed but H of a brush the prix d I jean 

■ x Printres, 1- 

Beckmann, Karl. (< 0-1859> Pro- 

fessor of Architecture and Perspective ai Berlin Academj. Studied 
under Wach. Visited Peril and Italy. Painter of architecture and 

: i; 1 1 in m hii •• ( Hoist* 
Saint- Benedetto near 8uh 

Beckmann, Wilhelm Hermann Robert August. C-'-r.) Born 

-••l'loif, : died el tip- Academy of hi- nastae city and 

with whom he tustorica] 


picture, " The Hussites receiving the Sacrament before the Battle," 
which was purchased by the Westphalian Art Union. At the Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin, he also worked, with other young artists, upon 

Beckwith, J. Carroll. (Am.) Born in Missouri, 1852. Living 
for some time in Paris, he has studied under Carolus Duran, and in 
the School of Fine Arts, there, under Yvon, receiving several Honor- 
able Mentions. He has exhibited at the Academy of Design, New 
York, "Judith" and portraits, and sent to the Paris Exposition of 
1878 " A Portrait " and " The Falconer." 

..Bedford, J. B. (Brit.) Born in Yorkshire, 1823. He was a 
pupil of the Royal Academy, spending his professional life chiefly in 
London, and exhibiting frequently at the Royal Academy portraits, 
landscapes, and ideal subjects. Among the more important of the 
latter are, "Elijah and the Widow," in 1862 ; "Hagar and Ishmael," 
in 1864 ; " Arthur and Morgan de Fay," in 1865 ; " Cordelia," in 
1873 ; " Nathan and David," in 1875 ; ""Fair Margaret," in 1878. 

" Here the grouping [' Hagar and Ishmael '] is novel and striking ; and we may espe- 
cially commend the truthfulness of the motif. The boy is so eager to drink that he 
alarms his mother, whose arm is vainly trying to restrain the wrathful impatience of the 
young savage. This, in a modest way, is a good example of the new effects which a 
thoughtful artist may find in an old theme." — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

Begas, Karl. (Ger.) Born near Aix-la-Chapelle (1794-1854). 
Professor at Berlin Academy. Court Painter. Grand medal. Stud- 
ied in Paris under Gros. Painted historical subjects. Traveled in 
Italy. He painted altar-pieces for several churches at Berlin, and one 
at Landsberg. At the National Gallery in Berlin are his "Tobias 
and the Angel," his " Portrait of Thorwaldsen," and the " Mohren- 

Begas, Oskar. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1828. Professor and mem- 
ber of the Berlin Academy. Commissioner of the Museum of Berlin. 
Medals at Berlin and Dresden. Son and pupil of his father, Karl 
Begas, and of the Berlin Acadenry. He went to Rome, and visited 
France and England. He has executed frescos in several cities of 
Germany and Silesia. There is much variety in his subjects. At the 
National Gallery, Berlin, is his " Italian Peasants gossiping around a 
Fountain" (painted in Rome in 1853). At the Royal Academy Expo- 
sition, Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited " Venus," two portraits, and a 

/Begas, Reinhold. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1831. Professor in the 
Art School at Weimar, 1860-62. Royal Professor at the Academy 
of Berlin and head of a large studio there. Member of the Academies 
of Vienna and Munich. Small and large gold medals at Berlin, large 
gold medal at Munich, 1870, medal at Paris. Studied sculpture at 
the Academy of Berlin and in the studios of L. Wichmann and Rauch. 
In 1856 went to Rome, where he passed three years. After his return 


his mode] for Dsforting the Forsaken Psyche" won much 

. and Berlin. Be again visited Rome, end 
returning to Berlin received the important commission fox the 

ter Monument In the Nations] Gallery of Berlin ia his portrait 
bu<t of L Wichmann (in marble) and s statuette of Adolf Bienxel* 
At Berlin, in 1871, he exhibited u Fliegenden Buch-handler," which was 

tiled ia derision, and much disappointed his admirers. Tin 
name of the statue was M Mercury." In ls7<; he exhibited M The Rape 
of the Sebinea/'a portrait-bust in marble, and anothez boat in plaster. 
ral w.»rk> by this sculptor irere seen at Paris in 1S78. 
Alfred Woltmann says of his Schiller monument : — 

..•t f,ar the principfe-piMehcn <>f the Academy, who, no doubt to this day, 
f illows Dot the aiitiquo. One is reminded of Goethe's words, 
It met erst, so wollf it's mat hen ! ' 
" It stands then as if it could n< «t bt otherwise, s<> tliatone sees not all the labor and 
stantly renewed atl \m production. But the artist is fully oomp 

for all that he has endured by the greatness of the work, which is one of the most impor- 
tant of our time, hard as it has t>een made for him by those who cannot yet comprehend 
that an artist cannot ba treated like an ordinary functionary, and that artistic things will 
be treated artistically." — ZeiUchrift fur bildende Kunst, January, 1866. 

Begas, Adelbert-Franz Eugen. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1836. 
Pupil of the Berlin Academy and of Bocklin at Weimar. This 
painter visited Italy, and there made tine copies after old pict 
F<>r the church at Nymptsch he painted a "Crucifixion." In the 
nal Gallery, Berlin, is a u Mother and Child." At the Exp"-i- 
d Academy, Berlin (1876), he exhibited "A Portrait" 
and U A Study." 

Behnes, William. (Brit.) (1801 - 1864.) Between 1820, when 
silver medal at the Royal Academy for the best model 
from life, and lb-io, he execu t ed many important works ; among 
those of an ideal .1 I 'hild and Dove" and the "Seven 

Be made busts of the Queen, then Prin 
Elavelock, and others; and monument 
tell in Westminster Abb tamngton in St. Paul's Cathe- 

dral, and Colonel Jon srwieh Hospital ChapeL 

try to fix Behnes' position in English sculpture, except in a rough sup- 
way, would be impossible. But it may jK?rhaps be said that, taking 1840 a> 
bis most successful effort*, his were the best series of busts which the En. 
bad produced up to that time .... Behnes' style in marble mi-ht bt characterized as 
ie. As a youth h- iwing with .such assiduity and inocciM that 

a aeries which he executed from Raphael's Vatican frescos drew forth the must emphatic 

praise from so good a judg.- of th:s built of the art as Sir I: it His 

fine feeling for gra 1. as it was with Fhxman, by constant study with the 

enables Behnes to ] tl rare success that leading exigency in the 'round, ' 

a good bounding outline." — Palcrave's Kttays on Art. 

Bell, Robert Charles. (Brit) Born in Scotland (1806 - 1 M 
Was the familiar portrait of 

DDuigh, io hk 

3 D 


leisure hours. Among his best-known plates are "The Expected 
Penny," after Fraser ; " The Duet," after Etty ; " The Rush-Plaiters," 
after Sir George Harvey ; and " The Battle of Prestonpans," after 
Sir W. Allan, his last work. He also engraved popular portraits of 
Prof. Wilson and other distinguished Scotchmen. 

Bell, John. (Brit) Born in 1811. He first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1832, "Girl at a Brook"; "John the Baptist" 
and " Dorothea," in 1841 ; " Babes in the Wood," " Una and the 
Lion," " The Last Kiss," and "Angel of the Pillar," in 1844; "Stat- 
ues from the Tales of the Arabian Nights," " The Cross of Prayer," in 
bas-relief, " The Foot of the Cross," and " The Octoroon," in 1868 ; 
" Imogen entering the Cave," in 1869 ; " The Dove's Refuge," in 
1871 ; " Wellington and the Scenes of his Victories," in 1874 ; " The 
Friend of the Family," in 1875 ; and " Peace contemplating the Map 
of the World," in 1876. 

His " Andromeda," in bronze, belongs to the Queen ; with his 
" Eagle-Slayer," it was at the London Exhibition of 1851. Among 
his statues are those of Lord Falkland in the House of Parliament, of 
James Montgomery at Sheffield, and of the Earl of Clarendon in the 
Foreign Office. He executed the Wellington Monument in the Guild 
Hall, Guard Memorial, Waterloo Place, the group representing the 
United States on the Prince Consort Memorial at Hyde Park, London, 
and "Armed Science" at Woolwich. 

Bellange', Joseph - Louis - Hippolyte. (Fr.) Born at Paris 
(1800-1866). Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gros. 
Painter of battles and military subjects. Several of his works are at 
the Gallery of Versailles. At the Leipsic Museum are four pictures 
by Bellange. After his death, at a Paris sale, " The Guard Dies, but < 
does not Surrender," his last and one of his best works, sold for £ 438 ; 
" The Cuirassiers at Waterloo," for £ 409 ; and " Combat in the Streets 
of Magenta," for £ 370. 

. Bellanger, Camille-Felix. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal in 1875. 
Pupil of Cabanel. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " The Angel of 
the Tomb" and a " Bacchante " ; in 1875, "Abel," now in the Luxem- 
bourg, and a portrait of Colonel P. 

Bellay, Faul-Alphonse. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Painter and engraver. At the Salon of 1876 he 
exhibited two engravings, — one an etching, portrait of Baudry ; and 
the other done with the burin, portrait of Henriquel; in 1872, a water- 
color, " An Orange-Merchant." 

Bellel, Jean- Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1814. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Ouvrie. Made his debut at the Salon 
of 1836. Passed a number of years in Italy. At the Salon of 1876 
he exhibited " Arabs seeking an Encampment " and the " Ravine of 
Gironde, near Chateldon " ; in 1875, " Solitude, Autumn," " From 
Constantine to Bathna," " Grand Street of the Bazaar at Constantine," 


and time charco*] sketches ; in 1^7 i. ■ Environs of All. \ar.l." u ( I 

in-ar Bousslada," and two Water-Colon and 006 charcoal sketch ; in 

a to Boussiada" and M Vi.-w ocar Cassia"; In 

1870, '• View in the mountain of Lacbaux." In the Luxembourg arc 

"Solil and the "Valley of Saint-AmV 

charcoal sketch. At Philadelphia he exhibited several works, and 

ad a medal At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Jesus and his 

>: Emmau *' and M Near Vivi I 

pfl la t a ti vbo t«>-<i.»y ooenpy HmbmKw wit) 

•• manner like Ali^iiy, hut in the wise BOdfl "f PoOMin, be cbt 
he composes. - he interprets. NfOdiag always his MOdeL Thfl DtOfll M 

BunUlartod bin with thfl vwifld tapeeti erf nature, vhen 

be seeks the elements necessary to Modflff the ideal which it gives him, ami which a 

I, would ii"t satisfy. Without doubt, to is- 
prodi. e>> and arthssness. as in a Mack mirror, a booq 

tage, a prairie, a river-hank, is a w.irk with which one may be content ; many have done 
no m- teqnind a name an<l a place in gjdl Br, thfl true land' 

scape is nature mora than the man, ami in it we listen not to the little BgUflfl irhich are 
introduced. b«( t<> the human sentiment, the Joy, thfl — dnfl— , the revcry, thfl h>ve. in 

iworl il of the artist in view of such or such a horizon It is 

known that BflOfll handles the charcoal with I mastery which is unrivaled, and t 
draws IDA so simi'le, some effects of surprising powflfc" — Th£o:hile Gau- 

tieb, Abecidairt du Salon •':■ 

Belloc, lean Hilaire. (Fr.) Born at Nantes (1787 L866). Ofifcex 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Begnanlt at Paris. He was first 
i portrait-painter of repute, Be executed a large number 
of full-length }H.rtrait< for the Court, the Royal Museum, and for pri- 
: the revolution of 1830 he was made Director of 
- bool of Drawing, Sculpture, and Architecture. Be 
1 many improvementa, rach aa a course of instruction in his- 
itudy of living plants, stump drawing, and also 
oing hours of study. Among bii portraits may be men- 
Dillon at Versa 
Bellows, Albert F. t X. A. (Am.) Bora at Hilford, Mass., but 
. as a child to Salem, wh< rly youth was spent !!<• en- 

ol an architect in li<>-t..n at the age ol sixteen, devot- 
jrears u> the itndy «>f thai branch of art, but finally turning 
ttention to painting, for which lit- had ■ decided 

lied in Paris, and in tin ademy at Antwerp. 

. 1 a itudio in ... spending his pro- 

nal life there and in Boston, besides painting in England and 

S itioiial Academy in 

in 1861. Be was one of the early members <d tin- 
.aii-1 in I- ■ 
an honorary member of the Royal I • iety of Water-Col< 

an honor which requires a unanimoui the memh 


lows' early works were of a genre character, including " The First 
Pair of Boots," "The Sorrows of Boyhood/' "The City Cousins," 
" The Lost Child," " The Approaching Footsteps," etc., and were 
generally painted in oils. He first turned his attention to the use of 
water-colors while in Europe, in 1865, studying chiefly in England, 
where he is highly regarded. Among his later pictures (in water- 
colors), exhibited from time to time, are, " Notch at Lancaster" (1867), 
"Afternoon in Surrey" (1868), "Surrey Byway," "Borders of the 
New Forest," "The Thames at Windsor," "After the Service," 
" The Dark Entry, Canterbury," " The Reaper's Child," " New Eng- 
land Homestead," " Devonshire Cottage," etc. To the Exhibition 
at Philadelphia, in 1876, he sent "Sunday in Devonshire" (in oils) 
and " Study of a Head," " Autumn Woods " and " Sunday Afternoon 
in New England " (in water-colors), the last belonging to H. J. Wel- 
ling. To the Paris Exposition of 1878 he sent " New England Village 
School " (in oil) and " New England Homestead " (in water-colors). 
His " Nook " and " The Willow Wagon " were in the John Taylor 
Johnston Collection. Samuel V. Wright owns his " Salem Turn- 
pike " ; B. M. C. Durfee, " The Christening Party " ; H. D. Polhemus, 
" Coasting in New England " ; and J. H. Clement, of Boston, " Sun- 
day in Devonshire " (water-color). A large pure line-engraving (16 
by 28) of " The Village Elms," by Bellows, is now in press. It is the 
tenth steel or copperplate engraving from his pictures. 

"Bellows soon acquired considerable technical dexterity, and has shown a special 
talent for a vein of genre art which, from the familiarity of the subjects, and the simple, 

natural expression, wins and retains popular sympathy Bellows often puts forth 

graphic and pleasant woodland scenes : his ' By-Path, ' formerly in the Wright Collec- 
tion, is a good specimen, and so is one of his late pictures, 'A Day in the Woods,' with 
a roaming youthful party." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists, 1867. 

"'The Home Ferry,' a study in Surrey, England, by A. F. Bellows, is full of deli- 
cious sentiment.* The verdure, the sky, and the atmosphere are unmistakably English. 
The unrippled river, with its deep, cool shadows ; the low cottage, mossy, half hidden ; 
the handsome, lazy cattle ; in fact, every detail and the whole effect are charming, and 
produce the feeling of a tender poem." — Boston Advertiser. 

" The stretch of cool, transparent water in the foreground, and the bit of blue sky 
which shows above the house-tops in the distance, together with the sparkling effect 
of light and shade which intervenes along the shaded lane [in ' Byways near Torquay '], 

will be appreciated by all, as beautiful in the composition There are but few 

American artists whose works are more popular than those of Mr. Bellows, and this is 
due not only to the taste shown in the selection of subjects, but also to their artistic 
treatment." — Art Journal, April, 1875. 

" Bellows' soft river-banks, his trees trembling with light, and the quiet skies of sum- 
mer, have long made his paintings loved, and they have also served to develop the taste 
for water-colors among us." — Art Journal, March, 1877. 

Belluni, Giuseppe. (Ital) Born at Florence, 1827. Professor 
in the Academy of Fine Arts of Florence. Knight of the Order of 
Saints Maurice and Lazarus. Pupil of Bezzuoli and Pollastrini. His 
(subjects are historical. During the war of 1848 Belluni served as a 
volunteer. His " Hagar " was one of the first pictures which attracted 


attention to him. That of M Paul befon Pop| ally 

received, and engravings wvemade after it. Tin- M Death of Alessan- 

bought by Prima- Humbert (now King of Italy). 

r Emmanuel he painted "Emmanuel Philiberl arranging 

an Alliance against Austria between the Bouse of Savoy and the 

King of France." This picture, when exhibited, attracted much at- 

o, and for it the King knighted him. His last work, painted 

ognition of the Body of 

Belly. Le'on-Auguste-Adolphe. (Fr.) Born at St. Oim-r 
(1828 Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pnpil of Troyon 

and T. B nsseau. Paints Oriental subjecti and portraits. In 1^77 
he "The Pord of Ifontboulan, in Sologne"; in 1874| 
iki of the Sauldre, in Winter," "The Pool of the Fairies," "For- 
f Fontaineblean," and the "Ruins of Baalbec" ; in 1869, "The 
I of Mamoudieh, at Alexandria"; in 1868, "The Nile near 
lahi tracking a Dahabieh" ; in 1861, "Pil- 
grim- i," now in the Luxembourg ; etc. 

- as a painter to Fromentin, and infeiior only to Delacroix, equal to the 
{>ils of Rousseau, and often worthy of his Belly is not only, as one 

has said, one of the first among the seconds, he is one of the seconds among the (Int. 
In whatever genre he has tried his talent, and these genres are very filled, he has 
always been equal to himself, because he has always been sincere. There is no other 
•ecret in art. The more he advanced in practice, the more he gained by experience, the 
more he freed himself from the defect* of Jus nature ; his touch became lighter while it 
lost none of its vigor ; there was no farther need for him to sacrifice elegance to • 
ness. . ! ! .rks are charming without ceasing to be learned. They emanate from 

a verydi«tinguished and cultivated mind. .... He is of good school ; his t<>u<-h is solid, 
sincere, true as the sight which it translates; his pate is fresh, his modeling expTM- 
i the qualities loved by amateurs.'' — Emile Bergerat, Journal OJiciel, 
Augu -• 

Benczur, Julius. (Ifrfttefc.) At the Johnst ffew York, 

in 1876* his picture of the t Franz Rakoezy, Prince of 

lorn in 1874, he exhibited " In the FoneL" 
Bendemann, Eduard Born at Berlin, 1811. Member of 

of Berlin, Stockholm, and levera] others. At 

one I ademy at Dusseldorf. Knight of the 

:\il Merit, of the Prussian Order of the Red 
. ami of th< I kder of Leopold. Bfedali at 

ana. Papil of the Acsdemj of Dusseldorf; onder 
On his return from Italy, in 1832, he exhibited hi- 
re of the " Sorrow i: a the Museum of Col 

phed by Worn and 
In 1833 t genre subject Foun- 

' purchased by the Society of Arts in Westphalia, and 

picture of " Jeremiah on 
the Ruin- of Jerusalem," now in t: ,1 < hdlery, Berlin, took a 


medal of the first class. This was lithographed by Weiss. Bende- 
mann was made Professor at the Academy of Dresden, and Member 
of the Academic Council. He was also commissioned by the King of 
Saxony to decorate the Royal Castle, and the frescos executed there 
have given him his greatest fame. A description of them would re- 
quire too much space here, but there are religious, historical, alle- 
gorical, poetical, legendary, and mythological subjects, as well as por- 
traits. These works show forth the versatility of this painter in a 
remarkable manner. In his own house in Berlin he has painted 
" Poesy and the Arts," which is much praised. Some of his portraits 
are remarkable ; that of his wife, a daughter of Schadow, is one of his 
finest works. He succeeded Schadow in the Academy of Diisseldorf, 
in 1860. At the Leipsic Museum there is a cartoon of a work exe- 
cuted by Bendemann, in the ball-room of the castle at Dresden, rep- 
resenting " The Hours." 

" His talents expanded so early, that he acquired with his first picture a reputation. 
While in Diisseldorf he seems to have taken the life of the children of Israel, in joy and 
sorrow, for illustration, — a theme around which have been gathered many of the artist's 
most renowned works, such, for example, as the well-known 'The Captive Israelites 
mourning by the Waters of Babylon. ' German critics find in these compositions the qual- 
ities of the elegy and the idyl ; they pronounce these productions as poems in beauty, 
purity, and greatness of soul Bendemann may be surpassed by some of his con- 
temporaries for play of fancy and fertility of imagination, by others for classic subtlety 
or beauty in form, by many again for Christian graces and direct spiritual utterance ; 
but to him pertain supremely patriarchal power and presence. 'A man so gifted might 
have been painter to the kings of Israel, catching the words of inspiration as they fell 
from prophetic lips ; verily such a man were worthy in his art to serve the God of 
Jacob in the courts of the Temple in Jerusalem. " — J. Beavington Atkinson, London 
Art Journal, August, 1S65. 

Bendemann, Rudolf Christian Eugen. (Ger.) Born at Dres- 
den, 1851. Son and pupil of the preceding artist. At the National 
Gallery, Berlin, he has worked with other young artists on the 
mural decorations. 

Benedetti, Tommaso. (Ital.) Born at Rome, 1797. This en- 
graver first studied at Vienna, where he was under the advice of 
Barth. After visiting Italy and Sicily, he settled at Vienna, and de- 
voted himself to the reproduction of the works of both modern and 
old-time artists. Among his plates are, "A Portion of the Last 
Supper," after Leonardo ; " Christ placed in the Tomb " and " The 
Holy Family," after Titian ; " The Duke of Reichstadt," after Daf- 
finger ; etc. 

Benjamin, Samuel Green Wheeler. (Am.) Son of an Ameri- 
can Missionary to the Levant ; he was born at Argos, Greece, in 1837. 
He began his art education by the study of drawing and aquarelle 
with Carlo Brindesi of the Spanish and Italian school. After fur- 
nishing cuts for the Illustrated London News, he came to the United 
States, graduating at Williams College. In 1871 he took lessons in 
oil-painting of S. L. Gerry and W. E. Norton, spending his profes- 


.1 life in Boston and N. iw Fork. Be a I a member of 

d Art Club in i s 7:*. Among the moat important of his 
paint ■ Porta da Crui Madeira," tA the Centennial Exhibition 

hiladelphia, in 1876; "Gibraltar," owned by Mr. Johnaon of 
Philadelphia ;*' Pi< owned by Mrs. Pound, [ale of Wight 

ite [aland," belonging to the Marine Gallery, London ; u l 
k otr the Gormen," belonging to the Boston Art Club ; "After 
Storm," belonging u» Mr. Means of Dorchester; and "On the 
to Dr. 1 1 
Mr. Benjamin lias been iful with his pen as with his pencil 

and hi> brush. He has contributed essays, poems, and illustrated 
articles to tin- North American Review, tin- Atlantic, Harper's, Scrib- 
. ami other periodicals. In I860 he published ;i volume entitled 
iBtantinople, The Esle of Pearls, and other Poems " ; in 1868, 
• Turk and the Greek"; "The Choice of Paris" in 1870; 
it i- Art " and "Contemporary Art in Europe n (illustrated), in 
1-77 ; -The Atlantic [slanda " (illustrated) and M Wonders and Phe- 
nomena of the Multitudinous Seas" are works upon which Mr. Ben- 
jamin is now engaged. 

Benouville, Achille-Jean. (Fr.) Bom at Paris, 1815. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Picot. This artist and his 
Leon, gained the jnix de Rome in the same year. 
ted by Achilla are often Italian; that of "The 
: 'in the Palatine " (1870) is in the Luxemb 
dn Midi, at i teen from the Bridge of Jurancon, 

bought by the late Mr. Stewart of N»w 

A* the Salon of L878 he exhibited "The Anio, between 
Tivoli and Vice- 

. Benouville, Francois-Leon. (Fr.) Born at Paxil (\^2\ - 1859). 

ilier of the Legion of Honor. Brother of the preceding artist 

and pupil <-f Picot His picture of "St. Francis of Aarisi Dying" 

d for the Luxembourg. He affected religious 

subjects, and executed some decorative paintings in the public build- 


Benson. Eugene, A N. A. (An.) Born at Hyde Park on the 

Hud i a in the National Academy, New 

. and in the studio of J. II. Wright, portrait-painter. Later, ha 

lief at the LoUTTe, Paris, and 

final L himaelf particularly to the Venetian d 

Oil professional life has been spent in New Fork, Paris, 

ind in t: In 1862 l| t! 

was elected an Associate of the National Academy. Among tin- let- 
ter known of his picturei are, owned by Mi. I 

3t. Luk.'s Hospital, 
Acai I at the National Academy, 


York, in 1874), belonging to C. H. Sneff ; " Merchant of Cairo," 
belonging to T. G. Appleton of Boston ; " Renunciation " (Royal 
Academy, 1876), owned in Louisville, Ky. ; " Bazaar at Cairo " 
(National Academy, 1877), " Hay Boats," property of A. R. Cooper, 
and " Peasants of Cadore at Religious Worship " (Royal Academy, 
1876, and National Academy, 1877) ; " Thoughts in Exile," belonging 
to M. 0. Roberts ; " A Reverie," painted for R. M. Olyphant ; " Mak- 
ing the Best of It," bought by the Artists' Fund Society ; " Dead 
Calm on the Hill," property of W. E. Brown, California ; " Market- 
place, Egypt " (Dudley Gallery, London, 1877) ; " Study of a Girl 
in Blue," in the Snydam Collection, bequeathed to the National 
Academy, New York ; and " Sad Thoughts," painted for James Lor- 
rimer Graham, Jr.. To the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, at Phil- 
adelphia, Benson contributed, " Sirocco, Venice," " The Strayed 
Maskers," " Interior of St. Mark's, Venice," and " The Reverential 
Anatomist." To the Paris Exposition of 1878 he sent " Hashish 
Smokers, Jerusalem," belonging to S. R. Van Deuzer. At the Me- 
chanics' Fair, Boston, 1878, was his "Slave's Tower," owned by 
E. B. Haskell of Boston. 

In addition to Eugene Benson's work as a painter, he was a regular 
contributor to the Atlantic Monthly, the Galaxy, and Appletons' Jour- 
nal, in 1868 and '69, and has written for many of the leading jour- 
nals of New York. Since 1871, however, residing in Rome, he has 
given his entire attention to painting. 

" Mr. Benson has concentrated the chief interest and effect upon the living group 
[' The Strayed Maskers ']. There is dramatic action in the figures, harmony of color and 
grace of form and poetical composition in the tableau ; and the repelling element in the 
situation has been pushed off literally into the far perspective, and veiled in the gloom 
of the room. At first sight this picture may be looked upon as startling and sensa- 
tional, but it has been treated so temperately, so conscientiously, that this feeling soon 
disappears, and it will be admired for its unity and the lesson it teaches." — New York 
Evening Post, 1873. 

" Mr. Benson exhibited his ' Strayed Maskers ' and several Venetian studies, which 
bore evidence of earnest study and a fine sense of color. Mr. Benson's pictures have of 
late been characterized by very decided ability." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of Cen- 
tennial Exhibition at Philadelphia, 1876. 

" Mr. Eugene Benson's ' Last Worshiper ' is commendable in the sense of its serious 
intent and careful execution, nor does it lack matter for reflection in raising the curious 
question as l to the precise period at which the Egyptian of old abandoned the worship 

of the Sphynx. etc Benson has evidently an eclectic and speculative mind, and in 

these days of clever and vivacious vulgarity it is something even to be serious." — Lon- 
don Daily News, June 2, 1877. 

Benvenuti, Lorenzo. (Ital.) Born in Arezzo (1769-1844). 
This artist is one of the first of modern Tuscan painters. His draw- 
ing was correct, and his color admirable. The ceiling of the Medici 
Chapel in the church of San Lorenzo in Florence was his work, and 
the paintings on it are quite worthy of their honorable position. The 
ceiling of the Hall of Hercules in the Pitti Palace was painted by him. 
His portrait by his own hand is in the Uffizi, and his tomb, erected 


by Leopold 11 , Grand Duke of Tuscany, i< in the seme dumb of 

/.«>, in which 1 n much time and talent Among bis 

other notable i the** Judith,* in the Cathedra] of 

tin* pictur ■ ildo ; and ■ religious pietnre in the 

ohnrchof the Serrites at Siena. 

Berchere, Narcisse. (JV.) Born at fttampea, 18$2. Chei 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of RemonxL He has traveled in 
: and the Beat, and many of his pictures represent Ori 

[Vilight, Nubia "is at the Luxembourg! 
At tl. • 1-7- he exhibited "The Nile between old Cairo and 

the [aland of Rhode," belonging to M. J. lJuichaid, and "The Rames- 
aion at Thefaea, Upper Egypt." 

Bergeret, Denis-Pierre. (Fr.) Born at Vilhparisis. M 
in 1^7") and '77. Pupil of E. Isabey. At the Salon of 1877 he ex- 
hibit ind u The Preparations for the Dessert" ; in 

Shrimps, etc. " ; in 1875, "The 
Dessert " ami " TIk 1 in i -7-. •• Ti. and "Plums." 

Bergh, Edward ) Born in Stockholm, 182S. Medal 

at Paris in 1867. Studied at DuaeeldorC In the Qellery at Stock- 
holm is hii •• I. in Rmaland (Sweden) with a Waterfall, near 
a Mill." At Park in 1868, he exhibited M The Wreckers on the I 

\ Waterfall, Sweden." At London, in 1871, he ex- 
hibited " In the Birch Wood." In the Gallery at Ghriatianaboi 
" Under the Birches," subject taken from Lake Maelar, 1870. 

" In Stockholm the examples of the now dominant German school are numerous. 
Por instance, the grand land* ml Bergh and J. E. Bergh might have been 

actually painted in Dusseldort ? — J. Beavington llliw. Art Tour to Sorthern Capi- 
tals of Europe 

Bergmann, Ignace. ('/•/■.) Born at Au, Faubourg of Munich, 
1707. Studied al Munich and spent several yeara in Italy. He has 
aiesara portraits which are remarkable for their color ; 
alien! copies "f earn pieeea, but hi< repu- 

: ne lithographs. Among them are, "The I 1 
I ; "The Crucifix," after kfabufe ; and the 
Bernardelli, A. Philadelphia he ex- 

hibit I the Tril)e " and "The Indian Peeping" 

Berne-Bellecour, Etienne-Prosper. (Fr.) Born at Bmib g 

Pupil of Picot an<l F. Barrias. 
.. '• In the Trench, — Death of Lieatea- 
. January. 1-71"; in 1876\ u La deseerte"; in 1-7:.. -The 
u of M 


he exhibited .v \ i Advun 

Grai. rp-S hooters." 


Bernhardt, Sarah. It is not possible here to give a sketch of the 
interesting life of this remarkable actress and artist ; we can only 
speak of her in connection with her sculptures. In 1869 she watched 
Mathieu- Meusnier as he made a bust of Dona Maria de Neuborg. She 
made her criticisms, and they were always just. The sculptor told 
her that she had the eye of an artist, and should model herself. She 
commenced, and soon brought him a medallion portrait of her Aunt 
Breeck. Mathieu- Meusnier was much surprised, and seriously encour- 
aged her to continue. She wished to do nothing else, for already she 
was charmed with the glimpse she had gained of what might be possible 
to her. She soon took a studio, and in 1875 sent to the Salon a bust, 
which was much remarked. In 1876 she exhibited " After the Tem- 
pest," the subject being taken from the history of a poor woman 
whom she had met, and who had seen the body of her last son (two 
having already died) washed ashore after a storm. It is a work of 
wonderful effect, and seems to foretell a great future for this artist. 
Mile. Bernhardt also paints, and we may hope to see many more re- 
sults from her work, since she is quite determined to devote herself to 
these arts she seems so easily to have mastered in the initiatory steps. 
At the Salon of 1878 she exhibited two portrait busts, in bronze, of 
M. E. de G. and M. W. B. 

Bernier, Camille. (Fr.) Born at Colmar. Chevalier of the Le- 
gion of Honor. Pupil of L. Fleury. At the Salon of 1877 he ex- 
hibited " Sabotiers dans bois de Quimerch," belonging to Mr. Duncan ; 
in 1875, " Autumn " and "Summer " ; in 1872, "January," now in the 
Luxembourg, and " August " (in Brittany) ; in 1870, " A Road near 
Bonnalec." In 1878 he exhibited " Pool of Kermoine " and the 
" Heath of Saint- Anne." Mr. H. P. Kidder has in his collection a 
fine work by this painter. 

Bertin, Francis Edouard. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1797 - 1871). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor, and Commander of the Order of 
Saints Maurice and Lazarus. Pupil of Girodet and Bidault. Un- 
der Louis Philippe this artist was Inspector of the Beaux- Arts, and 
in this capacity went several times to Italy. Among his works are, 
" A View of a Hermitage in an Ancient Etruscan Excavation near 
Viterbo," at the Luxembourg ; " View of the Apennines," at the 
Museum of Montpellier ; " Temptation of Christ," at the church of 
Saint-Thomas of Aquinas, at Paris ; and the "Sources of the Alpheus," 
purchased by the government. This last work was at the Salon of 1853, 
with a " View near Olevano," and a " View of the Ancient Tombs on 
the Banks of the Nile," and after that year he exhibited no more. 
Bertin traveled in France, Switzerland, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Turkey, 
and Egypt. His sketches are very fine, and should hold a first rank ; 
there are three of these at the Luxembourg. The father and brother 
of Bertin had founded and edited the " Journal des Debats " ; after 
the death of the brother, in 1854, this artist assumed the same duty. 


Bertrand, Jacques. (IV.) Bom at Lyons. Chevalier of the 
ii of Honor. Pupil of Perin. Sis "Death of Virgin 
i> aft the Luxembourg. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Echo " 
and "The Bduoatioil of the Virgin" J in 1876, u Aurora" and M Mar- 
guerite" ; in 1876, M ICagdalene, crux, spes unica I *' u Know Thy- 
■• Lesbia" ; in 1878, "The Cloister • and u Tete dVtude." 
Besnard, Paul-Albert. (Fr.) Bon at Paris. Medal and prix 
de Romt, 1874. Pupil of J. Bremond and CabaneL At the Salon of 
1-77 he exhibited "A Fountain " and a portrait of A. Wormser; in 

l-7o, two portraits ; in 1^74, "Autumn "' and a portrait of Mile. G. 
Betsellere, Pierre-Emile. (i'V.) Born at Bayonne, Pupil of 
:iel. Medal of the third class at the Salon of 1878, where he 
exhibited "Jesus calming the Tempest." 

Beverly, William R. (Brit) Born in 1824. Educated at Rich- 
mond, and designed for the stage, lie resolved at an early age to 
devote himself to art, and, comparatively self-taught, he began his 
career as a scene-painter in the different theaters at which his father, 
an actor, « I. In 1851 he was attached both to the Covent 

Garden and Drury Lane theaters ; but of late years has given his at- 
tention particularly to Drury Lane. He paints in water-colors pictures 
of a smaller and finer character than those designed for the th' 
and exhibits frequently at the Royal Academy. In 1865 he sent 
king for Port "' ; in 1869, "Scarborough Castle" and "Off Hast- 
. 1-71. "Dutch Dogger Smack"; in 1872, "Pier at New 
• Low Water at Hastings" ; in 1874, " The Turn 
of the Tide below the Pool, London "; in 1^7.">. M Wet Sand and Dry 
Uftd in 1-77. - High Light. North Shields." 
Bewer, Clement (Ger.) Born at Aix-la-Chapelle, 1830. Studied 
at Duaseldor^ Antwerp, and Paris, "The Flight of Mary Stuart,'' 
now at Cologne, and u Romeo and Juliet,"' are among his best works. 
• returnin_ -many he paint so reading 

his Jerusalem \ .it at Ferrara» M This attracted much atten- 

i'\- an American gentleman, who also com- 
mpanion picture. He painted the "War 
of Wartburg." This picture gives a reeumi of the Middle Ages ; the 
eflFects of light and color in it are to be remarked. Bewer has also 
painted religious subjects and port] 

Bewick, William. (BriL) (17!t"> - I^<;<;.) A relative of Thomas 

Bewick. He • irly displayed a taste Cor art, and entered the studio of 

I m when twenty years old. He painted portraits of sir David 

. md many ideal works. 

Beylard, Louis Charles. rn at Bordeaux At th.- Salon 

of l**7s a medal of the second class and the prix ih Florence. II" 

exhi' toe in pla-t<-r. called '* Brother Alphonse/' It was th.; 

model of a bf tUX on th'- tomb of the 

there of the Christian Schools." 1 a pupil of A 


mont. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited a group in bronze, " Me- 
leager" ; in 1876, a statue in plaster, "The Chaldean Shepherd," etc. 

Bezzuoli, Giuseppe. (Ital.) Born at Florence (1784-1855). 
Professor in the Academy of Florence. He formed himself by study 
of the old masters, and became an illustrious historical painter. Bold- 
ness in drawing and strength of color were his chief characteristics. 
Among his best works are two ceilings in the Borghese Palace, Pome, 
representing the " Toilet of Venus " and " Venus and Ascanius " ; the 
"Baptism of Clovis," in San Remigio. "Scenes from the Life of 
Julius Csesar " and the " Entrance of Charles VIII. into Florence " are 
at the Pitti. His portrait is in the Iconographic Gallery at Florence. 

Biard, Francois. (Fr.) Born at Lyons, 1 800. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Revoil. This artist has traveled much 
and has painted scenes in many countries. The " Babes in the Wood " 
(1828) made him popular, and was purchased by an Art Association 
of Lyons. "Du Couedic taking Leave of his Crew" (1841) is in the 
Luxembourg ; "The Fortune-Teller," in the Museum of Lyons ; "A 
Wind Storm in the Desert," Museum at Nimes ; three of his pictures 
are in the Museum at Leipsic ; his " Clearing for Action " belongs to 
the Emperor of Russia. The works of this artist are much prized in 
England. Many of them have been engraved by Jazet. Biard wrote 
an account of his journey to Brazil, which first appeared in " Le Tour 
du Monde," and, later, in an illustrated volume. 

Bida, Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Toulouse, 1813. Officer of the 
Legion of Honor and the Order of Leopold. Pupil of Delacroix. 
Water-color artist and designer. Has visited the East. The follow- 
ing pencil-drawings are in the Luxembourg : " Refectory of Greek 
Monks " (1857) ; " Evening Call in the Crimea " (1857) ; " The Field 
of Boaz, Bethlehem" (1861) ; " Massacre of Mamelukes" (1861) ; and 
" Prayer in a Mosque." Bida has sometimes painted portraits. His 
exquisite designs for the illustrations of the Gospels are well known 
by their exhibition in 1867 and at other times since then. This artist 
has made many designs for " Le Tour du Monde." 

At the Walters Gallery, Baltimore, are three pictures by Bida, — 
" The Prayer upon the House-Top," " Moses on a Mountain, resting on 
a Rock," and a representation of the custom in some Eastern country 
where annually the people prostrate themselves for a horse and rider 
to pass over their bodies. This artist represents with wonderful power 
the life and scenery of Oriental countries, and his scriptural scenes are 
not surpassed in force and directness by any other painters of like 

Biefve, Edouard de. (Belgian.) Born at Brussels, 1808. Officer 
of the Order of the Red Eagle. Knight of the Orders of Leopold and 
St. Michael of Bavaria. He studied design, sculpture, and painting, 
but has pursued the latter only. His " Compromise of the Nobles 
at Brussels, 1566," now in the National Gallery, Berlin, was seen in 


r the Teutonic < tader recognizing 
tin.* Elector of Brandenburg ea theii Grand Master" waa painted for 
• Germany. At the Royal Academy Exposition, Berlin, 
ibited an "Epiaode at the- Banquet of the Confed 

Biercher, Mathieu. ('/-r.) Bon at Cologne, 1 7:>7. The prin- 
cipal works of this architect are the Theater (i s ±>) and the Bala 
the B gne. Thia last ia conaidered one of the finest 

pnblk monnmenta in tin.' Province of the Rhine. 

Biermann, Charles Edouard. (Prut.) Horn at Berlin, 1 

jsorof the Academy at Berlin. This painter sent 
d water-color views of Dalmatia to the Exposition at Paris in 
Bis "Views of Switzerland," "An Evening in the Upper 
ithedral of Milan," and a view of Florence are among 
his beat-known works, and have been reproduced by engraving or 
r iphv. 
Bierstadt, Albert, X. A. (Am.) Chevalier of the Legion of 
r. Born in Duaseldorf, 1829. Taken to America when an in- 
fant. He displayed, aa a lad, a decided taste for art He made many 
tches in crayon sa a young man, and his first essay in oil in 
1851, when he was twenty-two year- of age. In l^.">;j he went to I 

idied in the Academy there. He spent a winter in 

I daring the summer months sketched in Switzerland and 

tany, returning to America in l s .">7. In 1800 he was made a 

member of the National Academy In 186*7 he was senl to 

■••• npon a government commission to make atodiea forapaint- 

overy of the North River by Hendrick Hudson." 

A: : famous worka are the " Rocky Mount 

by l<> f«et), sold to Mr. James BfcHenry for 

rm in th Mountains, Mount Rosalie "(12 by 

by Mr. T. W. Kennard, valued at £35,000; " North 

rwned by Judge Hilton, valued at 

Burning Ship" ia in Mr. Belmontfa gallery : " 

in the Buffalo Academy oi I. oking down the 

to W. EL Crosby ; "Valley of the Fosemit 

1 1 Mountains," to Lewi i and 

tea Park. Colorado," to th.- Karl of Dunraven. Bierstadt reo 

i tlii- picture, and it was exhibited at the National Academy, 

Ion, in 1878. Be sent to the National Academy in New York, 

stain Lake " ; in 1^7."», " Valley of King*i River, Cali- 

: in 1-71. •• In tie- Rocky Moun- 

. ■• ■■: 

"The same careful finish of details, skillful management of li-ht, and eye for j.i.-tur- 
eaqoepoasU andsuggetv 

ive rendered his studie* I scenery IUI of »*>ld and 

Bierstadt is a true representative <.f the Duaseldorf school of landscape, and to 


this fact are to be ascribed both his merits and his defects. One reason of the marvel- 
ous success of Bierstadt is that the Dusseldorf school was a novelty here, though 

familiar abroad No more genuine and grand American work has been produced 

than Bierstadt's ' Rocky Mountains. ' " — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

" The qualities which strike us in Mr. Bierstadt as an artist are, first, a great audacity, 
justified by perfect ability to accomplish all that he intends. He is not a mere copyist 
of Nature, but an artist having definite artistic intentions, and carrying them out with 
care and resolution. ... He is always trying for luminous gradations and useful op- 
positions, and reaches what he tries for." —London Saturday Review. 

" Bierstadt's figures are picturesquely grouped, prosaically true to actual life, giving 
additional interest to most observers, though rendering his great work, 'The Rocky 
Mountains,' confused, and detracting from its principal features, besides making it liable 

to the artistic objection of two pictures in one, from different points of view As 

a colorist Bierstadt appears to better advantage in his ' Sunshine and Shadow,' a remi- 
niscence of the Rhine. On the whole, however, he has well depicted the silvery clear- 
ness and translucency of the mountain air of the West, and managed to avoid the promi- 
nent defects of the Dusseldorf school in general." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

"'The Big Tree of California ' [R. A., 1874] shows Bierstadt to be an earnest student 
of the boldest form of landscape art, and we may remark the effective management of 
the light which throws the great girth of the tree into prominence." —Art Journal, 
August, 1874. 

"Mr. Bierstadt contributed his 'Yosemite Valley,' 'The Great Tree of California,' 
' Mount Hood, Oregon,' ' Western Kansas,' and California Spring,' no one of which 
equals his ' Rocky Mountains,' which some years since acquired a great and merited 
reputation, and was a work of exceptional power. The earlier works of this artist 
showed a vigorous, manly style of art, that had its undeniable attractions. His pictures 
exhibited at Philadelphia indicate a lapse into sensational and meretricious effects, and 
a loss of true artistic aim. They are vast illustrations of scenery, carelessly and crudely 
executed, and we fail to discover in them the merits which rendered his earlier works 
conspicuous." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

" Whatever excellence there is in the details of this picture [Bierstadt's ' Mountain 
Lake,' N. A. 1877], in the nice transparent shadows of the lake, the great trees with 
their peculiar forms, the snow-capped peaks, etc., is largely offset by the extravagance 
of the composition." — Art Journal, May, 1877. 

Bilders, J. W. (Dutch.) Of Amsterdam. Medal at Philadelphia, 
where he exhibited a " Landscape near Vorden," of which Mr. Weir 
speaks in commendation in his report. 

Billet, Pierre. (Fr.) Born at Cantin. Two medals, 1873 and 
'74. This artist, after leaving school, was placed in his father's busi- 
ness of sugar-making and distilling, but soon abandoned it for painting. 
He was so fortunate as to have Jules Breton for his friend, who 
assisted Billet by his advice, and no doubt hastened his progress very 
much. Billet had the good sense to see that he was in danger of 
becoming a mere imitator of Breton, and separated himself from the 
master, endeavoring to follow out his own conceptions. His first 
Salon picture was " The Young Peasant-Girl," in 1867 ; " A Fisher 
on the Shore of Ambleteuse" (1869) is at the Museum of Bordeaux ; 
"Fishers in the Environs of Boulogne" (1870) is at the Museum of 
Lille ; his " High Tide," coast of Normandy (1872), was purchased 
for the Luxembourg. He exhibited " The Return from the Market" 
and " The Grass-Cutters " in 1873 : for these last two he received 


medal i and Vienna, M TheTobaeco-Smngglei« w and "The 

LQatherei neond medaL In L 875 he exhibited 

u In Winter " and "A Souvenir of Ambleteuse w ; in l876^. a A Foun- 
tain at Fport " and M A Young Kitchen-Gardener." 

Billings, Hammatt. I Died in Boston, 1874 Be v 

_■ ier of illustrations for books, as well a- of architectural ami 

monumental objects, Ti the great organ in the Music Hall, 

a, and tin- Pilgrims' Monument at Plymouth, were made after 

his designs. Be was the architect of many churches ami public 

buildings throughout tin* United States. II.- lived in Boston fox 

man j years, Bm "Enchanted Monk," in sepia, a notable drawing, 

lira, William Clailin of Massachua 

taste is refi; J subtle, and his imagination 

la the United nope "f rir.-hitcctiiiv allowed him he has given evidence of a 
latent geuius which in any other country would haw been stimulated and developed 
to the fullest lowers. Thus far he is more commonly known by his l^autiful illustra- 
tions < : ll intellectually spiritual of the poets. II. 
doe* not so much translate i>oetry into pictorial art, as he recasU it in exquisite shapes 
of his own invention." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

Bing, Valentin. (Dutch.) Born at Amsterdam, 1812. Painter 

of history ami of interiors. He is well known by hi* works at various 

ritiona in Holland. Amnmg his pictures are, " St. Mark," u Lnao 

and l: tnd " A Woman of the Islet of Sehokland." Tin- last 

was sent to Paris in 1835, and was wry favorably mentioned by the 

Birch, Thomas. (Am.) Born in London (1779-1851). II< 
-i the Onii the painting of porl 

in Philadelphia early in :' : centnry. In 1807 lit- visited the 

taming his attention then-after to marine views 

with mark During the War of 1813 and later, he painted 

illustrating the naval battles and victori 
the l" - He in also happy in hii roprcscn tationg ofsnow- 

scenes. His ptetun menta between the •* United 81 

Macedonian "and between the "Constitution and Guerriere * are 

in t:. ;i of Philadelphia, and three of his marine 

n are in ti. 
Bisi, Giuseppe, (/tot) I " Member 

of the Academy of Milan, wl. tOT of the Bchool of 

When young he entered the French army i- a 

Empire he went t<. Milan, when- lie 
1 painting, and later en- 
i of Massimo d'Azeglio. In 1^:J7 lie exhibited ■ I 

taade." Hi- u Battle of 
and the u lit rnio ' wa 

Bisi. Luigi (/Cat) l Milan, 1814 Pupil of the 


of Milan. His works are chiefly interiors. That of the Cathedral of 
Milan is the most famous, and is now in the gallery of that city. 

Bispham, Henry C. (Am.) Born in Philadelphia, 1841. He 
studied in Philadelphia, under William T. Richards, and, going to 
Paris, was for some time a pupil of Otto Webber. His professional 
life has been spent in Philadelphia, Paris, and New York, and his 
pictures have been exhibited and are owned in these cities. To the 
National Academy, in 1869, he sent "On the Campagna," "To the 
Front" (belonging to Alice Carey), and "Noonday Rest"; in 1875, 
" A Misty Day " ; in 1878, " Tigris " and " Landscape and Cattle." 

His " Dead in the Desert " (1867) belongs to Dr. Burdick of New 
York; "Roman Bull" (1867), to the Century Club; "The Wine- 
Cart " (1868), to Dr. Holcombe of New York ; "The Raid" (1866), to 
E. Merrick of Philadelphia ; " Hunted Down" (1871), to George Ma- 
gee, New York; "The Stampede " (1873), to Albert Hayden, New 
York ; " Crouching Lion," to H. P. Cooper. " The Stampede " was at 
the Centennial Exhibition of Philadelphia in 1876. 

" Bispham has executed several excellent pictures wherein the cattle in pastoral, and 
the wild animals in wild landscapes are delineated with great authenticity and fine 
feeling." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists, 1867. 

Bisschop, Christophe. (Dutch.) Born at Leeuwarde. Pupil 
of Comte and Gleyre. Medal at Philadelphia. At Paris, in 1877, he 
exhibited "The Neighbor"; in 1872, "The Painter of the Cradle" 
and " The Curiosity-Seller." 

At the Wilson Exposition at Brussels, in 1873, was seen his picture 
of "The Offering." John F. Weir, in his report, says of his works : — 

"Two portrait-studies, entitled 'At Church' and 'Dieuwke,' were unsurpassed by 
anything of the kind in the whole exhibition. Admirable in expression, in force of 
chiaroscuro, and in richness of coloring, these pictures are worthy of highest praise. 
The tones are clear and deep, and the roundness and relief of the forms are rendered 
with great skill. " 

At the Royal Academy Exhibition, London, 1876, Bisschop exhib- 
ited "Sharpening a Skate, Friesland." At the Paris Exposition of 
1878 he exhibited P The Jewels of the Queen " and two other works. 

Blaas, Karl. (Ger.) Born at Nauders, Tyrol (1815-1876). 
Professor in the Academy of Vienna, and, later, in that of Venice. 
Medal at Paris. Blaas studied at Venice under Liparini. Among 
his works are, " The Separation of Jacob and Laban," at the Museum 
of Vienna ; a series of frescos illustrating the life of Christ, at the 
modern church of Foth in Hungary ; a part of the frescos at the new 
Cathedral at Vienna and " The Battles of Zentha and Nordlingen," 
which last two were at the Exposition of 1867, where his picture of 
" Charlemagne visiting a Boys' School " took a medal. 

Blaas, Eugen. (Ger.) Born at Albano, 1843. Member of the 
Academy of Venice, where he had studied under his father, Karl 
Blaas. He has also studied in Vienna, where he obtained a prize. 
He has traveled in England and on the Continent. Blaas painted in 


an altar-piece for the shape! of St Valentine at Obennaii near 
Evening in Murano" (i s 7»») was purchased fox the 
ral Academy Exposition, I 
lin, l- [hibiied "A Balconj Scene in Veni 

Blackmail, Walter. (its*.) A native of N« m fork, residing in 
time, and studying there under Qerome. To thi 
bibitionofl 9 ty of American Painters, in 1878, he sent "Caught 
in the Act" ; to the Park Salon, the aime year, "News of the 1 1 
and "Comment deji ! " 
Blauc, Louis Ammy. (''""•) Bora at Berlin, 1810. Studi 

knit-painter. Many of hie titters have 

yal families and members of courts. In the National Gal- 

lin is his u Plahing QirL" 

Blanc. Paul Joseph. (IV.) Born at Paris. Medals, 1807, '70, 

ami '7l\ Pupil of Bin and QebanaL At the Luxembourg ii bis "Per- 

the Salon of 1876 he exhibited "The Deliver- 

and "The Vow of Qovii at the Battle of Tolbia 

in 1873, "The Invasion" (Virgil) ; in I87i, 

"The Abduction of the Palladium"; in 1878, "The Wife of a Bri- 

M. E. Pasteur. 

Blanchard, Henri-Pe'tros-Le'on-Pharainond. (Fr.) Born at 

Quillotiere (1805- l v 73). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil 

of Chaaselat and Gros. He has traveled in Africa, Spain, M- 

•.many, and his numerous works represent the scenery 

and i countries, "The Disarming of Vera-Crux" 

Ilea; "Yaeeo Nunez de Balboa d is c ove r in g the 

.ught by the - The March of ■ Di- 

Vench Army on Mexico. — the Arrival at Plan-del-Rio " 
Ministry of Fine Arts. Blanchard has 
contributed t<> " LTllustration," and in 1855 publi-died •• LTtineraire 
riptif de P -tantinople." 

Blanchard, Auguste-Thom as-Marie. (Fr.) Born at P 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Alter receiving ■ prise 
for engraving, at the Institute, he determined to devote himself to the 
reproduction of notable modern pictures. The following are ai 

of Chri-t " and •• The Angel I l'au-t and 

Margiu-ri; trait of the Emperor," after Ed. 

Dub I aasonnirr ; "Jupiter and Ant! 

after Correggi iter Frith ; "Th.- Chess-Plaj 

after Mei- .land 

with I dliaiu of Prui John Philip ; 

.;• of the n •■ The 

or found by his Mother in the Temple," after Holman Hunt; 

"Th* re at Bom Alma-Tad At 

Exhibition, , he exhibit Bcnlptare- 


Gallery," after Alma-Tadema, and " A Picture-Gallery " (both scenes 
in Rome), after the same master. 

Blanchard, Edouard The'ophile. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Prix 
de Rome, 1868. Medals, 1872 and '74. Pupil of Cabanel. At the 
Salon of 1877 he exhibited a portrait of the Duchess of Castiglione- 
Colonna ; in 1874, " Hylas borne away by the Nymphs," now at the 
Luxembourg, " Herodias," and a portrait ; in 1872, " A Courtesan." 

Blanchard, Jules. (Fr.) Born at Puiseaux. Medals at Paris, 
1866, '67, and '73. Pupil of Jouffroy. At Philadelphia he exhib- 
ited the " Juggler " (in bronze), and received a medal. At the Salon 
of 1878 he exhibited two portrait busts. 

Blaser, Gustav. (Ger.) Born at Diisseldorf (1813-1874). Pro- 
fessor at Berlin Academy. Studied under the painter Mengelberg, 
then under the sculptors Stephan and Scholl in Mayence, and at 
length under Rauch in Berlin, where he assisted the latter in the 
monument to Frederick. In 1845 he visited Italy. Among his 
works are a fine group, " Minerva leading a Young Man to Battle," on 
the Castle Bridge at Berlin ; the Francke monument, at Magdebourg ; 
a statue of Duke Albert, for Marienburg ; several statues of Frederick 
William IV., for different places ; and portrait-statues and busts of 
Humboldt, Hegel, the Crown-Princess of Prussia, and other notable 
people. His last work was an equestrian statue of Frederick William 
III., for Cologne. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his statue called 
"Hospitality." At Berlin, in 1876, were exhibited, together with the 
last-named, a marble and a bronze group, called " Janus." 

Blashfield, Edwin H. (Am.) Born in New York. Resides in 
Paris, studying under Bonnat, and sending to the Salon of 1878 " The 
Emperor Commodus leaving the Amphitheatre at the Head of the 
Gladiators." His " Young Poet " was exhibited there in 1875 ; his 
" Toreador" and " Monseigneur," in 1876. 

Among his works are, " Treasure Trove," sent to the Philadelphia 
Exhibition in 1876 ; an "Interior," containing two cavaliers of the 
Middle Ages, at the Brooklyn Art Association of 1875 ; etc. 

Blauvelt, Charles F., N. A. {Am.) Born in the city of New York, 
1824. He studied drawing in the National Academy, and received 
instruction in colors from the late Charles L. Elliott. The greater 
part of his professional life has been spent in New York, excepting 
three years in Philadelphia. He is at present (1878) Professor of 
Drawing at the U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. Blauvelt 
was one of the original members of the Artists' Fund Society in 1859, 
being elected full member of the National Academy the same year. 
In 1864 he was elected member of the Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts. Among the better known of Blauvelt's works are " Warm- 
ing Up " ; " The Lost Child," belonging to Edward Clark, Philadel- 
phia ; " The Night Signal " ; " Waiting for the Train," belonging to 
Mr. Baldwin, Philadelphia ; " Inquiring the Way," belonging to Mrs. 

.1/ /' mi: NINETEENTH CENTURY, 07 

!>•• Mount, New Fork; "Preparing for School," property of Mr, 
gee, Philadelphia ; "Snowed In" and u Burned Out,'' in the poa- 
seesion o\' Mr. Roe, New Fork ; and a number of small single figure 
subjects In different collections in New York and elsewhere, Blanyelt 
is a frequent contributor to the exhibitions of the National Academy, 
Fork, and the Academy of Fine Arts in Philadelphia. 

"Blauvelfs 'Waning Op ' tad 'Counterfeit Bill * have much truth to fact and i -har- 
— Tivkerman's Bjfcot of the A 

Bleibtreu. Georg. | I D at Xantcn, 1828, Member of 

demy, where he had received two medals. Medal 
at Vienna, 1873. Studied at the Academy of Duaseldorf and under 
Th. Hildebrandt, historical and military painter. At the National 
Lin are the "Battle of Koniggratx " and "Soldiers i 
n, in L864." H<- followed the army in 1S70 in order to 
study the subjects of his pictures, Uv has made many lithographs For 
illustrated publications, At the Exposition at the Royal Academy, 
Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited "The Emperor at the Battle-Field of 
eille" and "The Meeting of Von Moltke and Wimpfen the 
Blery, Eugene. (Fr.) Born at Foiitainebleau, 1808. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. This engraver has been devoted to his pro- 
d from his earl . and has produced an immense number 

':iinu r -. and sketches in crayon, pen and ink. etc. Blery has also 
. illustrated, and printed souk- treatises on Plants. 
Block, Eugene Francois de. {Belgian.} Born at Grammont, 
svalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of De Brackeleer, at 
: Van HufFel. at Ghent His pictures have been exhib- 
od Liverpool, They represent getm sub 
Dg the Bible " Was purchased by the Queen of Holland. 

'• In his aim after the real, De Block rarely loses light «f that ideality which gives a 
grace even to a commonplace subject" — James Dafforne, Art Journal, March, 1866. 

Blondel, Jacob D., A. X. A. (Am.) Born in New York of Irish 

parent- (1*^17 - l s 77). B study of art when he was thirty, 

5 a pupil of William Page. He confined himself to portraiture, 

and I War of the Rebellion had attained some celebrity in 

h of the profession. Be was particularly remarkable 
the free effect of his The last I his life wen- spent 

in misery and unhapjiine-s. In dc.-ji poverty In- was too sriisiti . 

w;mts known to his friends, and is said to have died of 

N w York. ipecimens 

of hi- m in the possession of Mr. Joseph 

Mei ional 

Bloomer. H Reynolds. (Am.) Borah 

and living in that city for s | In 1-77 


he sent to the Paris Salon, " After the Shower " and a landscape ; in 
1878, "A Waterfall near Cernay-la-Ville." 

To the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876 he sent " El Dorado " ; to 
Paris, in 1878, " Old Bridge at Grez." 

Bbcklin, Arnold. (Swiss.) Born at Basle, 1827. Member of 
the Academy of Munich. Medals at Berlin, Vienna, and Munich. 
Pupil of Wilhelm Schirmer at Diisseldorf. Bbcklin has spent his 
professional life in Pome, Basle, Hanover, Munich, and Weimar 
(where for a time he was a Professor in the Art School). He now 
lives at Florence. At the Paris Salon of 1868 he exhibited " Pe- 
trarch in Solitude, — a Landscape " and " Christ and the Magdalene." 
The last is in the Museum at Basle, where is also his " Centaur 
Struggle." His " Sea Idyl," which took a medal at Berlin, is now in 
the Paris International Exposition. A number of his pictures are in 
the gallery of Count A. von Schack at Munich. S. G. W. Benjamin, 
in his " Contemporary Art in Europe," gives considerable space to the 
contemplation of Bbcklin and his works, and though he praises him, 
thinks that he can never be a popular artist, because he will not be 
understood by the masses. 

The first extract given below is a part of that by Gustav Floerke, 
upon the " Sea Idyl," when it was seen at Berlin. It was translated 
by Mr. Sylvester Baxter, and printed in the Boston Daily Advertiser, 
April 5, 1878, from which we have taken it. 

" Bocklin is an artist of the highest rank. Caring neither for mode-painting nor for 
public, he has gone his own lonely way and he goes it still, at times, indeed, in a step 
so unheeding as if he were alone in the world. He has learned much from the masters 
and just as much from nature, and with both he knows the way by foot. He has the 
poetic intuition of a grandly picturesque imagination, and also a high valuation of the 
moment, the first impression, together with the power to catch and hold it. Though 
with him this moment may appear to be less than it is in actual nature, and, on the 
other hand, rather to represent something seen beneath the surface, Bocklin knows how 
to clothe this image of his imagination with more and grander nature and to give it form 
more picturesquely than any other German figure-painter of the age. Bocklin would 
paint nothing which did not poetically interest and inspire him, although his percep- 
tions and ideas appear so strong and genuinely picturesque as with few others. He 
reaches an impression through the poetic ideas which are woven all through his paint- 
ing, and expresses these ideas by means of the most marvelous painting. 

" Bocklin's poesie appears to be understood by few. All the same. Painting is no 
vehicle for the plain expression of feelings or thoughts, but should only incite them ; 
and it could little harm the worth of a picture if every one capable of receiving impres- 
sions at all should be affected by it in a different way. For instance, even to-day pro- 
fessionals and unprofessionals are still disputing with the utmost seriousness as to 
what Titian's ' Amor sacro e profano ' is, on the whole, intended to represent. Adolf 
Stahr, indeed, related to me a whole novelette which he had read out of it But up to 
this day I have not noticed that the picture has grown either better or worse by reason 
of any new explanation, or that it has thereby gained in effect. I must confess that I 
always receive the highest enjoyment from this painting when I simply gaze at it,— then 
I invariably feel myself begin to glow with an emotion as if I were allowed to behold the 
Eleusinian mysteries of the beautiful, — if I seek to do more, if my understanding begins 
to question, then the curtain falls. 


" With lkicklin also h it thousand-fold. Independent kind which ran be 

traced in h it which, h \ ed in its entirety 

according to the subjectivity of the beholder. 'Tii.a Isa grand painting,' eeyi 
Good. *Tiii •. he presence of wftdoh era* the — — n ■ J w dd t a. That is the 

Of all human life, man-hating Nature herself, made visible unto us by tin- simplest 
of means.' Also true. ' Ami (hers where all life is paralyzed two bainga Ik OB a jagged 
ledge in the prese: uing storm. Little can tin y f.-r t h- I hat is 

- delight,' This i -• Bala, urinal-lift 

human-like. with what nev. r b> be-f 

into V. l»ix-s he long t-> 1k> a man. a poor, fearing, hut Qodltke man. as man 

made in the image ■ to t>e like Bod ? .... Is he loaghag fct a soul or for the 

loath. mermen are damn.. i. I baHoraf. .. . H« f re the fall of the 

have these eyes tooked ui«>n c. >d, - ins glory and bk wrath! For they are mom thai 
human eyes " I ■ .r reader, I know not why this animal body dings to the 

rocks so convulsively, while the human soul in t: mindful of the pj 

shows something entirely different from storm-dread. And mar by carelessly re. lines 
his bodily, more baaililftll companion, -- a humanly boautlfnl naked woman. She enjoys 
r in whieh only her kind come to the surface. When she sees 
the dreamer she will laugh at him and carelessly drag him down with her into their 
home-depths. .... What know I? Bocklin has seen the dreadness of the sea in mo- 
ments when only t: sgl of the depths venture up, and he makes us look into 
the fal-le-like reality of still undiscovered existences. This time it is no mere chance if 
lea lion ' has never yet appeared unto the honorable public. Out there where the 
Sunda lin has seen it rise op longingly, there are no reserved seats, neither 
for naturalists nor f->r inquisitive everyday men. Even the most enterprising q 
correspondent would have been deTo nr e d "r blown away long before coming thither, 
• iture is at home in that ■ 

;re of Bocklin, called " A Nymph and Fauns," has raised a tempest ; it has 
become an < g with the public which reproaches him with an uncouth ap- 

pearance, and a matter of commiseration to his friends, who deplore this error in a man 
of talent. It is then something out of the ordinary, and for this reason merits attention. 
Let us examine it without prejudging it It is spring-time, — the turf and flowers are 
dazzling in t sky is blue, some winged children dance joyously in 

the air. The nymph of the fountain is in a state of ecstasy because spring has come 1 1 
clad with a drapery of blue gauze, she leans her elbows on a rustic urn, and listens to a 
tinger ; he tells her where he has passed the winter, how much 
ha desired, to return to her, and he celebrates in his way the grandeur of Nature, which 
has put on new life. Our nymph aaveatfai not that she, in her turn, is the object of an 
admiration w gh coarse and timid, is none the less profound. Two fauns — 

one almost a child, mea; •. m a bear half licked : the other older, red, out 

of br> . paflad up like a eow-herd, the body distended by fit approach the 

fountain, at: painfully ascends the hflloefc ■ pring, 

the younger one awkwardly rea . .• the water whieh flows from 

the urn. They seem ashamed and embarrassed, because they know how ugly tie 
•0 ugly that more than one visitor turns away with IndlgeetiOB ... Aa to the color, 
tt has been discovered to be false ; a thing easy to see, because the artist I 
good sense to neglect values snd shades in so fantasti ... Bocklin has 

Wished to r e pr esen t the eternal contrast between beauty and ugliness, and has - 
to give to this commonplace subject a new and artistic form. Instead of representing 
Qaaa imodo and Esmeralda, he has, by an tr. Banana, invented a BOWM whieh 

appears to be taken from life, and yet has a poet: i ith a 

fantasy and a muW< w ill, he ha* poured lavaa a 

perfume of youth and gayety which makes us forget the ugline*-* of thi 
only a harmonious and poetic souvenir of kse Mltttz. (beans des 

BnmArU, October, 186*. 


" A. Bocklin, with all his peculiarities, has always succeeded in being original in his 
design and interesting in his manner of painting. This time we have a Flora before us, a 
lively goddess in a rococo nightdress, with a violet-colored scarf and red velvet shoes, 
walking through the meadow scattering flowers. In the background Ave see snow on the 
mountains, but the sun, which has brought forth the freshness in the valleys, has melted 
these last remnants of winter, and the mountain brooks flow merrily along the path of 
our Flora. An idea certainly poetical in itself, but how disagreeably rendered ! Bock- 
lin, in his latest works, intentionally seeks Farbendissonanzen [dissonant colors], and 
in ugliness of form exceeds possibilities. In such draperies no one*could exist, — the 
nude parts are woodeny and shapeless, the color is sharp, and yet, with all these faults, 
his pictures are interesting, — the strange form will rest in one's memory against the 
will, like a melody that it vexes one not to forget." — Beiblatt zur Zeitschrift fur bildende 
Kunut, November 17, 1877. 

Bodmer, Karl. (Swiss.) Born at Zurich, 1805. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. This artist, after the completion of his studies, 
traveled in North America and other countries, and made his debut 
at the Salon in Paris in 1836. He has since resided both in Paris 
and Germany, and. has exhibited at nearly every salon : in 1878 two 
pictures, one an autumn and one a summer scene ; in 1877, "The 
Preliminaries of a Combat " ; in 1875, " Haute futaie " and three 
typographical etchings ; in 1874, " A Quarry in the Forest of Fon- 
tainebleau, Winter of 1870-71 " ; in 1872, " The Border of a Marshy 
Forest " and " The Outskirts of a Field " ; in 1870, " A Fox Terrier," 
etc. His " Interior of a Forest in Winter" (1850) is in the Luxem- 
bourg. Bodmer's etchings are numerous and very fine. The follow- 
ing quotation relates to them : — 

" He is an artist of consummate accomplishment in his own way, and of immense 
range. There is hardly a bird or quadruped of Western Europe that he has not drawn, 
and drawn, too, with a closeness of observation satisfactory alike to the artist and nat- 
uralist. The bird or the beast is always the central subject with Karl Bodmer, but he 
generally surrounds them with a graceful landscape, full of intricate and mysterious 
suggestions, with here and there some plant in clearer definition, drawn with perfect 
fidelity and care." — P. G. Hamerton, Portfolio, February, 1873. 

Boe, Francois Didier. (Nor.) Born at Bergen, 1820. Pupil of 
the Academy of Copenhagen and of the painter Groenland. This 
artist paints principally flowers, fruits, and birds. His " Bunch of 
Grapes " (1850) was purchased for the Louvre. He has frequently 
sent pictures to Paris, which have been much admired. He received 
a medal at Vienna in 1873, and an Honorable Mention at Stockholm 
in 1866. At the Paris Exposition of 1878 he exhibited three pictures 
of fruits and flowers, and one landscape, " A View of Mountains in 

Boehm, Joseph Edgar, A. R. A. (Austrian -British.) Born at 
Vienna, 1834. At the age of fifteen he went to London, studying 
from the Elgin Marbles and from copies of the old masters in the 
British Museum, subsequently working in Italy, Paris, and. Vienna. 
He settled in London in 1862, and became a British citizen three years 
later. He was made a member of the Academy of Florence in 1875, 
an Associate of the Royal Academy of Great Britain in 1878. Among 


t" John Leech, Millais, Thackeray, end other 
prominent contemp liahmen. He executed the colossal stat- 

£ the Queen at Windsor, the Prince of Wal day. and 

that Northbrook for Calcutta. Among hie statue* are thoee 

of Thomaa Garlyle, John Banyan in Bedford, sir John Burgoyne in 

rlo • Place, London, Lord Napier of Magdala (t<> g i to India), the 
Duke <-t' Rent in Windsor Castle, ami of other member! of tin- Royal 

r tills DOble J' >>f iv.rtrniture [Thomas Carlvle. l»y Boehm] I rained tn. 

Mif toczpfOMBypanoBalgratttodfl Hereto*] ad a — ntl s l eculp- 

tuir : - .1. s].»nt carefully on a intyeet worthjof out; motive 

and method alike ri^ht ; no peilM sip.irtil and none wasted" ■ - Kcskin'.s Notes 0/ the 

Boenisch. Gustav Adolf. (Ger.) Born at Troppan (Silesia), 

1802. Member of the Academy at Berlin. Studied architecture at 

n, and was also a of Wach. Traveled in Scandinavia, 

remained some time at Heligoland. He paints landscapes and draws 

remarkably well At the National Gallery at Berlin are two Nor- 

•1 views by Boenisch, and another taken near Breslau. 

Boeswillwald, Emile. (7-V. 1 Born at Strasbourg, L815. Ofli- 

>nof Honor. This architect has held various offices 

[intended important works, among which may be mentioned 

the restoration of the church of Notre Dame at Laon, and that of the 

Central Rabbinical School at Met/. 

Bogle. James, X. A. (Am.) Born 'in 8onth Carolina (1817 - 1873). 

Evinced in youth a rte for art, ami removed to New York 

in 181 he studied under Professor Morse, confining his atten- 

: trait-painting, making for himself an excellent reputation 

in that city and in the South. Among his early Bitten Were Calhoun, 

distinguished men; his portraits of John A. 

ind Henry •'. Raymond were among his later works. He was 

■ taonal Academy in 1850, and Academi- 

He exhibited but rarely during the last »f his 

his declining health interfering with the active pursuit of his 


Bogoliooboff, Alexis. {Russian.) At Philadelphia he exhibited 

two pi. n, : fcift on tie ind "\ Landscape," and 

i medaL 

Boit, Edward D. (Am.) IF-- began his art Btudi -ton, 

ing to the Continent >. he became a 

pupil living in that 

ind painted in Rome. I [< enl to the 
:i of 1878 "Beach of Vfllers, Normandy." He has 
tributed to the inong others, M La Plage de Villeri 

(Calvados." in I 
Eoldini. G rtist who paints in the style of] 

in an 


Orchard " (9 by 13) sold for $ 2,150. At the Walters Gallery, Balti- 
more, is a picture by bim of a " Lady sitting under a Tree feeding 
Poultry/' of which the Sunday Bulletin, February 12, 1876, speaks" 
in high praise, and says, " the handling is bold and simple, and the 
result extremely pleasing." In his figure subjects, which always sug- 
gest Meissonnier (and suggest him to the disadvantage of Boldini), 
this artist is less happy than in his landscapes. His effects of light 
and his glorious sunshine make his pictures in this department most 
pleasing. Among his subjects is " The Connoisseur." 

"Boldini's painting of sunshine and of daylight is, as we have said, triumphant; the 
purest warmth and clearness of coloring and of lighting are seen in his best and most 
characteristic works. Great breadth of light, delicious purity of tint, brightness and 
sparklingness and pearliness, — these are the qualities in which he excels, and in which 
is displayed his genuine artistic work In the foreground he will put a namby- 
pamby, heartless woman to whom a ridiculous dandy is making love ; but so skill- 
fully does he cause the figures to play their part in his scheme of chiaroscuro and color 
that, even if inanimate, they would scarcely be out of place. The souls which they 
have not are in the sunshine, the grass, and the flowers ; and we may say of him, as has 
been said of another master of the palette, that if he is an ass in painting an angel, he is 
an angel in painting an ass." — Art Journal, July, 1878. 

Bonheur, Marie-Rosa. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux, 1822. Member 
of the Institute of Antwerp and of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of her 
father, Raymond Bonheur, a good artist, who died in 1853. Hamerton 
calls Rosa Bonheur " the most accomplished female painter who ever 
lived." She is a pure and generous woman as well, and can hardly be 
too much admired, whether we regard her as woman or artist. It is 
scarcely more unusual to find talent like hers than to find a woman who 
can preserve her good name, and enjoy the absolute freedom from con- 
ventionalities necessary to such an artistic career as that of Rosa Bon- 
heur ; her studies having placed her in contact with men and circum- 
stances not often met by artists of her sex. She made her debut at the 
Salon of 1841, to which she sent two small pictures, " Goats and Sheep " 
and " Two Rabbits." Daring nine following years she contributed to 
every salon, but passed over 1851 and '52, and exhibited in 1853 
her famous " Horse Fair." At the Expositions of 1855 and '67 her 
works were admired by all the world. This artist has also exhibited 
a few pieces of sculpture, which have not increased her fame. Many 
of her pictures are in England, where enormous prices have been paid 
for them. Hamerton says, " I have seen work of hers which, accord- 
ing to the price given, must have paid her a hundred pounds for each 
day's labor." She is simple in her tastes and habits of life, and many 
stories are told of her generosity to others. In 1849 she took the 
direction of the Free School of Design for Girls, which she founded, 
where she is assisted by her sister Juliette, now Madame Peyrol. 

Many of the pictures of Rosa Bonheur are well known by the en- 
gravings from them. Among her principal works may be mentioned 
" Plowing in the Nivernais " (at the Luxembourg), " Sheep on the 


lore " (exhibited in 1S<»7, and purchased by tin- Empresi Eug6- 
nir), "Haymaking in Auvergne," "Oxen and Cows," "The Throe 
Musketeei seing an open Space, 11 "Gowa and Sheep 

in ■ Roadway Hollow," etc. This ai t ist has painted a few portraits, 
She presented I Sand ■ portrait of thai writer when twenty- 

ore yean old, and in the costume in which Rosa Bonhenr first saw 
her. At the Sale Wertheiraber, Paris, 1861, "A Flock o( Sheep in 

3e, in the midst of the Heath, in the Mountains of Scotland " 
(only IS by 65 centimeters) brought 14,650 francs. At the sale of 
Mr. Belmontfe pictures in New Fork, in 1 s 7l\ m Eteturning to Pasture" 

for about J At the Snowies sale, London, L866,"Span- 

ing the Pyi e u ee a " sold for 2,000 guineas. At the 
sale, New York, 1876, "A Landscape with Animals" sold 
. At the Latham sale, New York, L878, " Highland Cat- 
tle* (17 by 52) brought $610; and "Noonday Repose, — Sheep n 
(18 i . During the investment of Paris, 1870-71, the 

Prince Royal of Prussia (rave ti. t orders that the fa 

and studio of Ross Bouhcur at Fontainebleau should not be in any 
manner disturbed. Vapeteau say-, *• She is praised, above all, for firm- 
_-n and for the grand character of her lands. &] 

" But the greatest animal-painter now in France is probably Rosa Bonheur. There is 
the same intense observation and sympathy with Nature, the same vigor of treatment, 
we find in the works of Troyon and Landseer. More refinement than in Troyon, with 
rather less power, but more power than in Landseer, so far as the representation 
tie to concerned." — S. G. W. Benjamin. Contemporary Art in Europe. 

Bonheur, Francois-Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux, 1824. 

ilierof t: of Honor. Brother of Ross Bonheur and 

pupil of his father. At the Salon of 1845 he exhibited " Children 

led in the Pyrenees, Auvergne, etc, and 

for his ftnest pictures. His portraits of his father and 

.1 '48) are hia best effort* in portraiture. Like his 

he painti oxen with remarkable truthfulness, but in her i 

iwing fame that of the brother has been lessened, and he has not 

alwaj the praise justly his ,i U e. The following are some of 

The Ruins of Apchssi " (purchased by II de ICorny); 

■• Sard i : 

(1861) : " Return bom the Fair" 
enirof A enirof the Pyn 

of Jail. -via.-." -Th- Shepherd and the Sea" (1868); "The 
i souvenir of the Pyrenees (186 uvenir of 

la plnie 1 

•1 Cor MO guineas. Thii artist 
works to • 

tubited the u Valley of the Jordanne " and a 



" Bonheur is a hearty realistic painter, fresh in color, healthful in feeling, with an 
out-door consciousness of work about his pictures ; not imaginative, inclined to the 
literal, but possessing the ability — in which his sister is deficient— of giving vitality 
to his work." — Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

" Auguste Bonheur has dared —and it is great audacity — to unvarnish nature, to take 
away the smoke and the dirt, to wash off the bitumen sauce with which art ordinarily 
covers it, and he has painted it as he sees it. His animals have the soft and satin-like 
skin of well-to-do animals ; his foliage, the bright freshness of plants washed by the rain 
and dried by the sun. Certain parts are complete in deception, and produce the illusion 
of relief like the stereoscope ; . . . . doubtless this illusion is unnecessary in historical 
painting, where the ideal and style should predominate ; but it adds a charm to the rep- 
resentation of physical nature." — Theophile Gautier, Abecedaire du Salon de 1861. 

Bonheur, Jules Isidore. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux, 1827. Medals 
1865 and '67. Brother of Kosa Bonheur. Sculptor and painter. 
He studied with his father, and made his debut at the Salon of 1848 
with a canvas and a marble, each representing a " Combat between 
a Lioness and an African Horseman." Since then he has abandoned 
painting. His specialty is the representation of animals. "The 
Zebra and Panther" has been cast in bronze for the government. 
"The Bull" (1865), "Dromedary" and "Royal Tiger" (1868), "A 
Lioness and her Young" (1869), "An Ox and a Dog " (1870), "A 
Mare and Colt" (1872), "Pepin le Bref in the Arena" (1874), and 
" The Tiger-Hunter " (1877) may be mentioned among his most im- 
portant works. At the London Academy, in 1875, he exhibited " The 
Head of a Running Dog " and " The Head of a Dog at Rest," both in 
bronze. In 1878 he exhibited two groups in plaster, " Cheval de 
course " and " Cheval de manege." 

Bonheur, Juliette, now Madame Peyrol. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 
1830. Sister of Rosa Bonheur and also a pupil of her father. Her 
pictures are, "A Flock of Geese," "A Flock of Sheep lying down," 
and kindred subjects. The last was much remarked at the Salon of 
1875. Madame Peyrol is well known by her association with her 
sister in the care of the Free School of Design, founded in 1849 by 
the latter. To the Salon of 1878 she sent " The Pool " and " The 
Mother's Kiss." 

Bonnassieux, Jean Marie. (Fr.) Born at Pannassiere, 1810. 
Member of the Institute and Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. 
Among the works of this sculptor may be mentioned, " Love cutting 
his Wings" (1842), at the Luxembourg ; "Jeanne Hachette," for the 
garden of the Luxembourg ; " The Virgin Mother," for the church 
of Feurs ; the busts of Ballanche and Ampere, for the Museum at 
Lyons ; etc. Bonnassieux was commissioned to decorate the new 
church of St. Augustin at Paris. 

" Bonnassieux presents the perfected expression of that elevated mysticism which has 

been the soul of the artists of Lyons of this century Bonnassieux possesses that 

flexibility of nature without which there is no true artist, because that alone gives 
variety and fruitfulness. Add to this flexibility a knowledge which has no artifice, no 
trick, not even the most legitimate ones ; his execution is as naive as his conception of 
his subject. It is a pleasure, in this day of charlatanism, to find a talent exempt from 

all il« aes, — and this sin him batter than eoold the most sdrotl 

j ."— Emm i V 

Bonnat, L^on-Joseph-Florentin. (/•>.) Bornal Bayonne, 1833. 
rot' tin' Legion <>t" Honor. II*- studied under Frederic Bfadraso 
If adrid, and came to Paris when twenty-one . and 

1 himself under the direction <>f Leon Cogniet Betook the 
• 1 grand prix d which did no1 entitle him to enter the 

Villa Medicia, bul in i v ">> his friends in Bayonne furnished means f'<>r 
him to go to Italy, where la- remained four years. The first work of 
Bonnat J 8 which received attention was "Adam and Eve finding the 
\'ih1 *' (1800) ; this was bought for the Gallery at Lille. In 
.ua Biaria " attracted much attention, and he followed 
with a number of small Italian genre pictures, which seemed to be 
his foru*. In L868 he exhibited an historical Bubject, '"Ant: 
leading tin- Blind QSdipus," which was only moderately praised ; in 
nil "St. Vincent de Paul taking the Place of a Prisoner," 
ned by the city of Paris, was ro eived with much favor; in 1869 
the u Assumption " was so much admired, that he was encouraged to 
paint the '"Christ on the 0086," which appeared in 1874, and was a 
commission for the Palais de Justice. In 1877 Bonnat exhibited a 
M. Thiers ; in 1876, "A Negro Barber*' (Sue/) and 
■ The Wrestling of Jacob " ; in 1873, "A Turkish Barber," belonging 
Lwabacher, and ''Scherzo,'' belonging to M. Gorfounkel ; in 
1878, 3 of Akabafa " (Arabia Petrea) and U A Woman of I' 

ritz" ; in 187Q "A Fellah Woman and her Child" and "A Street in 
Jerusalem," belonging to M. Paseault ; etc. At the Oppenheim 
-. 1-77, - Italian Dancers " sold for 15,000 francs. At the S 
of 1878 be exhibited two portraits. The "Elder Sister," a very 
beautiful piece of color, belongs to Mr. H. P. Kidder, and attracted 
much attention at the Mechanic-' Fair in 1875. 

a popularity which he has now enjoyed for some years is chiefly owing to his 
small Italian pictures. But whatever may be the talent and thought spent apon < abi- 
net pictures, an artist who has lived j n Bone, and studied the - -. can hardly 

remain satisfied with a kind of success so different boa the dreams of liis youth. M. 
Bonnat, in consequence, has simultaneously followed two directions, which seem op- 
posed to each other, and the painter of the graceful little figures, so hotly disputed by 

amateurs, has never forgotten that he ought to be an historical painter Is 

' Christ on the Cross ' to be shown to us SStheGod who dies for the human race, or simply 

as a tortured man writhing in his last ; this last interpretation M. 1 

adhered, and, his ] tdihttsd, it nasi be acknowledged that he has 

fairly succeeded. The sufferer, in the Boidst of the most horrible pa -train 

in a last effort ; his ■ m - swell, and the li^'ht, which brings all into 

pitiless relief, clearly defines each swollen limh, and makes 

Striking trompe-l'fril. But if the pas.siiiK' from HI 

brutal reality, the emotion stirred by it is ■ 

Redeemer emaciate. 1 by fasts, nor the Boa of Qod suffering but resigned , it is a i 

man, who has bred a common life, and whose body undergoes tortures in which 

the soul does not share Roman Baaptrs criminals aw 

fled, and it is of them more than of Christ that we are reminded by M 


picture. The horrible suffering of the victim obliges us to pity him ; but the picture 
will not make us admire him or help us to understand him. It was a commission for 
the Palais de Justice. The condemned culprits may, on seeing it, be reminded fearfully 
of death, but they will experience no other feeling. The moral meaning of the subject 
has assuredly not been understood by the artist, although he has produced a piece of 
painting sure to be always appreciated by dilettanti, in spite of the somewhat brazen ap- 
pearance of the flesh, which has been criticised with some degree of reason." — Ren^ 
Menard, The Portfolio, May, 1875. 

Bonnegrace, Charles- Adolphe. (Fr.) Born at Toulon, 1812. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor and of the Order of Saints Maurice 
and Lazarus. Pupil of l'^eole des Beaux- Arts and. of Baron Gros. 
Made his debut at the Salon of 1834. This artist painted "The 
Manna in the Desert " for the church of Saint-Louis en Tile ; " Diffi- 
dence conquered by Love," for the Emperor, in 1861 ; "Jesus among 
the Doctors," for the city of Toulon ; etc. He has painted many ex- 
cellent portraits, some of which belong to the government. At the 
Salon of 1878 he exhibited two portraits. 

Bonvin, Francois-Saint. (Fr.) Born at Vaugirard (Paris). 1817. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Painter of small genre pictures 
resembling those of the Flemish school. " The School of Little 
Orphans" (1850) is in the Museum of Langres ; "Charity" (1852), in 
the Museum of Niort. At the Paris Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Le 
couvreur tombe " (hospital scene) and a water-color of " A Woman 
Watching" (effect of lamplight) ; in 1876, "Gravesend, near Lon- 
don " and " The Abandoned Boat, — Banks of the Thames " ; etc. At 
the Salon of 1878 he exhibited, " L'apprenti cordonnier," belonging to 
M. Seure, and an "Autumn Evening at Port-Marly." 

Boott, Elizabeth. (Am.) Born in Cambridge, Mass. She has 
studied on the Continent for some years, lately in Paris with Couture. 
She paints figures exclusively. She exhibited a number of her works 
in Boston in the autumn of 1877. She sent a portrait to the Phila- 
delphia Exhibition of 1876 ; and " Head of a Tuscan Ox" and " Old 
Man Beading " to the Mechanics' Fair in Boston in 1878. 

Borjesen, J. (Swede.) At Philadelphia he exhibited " The Lady 
of the Lake " and " Psyche," and received a medal. 

Borsato, Giuseppe. (Ital.) Born at Venice, 1800. Member and 
Professor of the Academy of Venice. This artist has painted excellent 
pictures of the principal sites and monuments of his native city, such 
as " The Bridge of Sighs," " The Palace of the Doges," " The Rialto," 
etc., and a series of views on the Roman Campagna. He is also the 
author of " Opera ornamentale pubblicato per cura dell' academia di 
belle-arti de Venezia, 1831." 

Bosboom, Johannes. (Dutch.) Bornat The Hague, 1817. Knight 
of the Order of the Lion (Netherlands), of the Crown of Oak, and of 
the Order of Leopold. At the Exposition of 1855 he obtained a 
medal of the third class, and a medal at Philadelphia in 1876. Pupil 
of B. J. Van Bree. His pictures are views of towns and interiors. 


In l- :tt to Paris, M Franciscan Monks ringing a Te Deum," 

purchased by M. Volcker of The Hague; ** 1 1 ■ • 1 >- Communion In ■ 
stent Church* purchased by M. Fodor ; and " Hall of the Con- 
i.*' In l s <-7 he exhibited an interior from the 
church at Alkmaar and another bom the Cathedra] of Rotterdam. 
Il> • ml Church at Amsterdam" waa pnrchaaed by the 

of Bavaria, and his "Tomb of Engelbert II.. Count of Nassau, 
in the Church of Bi notable picture. At the Wilson Expo- 

n in Bruaaels, in l s 7:J. was teen his M Le Buffet d'Orgui 
Bosio, Astyanax Scevola, (alK«l " v< 'IU14 Boaio." (V'V.) Born 
I iboul 1798- 1876). Chevalier <>!' the Legion of Bonor. 
The father of this sculptor waa ■ painter of history. Hie uncle, the 
irai a sculptor, and the instructor of Bosio the 
He made his debut at the Salon of l^:u. Among hia 
-ivli.f on the Arc de Triomphe ; a statue of u St. Ade- 
laide," at the Madeleine; and a group of four caryatides at the Louvre. 
Bottinelli, Antonio. (Itiil.) Of Rome. At Philadelphia this sculp- 
hibited "Modesty," 44 Hope," u Vanity," et&, and received a medaL 
Boucher, Alfred. (Fr.) Born at Nogent-sur-Seine, Medal of 
the third dasa in 1^77 and the second class in 1878. Pu]»il of A. 
Duinont. Ramus, end P. Dubois. At the Salon of 187.^ he exhibited 
. of u Eve after the Fall,'' and a portrait-bust of M. 
re of the Opera-Comique ; in 1875, a statue of '"The Young 
Fuh i 

Bough, Samuel. (Brit.) A native of Cumberland. He 
comparatively self-taught at an artist, beginning hia professional 
. and practicing very successfully as such for 
time in Glasgow. II.- is at present a resident of Edinburgh, 
ranking high there as a 1 rtisL He was elected an As* 

i Academy in l s 7.~>, and Academician the 
foil-.-. his works an-, "Tlh -Wagon," "St 

-• .mm." - The T London," •• 

Mill-' Sunset on the & .. ' " Ben Heris," "Sidon," "Crossing 

A Windy Day," "Haymaking," "UHs Water," "On 

^position of 1878 he con- 
tributed (in i i) "Win* and a Arran Hill from 
Kelly Park." 

"With a bald, free touch. Bough deals with the Mnf-bMttei r»<ks. the stormy barn, 

and the bra , it <-f the same antecedents as those 

*rt*. Ft remains to be seen whether these will, by patient self- 

M desirable an end." — Mrs. Tytler's Mmlrrn Paintrrt. 

"In res; -h, we need only repeat our former lipuSihlll. II 

is a breadth of hand ami a daring dash away from the w. • ],-wl 

y and refresh met- 
Iras a picture than a positive theft of a j-.rt 1 waU-r. Itohad as by a master- 

stroke from earth and *et as in ■ -_ Art Jam > 

^ Boughton, George H, N A. (J Bon in England, I 


Taken to Albany, N. Y., in 1837, by his parents, where, without 
masters, he began the study of his art, opening his first studio in 
1850. He sold one of his earliest works to the American Art Union 
in 1853, and on the proceeds went to London for the purpose of ob- 
servation and improvement. He returned to America in a few 
months, settling in Albany, and subsequently in New York, where 
he remained two years. First exhibited at the National Academy, 
in 1858, " Winter Twilight." Went to Paris in 1859, studying and 
copying, until he removed in 1861 to London, where he has since 
resided. In 1863 he sent to the British Institute " Passing into the 
Shade," which was highly praised, and to the Royal Academy the 
same year, " Through the Fields " and " Hop-Pickers Returning, — 
Twilight." He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1864, " The In- 
terminable Story" and "Industry"; 1865, " A Breton Haymaker" 
and "Wandering Thoughts"; 1866, " The Swing, Brittany" and 
" Wayside Devotion, Brittany " ; 1867, " The Early Puritans of New 
England"; 1868, "Breton Pastoral"; 1869, "The March of Miles 
Standish"; 1870, "The Age of Gallantry"; 1871, "Colder than 
Snow" and " A Chapter from Pamela"; 1872, "Springtime," "The 
Flight of Birds," and " The Coming of Winter " ; 1873, " The Heir " ; 
1874, "The Canterbury Pilgrims"; 1875, "Gray Days "and "The 
Bearers of the Burden" ; 1876, "A Surrey Pastoral" ; 1877, "Home- 
ward" and "Snow in Spring" ; 1878, "The Waning of the Honey- 
moon " and " Green Leaves among the Sere." 

He has frequently exhibited at the National Academy in New 
York, and was made Academician in 1871, a recognition he has never 
received from the Royal Academy of London. At the Johnston sale, 
New York, 1876, his "Outcasts" (24 by 20) brought $1,005; his 
" Moonlight Skating-Scene " (8 by 13), $ 660 ; and his " Christmas 
in England," $1,025. All his pictures command high prices, and 
many of them are to be found in the finest private galleries in Eng- 
land and America. His " Winter Twilight " is the property of R. L. 
Stuart ; his " Gypsy Woman," of M. 0. Roberts. Shepherd Gandy 
owns his " Coming from Church " ; August Belmont, his " Lake of 
the Dismal Swamp." " The Old Story" is the property of the Academy 
of Design ; "Summer" and "Winter" (water-color), of S. V. Wright. 
"The Testy Governor" (1877), never elsewhere exhibited, is in the 
Corcoran Gallery, Washington ; his " Farewell " and " A Rainy 
Day," in the Walters Collection, Baltimore. The preceding are all 
in this country. His " Normandy Girl in a Shower," " By the Sea," 
the property of W. T. Richards, and " Looking out to Sea " (in water- 
colors), his " Pilgrim's Sunday Morning," belonging to Robert L. Stu- 
art, and " Going to seek his Fortune," to George Whitney (in oils), 
were in the American Fine Art Department at the Centennial Exhi- 
bition, Philadelphia, 1876.. To the British Fine Art Department of 
the Paris Exposition of 1878 he sent, " Snow in Spring," " The 


Bearers of the Burden," and U A S Tenor 

Gallery, London, in 1^7". \ Ruffling . In 1878, 

rah Weather" and •• Tin- Rivala." 

N i American arti»t n more popular among connoisseur! in I 

land, where his w.M-k- meet with ■ ready etle. Hi- I the 

\ a Bngland and lii> pictnrei of Breton peasant Life 

of th an frequently photographed and engraved. 

ta has exhibited inch genuine patboe md purr latent Mntiment 
upon canvas as 1> - taller pletoi of t ti«-ir kind, they 

tell a • . ' OOCDiBg thro' thl 


"In land- lately, at any r.ttc, to be for I 

ted and mod .!. In which Howe, and olnmpi of bo 

score or die ':.• undulations of pasturage, and the aneonfoatd tr.m.-duecnt 

foliage of April d. f delicate color What 

Boughton does best in tigure-pauiting is woman and children, Lis types being never 
without grace of figure and gesture, and having often for sentiment something of that 
reserved gentleness which betongl to lives that have to be passed less in pleasure than in 
patie:. - English Artists of the Present Day. 

I think Mr. Boughton has sue | e x pec tat ion In the task undertaken, 

and it is not too ■ the picture ['Pilgrims setting out for Canterbury,' 

I" the common artifice of composition, an 1 more of direct and 

genuine impression, than any Other of th- lemy. In looking at it there 

conies the conviction th r has truly received an individual thought about 

i that the subject has fascinated him of its own 

strength. This is a very I a very rare quality, in an age when pictures are 

too often laboriously manufactured out of Stock material, and when painters approach 

'.oak in a mechanical and quite perfonetory way." —London Art Journal, July, 

"'God 8peed' by Mr. Boughton, though in many respects representative i f the excel- 
lent qualities of his art, is not thoroughly satisfactory. The oompi 
and broken into episodes, and the sentiment a little strained. Mr Boughton ii 
repre sen ted in the exhib.-. gland Puritans going to 

b ' and his 'Going to Seek his Fortune ' are more satisfactory compositions. The 
sources from w!.ich this artist draws his be-" r and our Puritan 

forefathers ; and no one has entered more thoroughly into the spirit of the times, and 
the customs thus nape 1, and with a more genuine sympathy, than Mr. 

Boughton." /the American Centennial Exhibition o 

" ' Homeward. .. is a charming picture, full of grace and expression, and 

full of story ..i.-e-Gatherers' is one of tic pe and 

figure-painting in ela The picture is a sue 

study of eate, and perfect in young girls and 

children surprised in a coppice by a s poo the first 

green leaves of spring. " — Lovi -k Times, May 18, 

Bouguereau, William Adolphe. | Rochelle, 

r of the Institute and Officer of the Legion of Honor. 

• to the college el Pone, and eTen then 

ahou When the proper Lime arrived be 

was i a and placed in a buaineai bouee. He obtained 

pem. ij, the dra «ol of M. 

moat with ion, intended to be 

arti*: nut of In 


occupations ; thus, when at the end of the year he took the prize for 
which all had striven, the excitement was so great that a riot occurred, 
and the pupils made a formal protest against his receiving it, but 
without effect. He then announced to his family his decision to 
become a painter. He had no money, and went first to Saintouge, 
where his uncle was a priest. No painter had ever been there, and 
Bouguereau was soon busy in making portraits of the dwellers in that 
region. He was able to save 900 francs, with which he went to Paris, 
and entered the studio of Picot, and, later, l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts, 
where his progress was rapid. He gained the grand prize in 1850, 
and went to Rome. The works he sent from there were worthy of 
attention, but his real fame dates from 1854, when he exhibited " The 
Body of St. Cecilia borne to the Catacombs." It is now in the Lux- 
embourg, together with the " Philomela and Procne" (1861) and the 
" Mater Afflictorum " or " Vierge Consolatrice " (1876). For this 
last the artist received 12,000 francs from the government, and re- 
fused double that sum from a private individual ; it will doubtless 
find a home in the Louvre. Just when Bouguereau began to be fa- 
mous M. Bartolony employed him to decorate his drawing-room, by 
which work he proved himself a good decorative painter ; soon after 
he received a more important commission in the Hotel Pereire ; later, 
he executed the paintings on the ceiling of the concert-room of the 
Bordeaux Theater, and other decorative works in the churches of St. 
Clothilde and St. Augustin. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited the 
"Vierge Consolatrice" and "Youth and Love"; in 1876, " Pieta," 
belonging to Prince DemidofF, and a portrait ; in 1875, " The Vir- 
gin, the Infant Jesus, and St. John the Baptist," belonging to M. Bou- 
cicaut, " Flora and Zephyrus," and "A Bather" ; in 1874, "Charity," 
belonging to Mr. Avery, " Homer and his Guide," and " Italians at a 
Fountain" ; in 1873, "Nymphs and Satyrs" and "The Little Marau- 
ders " ; in 1872, " Harvest-Time " and "The Mower" ; in 1870, "The 
Bather " and " The Vow at St. Anne," etc. At the Johnston sale, 
" Blowing Bubbles " (10 by 8) sold for $ 1,225, and " On the Way to 
the Bath " (39 by 30), for $ 6,000. At the Latham sale, New York, 
in 1878, " Rest during the Harvest, Italy" (45 by 58) sold for $ 4,000. 
At the Salon of 1878 Bouguereau exhibited a portrait of a lady. 

Mr. H. P. Kidder has a fine picture by Bouguereau, " The Girl 
with a Tambourine." " Maternal Solicitude " is in the gallery of Mr. 
T. R. Butler of New York. 

" To be inclined to paint pretty faces is surely not a grave defect, and yet the often 
excessive severity of French criticism towards M. Bouguereau bears almost in every case 
upon the prettiness of his faces, or the rather conventional cleanliness of his execution. 
We admit that a little more frankness in the touch would give to his painting a reality 
which sometimes is wanting. Rusticity is not with this painter an instinctive senti- 
ment, and if he paints a patched petticoat he yet suggests an exquisitely clean figure ; 
the naked feet he gives to his peasant-women seem to be made rather for elegant boots 
than for rude sabots ; and, in a word, it is as if the princesses transformed into rustics 


i.ith.r than 
ked lasses whose skin is scorched by the sun an. I whose should) i 
tomed to he , -■ mad* tins reserve, it must be acknowledged that 

II. Bouguereau's children are delightful, and Ma composition charming ; his drawing is 
lie possesses a gracefulness and a fecundity of invention at- 
tested by the Inasj anaber of his pictures Tbe complete list >>( Umbo is i.u too long 
Ibr insertion, nor would it be ln1 tbe Bngttsb under, w. prate t.> st..]. h- iv, 

is our liiintaankHi of the painter's characteristics, — whether be 

IQ always exhibits time 
qualities whieh j\ .t -il 1. >ii, kltOWb ftd refinement." 

is for a long lime exhibited pictures of Iniabad design, skillful i 

in faire trop nioii," which wanted character 

•ent, and in whieh style was replaced by a certain academic pratUaeac Bi 
■mini decidedly better Inspired l>y the raUgloui sentbuent than i>y his myth..: 

bis idyllic fsntaeine Bta Virgin which was seen at the la^t Balon had a 

mure noble and thoughtful « I -.lenity, the charm of which 

attract til ine. and I p raised it. almost without restriction The new picture of 

the attendant and complement of the preceding, 
. the child J< Dting the 'lead Christ. In the 

. ive seen tbe Virgin, young and happy, althongh plnnged in a strange 
meditation in which was mingled a painful presentiment. In the latter the tin. 

I, and the artist had to translate the immense grief of the mother before the 
inanimate body of her son, which the executioner gives to her. The face of the Virgin 

M burned by tears, has a simple and tOUCh- 

rprt salon ; her attitude is at once heart-broken and res i g n ed. The body of the 

MB easily ujx>n bat of it is, without being beautiful, at least 

elegant and correct ; it offers principally a foreshortening of the head drawn with re- 

marka' >s. This principal group is surrounded and, as it were, framed by 

es of adorn . rymmetrical disposition recalls the arrangement of 

ancie!.- f the qnalitiea which I And in this composition, it 

is Ten ' :■.» as charmim; as the preceding. The col.. r of it is more obscure and 

of a less del'.ate harmony ; the evident search for an archaic formula chills the iinpres- 

rhieb the more human emotion is a little wanting, which 

i In short, I recogniaa In this 

H ienee, and elevation, but I might desire a more individual and more 

ibould wish t" Qnd I little more Of the force and reality 

.-■as of Ik.nnat, the 'Struggle of Jacob.'"— A. B..\.nin, 

Boulanger, Louis. (/•>.) Bom of French parents' at V- 

Chevalier <-f the Legion of Honor. Director of 

■•s Beaux-.'-. Dijon. Pupil of Qnillon-Lethiere and 

II. made bit deool al the Salon of 1828 frith " ICa- 

i '' and "The Departure." Among bia l»»-st vrorki are, "The -• Jerome and the Roman Fogi- 

i uille and 1 1 1 * * 
<tl ■. ■■ • < rtbello," and 

D<da*(1861); M Tb l 
uily," pnrcbaaed by tin- Mini-t r y of the 
Nothing, thou b caw al Omar and hi- I 
and •• Vire la joic I " and " A P 
(18<> Ttraita. He painted ■ n 

4» P 


color of the last scene in " Lucrezia Borgia" (1834), which was pur- 
chased by the Duke of Orleans. Boulanger began life under favor- 
able auspices. He was a pet of the chiefs of the Romantic School, 
who saw in him promise of good work, which he fulfilled. He was 
an intimate friend of Victor Hugo, who dedicated poems to him and 
made journeys with him. Boulanger, in return, took the motives 
for some of his best pictures from the writings of M. Hugo. 

Boulanger, Gustave-Rodolphe-Clarence. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 
1824. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Delaroche and 
Jollivet. This artist returned from Italy in 1856, and has exhibited 
pictures at nearly every salon since that time : in 1877, " St. Sebas- 
tian and the Emperor Maximilian Hercules" ; in 1876, "A Summer 
Bath at Pompeii " and " Roman Comedians reciting their Roles " ; in 
1875, " The Gynecia" ; in 1874, " The Appian Way in the Time of 
Augustus " and the paintings in the foyer de la danse in the New 
Opera at Paris ; at the Salon of 1878, "A Repast at the House of 
Lucullus, — Triclinium of Summer." 

"Without rivaling the wonderful variety of Ge"rome, M. Boulanger has great affinities 
with him. He belongs to the group of l-efined artists who, after 1848, created the neo- 
Greek fashion, in which familiar scenes replaced the great tragic subjects of the academ- 
ical school of David. His experiences in Africa have given another direction to his 
talent, but here again he may be classed with Genome in the series of traveled painters 
whose aim is to reproduce the types and customs of a race. M. Boulanger's talent is 
more delicate than powerful, and not without its weak points ; but this artist, like all 
those gifted with taste and imagination, will always find favor with the public." — Ren£ 
Menard, The Portfolio, December, 1875. 

Bource, Henri. (Belgian.) Born at Antwerp, 1816. Member of 
the Academy of Antwerp. Knight of the Order of Leopold. Pupil 
of Baron Wappers. Among his works is " The Return of the Vint- 
agers " (1851), bought by the Art Union of Dublin. At The Hague, 
in 1857, " Marie Antoinette leaving the Prison of the Temple " took a 
gold medal, and was bought for the collection of the Grand Duchess 
Maria of Russia. " The Rescue of a French Crew by Pilots of Ant- 
werp " is at the Museum of Mons. At Brussels, in 1863, " A Summer 
Evening at the Seaside " took a gold medal, and is now in the Museum 
at the Hague. " Days of Sadness " is in the Museum of Ghent ; etc. 

Bourgeois, Ldon-Pierre-Urbain. (Fr.) Born at Nevers. Medal 
in 1877. Pupil of Cornu, H. Flandrin, and Cabanel. At the Salon 
of 1877 he exhibited " Saint-Sebastian " and two portraits ; in 1876, 
" Christ taken down from the Cross " and a portrait of Mile. D. de G. 

Bourre*, Antoine-FeTix. (Belgian.) At Philadelphia he exhib- 
ited " The Lizard " and three separate Lions (one recumbent, — all 
in marble), and received a medal. 

Boutelle, De Witt C. f A. N. A. (Am.) Born in Troy, N. Y., 1820. 
As an artist, he was self-educated. He came, however, at an early age 
under the influence of Cole and Durand. His first picture, painted in 
1839, and sold for five dollars, was recently repurchased by the artist 


:nlis>till in li i ~ i. The greater number of his earl y 

igfal l»v tin- American Art Onion during tin- existence 
of that institution. His professional I i t \ * has been •pent in Troy (in 
ning of his cai c, and Philadelphia. Ee has 

dehem, Pa., some years. He irai elected an Associate 
of the National Academy in L 853, and full member of the Pennsyl- 
. Lemy in L862. Amnng his more important works may he 
mentioned! u The Trout Brook Shower," at the National Academy 
in 1851, purchased by the Art Union, and now owned in tin- \\ 
ming in the Valley of the Battenkiil n (engraved), in the collec- 
Wanvn, Philadelphia ; "Niagara," owned by (I. W. 
Bethlehem ; "Terrapin Town-, Niagara," owned by Dr. 
<;. B. Sinderman : and • view of " Niagara" (•; by l<> feet), still in his 
studio. Numbers of his landscapes are owned in Boston, Newport, 
lehem, and New Fork. He rarely exhibits in public. 
Bouvier, Arthur. (Belgian,) Born at Brussels. Medal at Phila- 
delphia, where ho exhibited M Scene on the Coast of Flanders, — Sun- 
Paris, i^7»;. he sent M A Breeze on the Scheldt." 
Bovy, Jean-Francois- Antoine. (/•>.) Bom at Geneva (1803- 
be valier of the Legion of Honor. This engraver received a 
great many commissions, for medals and medallions, from the govern- 

Among them were those bearing the portraits of the Em] 
the Prime imperial, General Dufour, etc. 

Boxall. Sir William, It. A. {BriL) Born, 1801. Entered the 
demy when eighteen yeai Turned his attention, as 

painting of allegorical subjects, hut has devoted 
portraiture. Among his earlier sitters were 
Prin< •'. House, William Words- 

worth, Allan Cunningham, W. S. Lander, and John Gibson In 1851 
hew.. d Academy, and Academician 

in 1864 He \\ as kni_'ht.-.l in 1871. He is an occasional exhibitor 
at the Royal A . : ddine " (a lady at her toilet, half- 

i in i^.">«», i~ in the National Qallery, 

Mi thoughtful grace and truthful air of character. Mr Boxall risos very much 
•bore the arerage I loraad aspn 

to take the place which he seems always to approach without qpdU attaining ■ I'm - 
grave's Euays on 

Boyce, George P • d-.n. 1826. His pi 

• in that «ity. and in tin- mi 
.rid. As an arti-t h>- is comparatively self-taught. He 

and a full member in 1878. Among his works, which 

biteetaral • Edward 

paint.-d in 1852, and exhibited in I 


" Where stood Bridewell Hospital and Prison" (1867) ; " Outskirts of 
Smithfield" (1869); "Old Buildings at Kingwear" (1875); "Bull 
Inn Yard, London" (1872) ; " Old Shropshire Farm-House" (1872) ; 
"Ancient Fortified House, Shropshire" (1876); etc. His " Smith- 
field," " Where stood Bridewell," and " An Ancient House and Church 
at Ludlow" were at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

" A very careful drawing of George P. Boyce's, entitled ' Old House in Ludlow Church- 
yard,' invites attention by its peculiarities, which refer immediately to the Dutch school. 
Both the locality and the house accord extremely well, and it may be considered that 
the artist has been sitting at the feet of Peter Neefs or some similarly renowned Dutch- 
man." — Art Journal, June, 1873. 

Boys, Thomas S. (Brit.) Born, 1803. He began his career as 
an engraver, working actively at that branch of the profession until 
1825 or '26, when he studied painting in Paris under Bonington, 
living for some years on the Continent. He first exhibited at the 
Royal Academy in 1822, and at Paris a few years later. He turned 
his attention to printing in colors, and is said to have been the " father 
of the chromo-lithograph." His earliest work in that line, a series 
of architectural views of some of the Continental cities, attracted great 
attention when published, about 1840. In his later years he devoted 
himself to etching, drawing on wood and stone, as well as to water- 
color painting. He was a member of the Institute of Painters in 
Water-Colors, and of several foreign societies. 

Brackett, Edwin E. (Am.) Born in Maine, 1819. Began his 
career as a sculptor in 1838. He has executed portrait busts of Bryant, 
Longfellow, Allston, Sumner, Choate, President Harrison, Butler, 
John Brown, Garrison, Wendell Phillips, and others. Among the 
better known of his ideal works is " The Shipwrecked Mother," at 
Mount Auburn. 

" Brackett's bust of John Brown [owned by Mrs. G. Stearns of Medford], exhibiting 
with Olympian breadth of sentiment the intense moral heroism of the reformer, is an 
American type of Jove ; one of those rare surprises in art, irrespective of technical finish 
or perfection in modeling, which shows in what high degree the artist was impressed 
by the soul of his sitter." — Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

Brackett, "Walter M. (Am.) Born in Unity, Me., 1823. He 
is an artist entirely self-taught. He began his professional career in 
1843, giving his attention to portraiture and ideal heads ; later, de- 
voting himself to the painting of game-fish, in which branch of the 
art he has been very successful. Many specimens of his work are 
owned in Boston, where the greater part of his professional life has 
been spent. He is one of the original members of the Boston Art 
Club, and has filled the office of president several years. His "After 
the Battle," one of his largest pictures, is in the collection of the Earl 
of Dufterin. A series of pictures representing the capture of a salmon 
with a fly, four in number, first, " The Rise," second, " The Leap," 
third, " The Last Struggle," fourth, " Landed," belong to Sir Richard 
Potter of London. They were exhibited at the Crystal Palace and in 
English provincial cities, attracting decided attention. 


•• \\ i without .in Am. ii. in l 

the hi ■extnsentof i- nut Usl only, Haifa "f England, i* 

ever named as his rival as a painter of tUh If • • 1 1 1 1 • • r Continental Kurope HOC A 
can boast of any other artist of ackn Inence «h<> has devoted aim* 

— Bastes ddmrttmt, M 
r pietnrea, by Mr. Walter M Hra.k.-tt ..f Boaton, oannol Aril t 

. their merits an known, not only on Rooonnl <»f Hie high ordi 

.it als.. fr. mii the interesting nature <.f the sport whieh tkl 
. . The tninsp.ireii.-y of the water is Boat I leverly in r 

test perfe.-tion in tlie brilliant sheen of tlie Bah, 
ami ii. ■ • il painting of the eye Qf the salmon, both Of Whlttfa are so life-like 

he i-. looking upon a ean\.i>." 

four pietnraa may now he seen, the pro.luetions of a distin- 
B latOD il works of art they have 

rareexi-elWii hi have never bean better treated Ml the 

access ronghly well punted, -the water, the r.-ks, ami the line, — hut the, 

paiut | enter* peffaet ; his form is well developed and his coat -litters. 

bed been need t.> produoeeflbot ; hut it is pure art, baae d on 

matured knowledge ami smiml judgment."— London Art Journal, 1873. 

Bracquemond, Felix. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1833. Medal at the 

Lnting ; medals in L 868 and 72 for etching. Pupil 

of J. Guichard. The lame of this artist was established by his etch- 

hich he has made more than ?i'x handled. These are much 

in England and the United States, as well as in France 

1 Ibein), the u Tournoi " (after Rnbens), a por- 

. are srell known. His illustrations of 

[uemond has also painted some portraits, 

rich are to :. Vacquerie and Mme. Paul Meuri 

OF late years M. Biaequeniond has devoted himself to the perfection 

of what is known M w Haviland faience." He is to-day the first Ceramic 

In connection with Mme. Marie bracquemond and 

M. Chapld (of whom we shall say more), M. 1-Vlix Bracquemond 

:t. — a aew ware and a new style 

•n. He has called about him a company of distinguished 

sculptors and painters, and the results prove what I'art indusiritl can 

supervision <«f ■ true artist like Bracquemond. I 

authority of a French critic, who knows as much of I 

Living, for M. and Mme. Bracquemond : 

highly these two artists, who ai 
an«l :.ilt-ntt-<i and esteem 

"Behold an art.-° of tte* pkygionom" of rontwnrwwiMWWH n% 

In the Intellectual unters and poets Braoqaemond is very celebi ited. Bs 

■hnaia, by pood r.„-!a. ai an el her h> ■ ■• Unne, having no worthy rival ezcepl Jules 
Jaeqoemart. A fine artUf* pr>*>f of a jdate by Brneqneaaond is ■ preeloni 
sells for the high* eaaaef them 

low one to escape them wli.n s' 11 The pi 1 DMKk Qm 

slowly in the world, and connoisseurs, seem 
nsoal power, •ouji! • I • : •! 

of them, ordered of the artist sn rr . Ibein. 

•ire was Judicious ; he produced a masterpiece. The Krasm 


is one of the most famous and popular of his engravings, and a proof of the first state 
passes for an unattainable object, without price. Some time after the Erasmus the 
artist made also, for the Calcographie of the Louvre, an engraving of the ' Tournoi ' of 
Rubens, and he sent these two plates to the Salon of 1861. They were refused by the 
jury ! Now, to say that Bracquemond loves juries would be to say that the dog is the 
friend of the cat ! His beard bristles when he talks of them ! But there he is wrong, as 
I have told him ; the jury is an admirable institution, which it would be necessary to in- 
vent if it did not already exist, because, whether it accepts or refuses, it is to the reputa- 
tion of a true artist as is a caustic on a wooden leg ! I plead, and I will always plead, in 
favor of the juries on account of their triumphant uselessness. Who the devil, to-day, 
cares to know whether a masterpiece has been or has not been admitted to the Salon ? 
Is talent of an administrative nature, and does it proceed by advancement? .... 
While he made the drawings for the Erasmus at the Louvre, Bracquemond, 'touj ours 
le nez au vent,' was attracted by the enamels of Leonard Limousin, which are in the 
Gallery of Apollo. Curiosity as to the process seized him, and he endeavored to make 
portraits in this manner. While seeking knowledge in one place and another, he went 
one day to the house of Deck, the well-known maker of artistic faience, whose works are 
carried all over the world. The beautiful tones obtained by the inventor, his elegant 
models, his ardent faith in his enterprise, all inspired in Bracquemond a new passion for 
faience. He then worked in his leisure hours with Deck, because he was forced to live 
by his etching, and at this time he acquired a pronounced taste for the decoration of 
potteries. In this art, as in others, the artist made for himself, immediately, a place 
apart, by the originality of his manner. In 1866 a manufacturer came to demand of him 
an attempt at etching which could be used for the decoration of faience. The process 
was not to be a new discovery, since there are plates in this manner dating from the end 
of the last century, but he attempted to find again the lost secret. Bracquemond exe- 
cuted a complete table service and exhibited it in 1867. Its success was considerable, 
and this service, which bears his name, remains celebrated in the annals of industrial art. 
... .In 1871 Bracquemond entered the manufactory at Sevres as head of the ateliers of 
painting. In 1872 the chief of a great manufactory of porcelain, M. Haviland of Limoges, 
engaged the services of Bracquemond. He confided to him the direction of the works of 
art of the branch establishment which he founded at AuteuiL He is still there. He has 
impressed upon the productions of this house a considerable fame, and he is bringing it 
forward to the first rank. Some eminent painters, some sculptors, already famous, such 
as Noel, Delaplanche, Aube (to speak only of those whom I know), group themselves 
about Bracquemond, and design vases of all forms and all dimensions, which are. already 
the ornaments of richly furnished modern houses, and only wait to become pieces de 

musee Bracquemond has not deserted etching. In his leisure hours he retakes the 

point and engraves one of those colored plates which founded his reputation. But he 
sells them no more, and guards them, the miser ! for himself and his friends. As I write 
these lines, he is about to complete a view of the Bridge of the Arts beaten by a storm 
of rain, which is a chef-d'ceuvre. Such are the principal traits of this original figure, one 
of the most curious, without doubt, that the contemporaneous naturalism has given to 
the art of the nineteenth century." — Emile Bergerat, Galerie Contemporaine, No. 117. 

Bracquemond, Mme. Marie. Pupil of Ingres. Paints por- 
traits and genre subjects. At the Salon of 1875 she exhibited " The 
Reading" ; in 1874, " Marguerite." Much of the time of this gifted 
artist is given to the decoration of the Haviland faience. She has 
the faculty of employing the faience colors so well, that under her 
brush they assume a clearness and richness not attained by other 
artists. She has also great talent in drawing. Her works are much 
sought, and are very rarely seen in collections for sale, as they are, 
almost without exception, sold before they are fired. The progress 


made of late in this especial faience is one that cannot be told In 
i1 must be Men to be appreciated, and no one painter has 
done so mnch towards this advance at Madame Bracquemond. 

Bradford, William, A. N. A. {Am.) Horn in New Bedford, 
Maes. Brought op to commercial pursuits, he was devoted t<> ait in 
his leisure momenta, but did not adopt it as a profession until busi- 

Luenl came npon him in the maturity of life. 1 !«• b 
painting ships in tin' harbor of Lynn, Mass., and along that eastern 
r north as v ^ B otia and Labrador, studjing diligently, 
and becoming a marine painter of no little merit For two years be 
occupied the Bame Btudio with Van Bees! at Fairhaven, gaining much 
from tin* association. With Dr. Hayes, tin- Arctic explorer, and 
others, feral trips to the ire regions <>t' the North 

-t for the purpose of sketching and Btudy, chartering 

asion as the 56th d< 

representations of this comparatively new 6eld of ice-floes and 

. ive been interesting and popular, and have attracted much 

attention on both sideeof the Atlantic Be has exhibited publicly 

privately in London, ami has sold his pictures at high prices 

teen, the Marchioness of Lorn,-, the Baroness Burdett- 

OouttS, and others. His "Steamer Panther among Icebergs and 

Field lee in Melville Bay, under the Light of the Midnight Sun."' ex- 

hibited at the Royal Academy in is7">, "by command of Her Majesty," 

t" whom it belongs, was the subject of much comment in art circles. 

;ks maybe mentioned, " Fishing-Boats in the Bay of 

Fundy," "Shipwreck off Nantucket," "Lighthouse in St. John 

getting under \\ 

l Advance in tli<- tonne ami motion* of WSTW ; In' dm 

WMMBttMO in. I swept r - DM "f fall Colored 

and India-ink skei foe Mtl "f raaHctio study, hut in painting 

he gets hard an«l metallic. gbJmaelf." .Iauvf>. Art 

ntrovertible truth in the r-'p- 
and when we consider Um magnitude of th< 
r the porpoee, it cannot be mppoaed that any 

Similar * hern.- wiil -•• .... The retail is a gloiloa 

play of leelandscaix-s n mi t:..- ut N-.rth, ahooadiag wttb color which new entered 

I aaan the plaeee Hi Bradford haarMtedj fir 
away D y aj.].earance of being sections of coast sceiury."— Art 

Journal, August. 1 - 

" A series of studies fp.m I ! .i„]y an- lenaifcable illustrations 

ofwh. n atnily «•), , | skillfully ti 

tJgabie in int mbi . Kplored n 

and beautiful ranges of coaat m by artihL" 


Bradley, John Henry rn in Worcestershire, I 

M a pupil of David ( 'o.x, hut has ]j\vd for iiianv y ais in Flor- 

thibits in London tnd Paris, and has been partic- 
essful in his • highly prized by cri 


and connoisseurs. Among his paintings in oil are, " Mountain 
Gloom," at the Paris Salon of 1868 ; " View of Florence," in 1869 ; 
and " Old Market in Florence," in 1877. His " Sunset at Venice," in 
water-colors, was at the Royal Academy, London, in 1878. Among 
his etchings were, " The Canal la Vena Chioggia," at the Dudley 
Gallery, in 1874 ; " Fondamenta di Ponte Luigio, Venice," " Ponte 
Panada, Venice," and " Warwickshire Willows,''' at the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1878. Many of his etchings are now in the Permanent Fine 
Art Exhibition at Philadelphia. The " Market Scene in Florence " 
is a fine picture, and of great interest, as it will soon be historical, on 
account of the removal to the new market. 

" J. H. Bradley's ' Italian Twilight • [R. A., 1871] is admirable for its color and aerial 
tones." — London Athenceum, June 10, 1871. 

" Mr. J. H. Bradley's ' Canal at Chioggia ' is quite one of the best etchings here, of sin- 
gular neatness of effect, combined with suggestion of color ; admirable in balance of 
chiaroscuro and graceful composition." — The Times, London, June 23, 1874. 

Bradley, Basil. (Brit.) Born in Hampstead, London, 1842. 
With the exception of about one year's study, 1859-60, at the Man- 
chester School of Art, he has received no instruction in his profession. 
He has devoted himself chiefly to water-color painting, spending some 
time in Surrey and Westmoreland. Of late years his studio has been 
in London. He is a member of the Water-Color Society of Liver- 
pool, and was elected an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colors, London, in 1869. Among his more important works are, 
" The Challenge," " Chillingham Cattle " (1871), belonging to J. H. 
Bradley of Manchester; "Full Cry," Chiddingfold Hounds (1871), 
belonging to H. Roberts of Liverpool ; "A Lift on the Way" (1871) ; 
"Ten Minutes Late for the Meet" (1874); "Feline Affection," a study 
of lions (1876) ; " Tigers at Play " ; etc. In oil he sent to the Royal 
Academy, in 1873, "Victor and Vanquished," " Chillingham Cattle," 
" Sheep- Washing, Westmoreland " (1877) ; and " July on the Thames " 
(1878). To the Paris Exhibition (1878) he sent " Too Late for the 
Meet " and " Mary's Present to Robin," both in water-colors. 

"Many of the animal drawings produced by Basil Bradley have proved very attrac- 
tive, but they have been more naturally colored than ' Another Day's Work Nearly O'er,' 
which at first sight looks like a careful performance in sepia or some similar tint. It 
represents a laborer watering his team at a shallow rivulet. The horses are made out 
with perfect knowledge of the animal ; and there is in the action a truth attained only 
by the closest observation." — Art Journal, June, 1873. 

"The intensity of the animal expression thrown into the individual portraits, and the 
mirthfulness of character shown in the drawings [' Young Tigers at Play,' ' Feline Affec- 
tion/ etc.], are simply and truthfully done, equal to the finest display of these qualities 
in the best of Landseer's drawings. " — Art Journal, February, 1877. 

Braekeleer, Ferdinand de. (Belgian.) Born at Antwerp, 1792. 
Member of the Academy of Antwerp, and Associate Director of the 
Museum of the same city. His earlier subjects were historical, and 
some of his pictures quite large. In 1817 he painted " Tobit bury- 


Night " ; in 1810, " Faustulus presenting Ramnlui end 

; in 1822, "The Grotto of Neptune at Tivoli." 

r this time hi< works illustrated the history of hi> country ; 

among them are, M The Baker," M Rubens painting the Chapeau de 

Paille," "Bombardment of Antwerp in L830." "The Defen 

Antwerp, in i*'7t>, against the Spaniards' 1 is in the museum of that 

- pictures of this class are numerous, but about 1836 he 

turned his attention to penrs subjects, and by them has gained a high 

reputation. Among The Round of the Max* 

"The Bride's Departm mte de afi-car&ne/ 1 in the 

u Wedding " ; etc His design is 
skillful, drawing . invention humorous, execution careful, and 

color delicate and harmonious. At the Wolfe sale, New Fork, I 
•The Grandfather*! Holiday Viail "sold for 5 1,686. 

■ran Gallery in Washington are two works by this 
arti>t, the " Sappy Family" and the M Unhappy Family.'' 

Brandard, Robert. (Brit) (1805-1802.) Was for a short 

m the studio of the elder Goodale, devoting himself particularly 

ipe engraving, and exhibiting occasionally, in London and 

rhere, oil-paintingi "f considerable merit, some <>f which were 

ived by bimselC He furnished numerous plates for the London 

Turners M England, 

Brandon, E, We know nothing of this artist hut that he is a Bel- 

: and a picture by his hand in tin- Walters Gallery, Baltimore, 

- him worthy of attention. It represents the " Interior 

tsterdam," which, when tin- apparently small 
markable effect produced are considered, 

- him an artist I ill attainments. It is a picture which 
makes itself felt even in the tint- collection where it is pi 

Brandt. Josef. (/'<'<.) Born at Ssexebneesyn, 1841. Gold medal 
[unich, 1- ienna, 1^7:', : at Berlin, 1876. Studied at 

Dtrale in Pari-, and under Fran/. Adam at Munich. 

ad genre subjects. Hi- r e p re s ent at i on of the 

i i il "> -ne in a Polish Vill 
the National Gallery of Berlin. At Vienna, in 1871, li<- exhib- 
Polish Fair*' and U A Scene in the Danish Camp 
in, i:i I-:-.. - A Vidette in the Thirty Y 
i •• I ' k i r i i • - 1 1 Cossa bfa Century," bought by 

Brandt, Carl, X. A. ided for some yes 

n-Hudson. W I a full member of the Nat 

Academy in i^Tl'. Ane ug hi- worki exhibited <»f late . "A 

and '• The Fortune-Teller," in l- 

m tie- Alps," in 1^7 
dar. ] 
Branwhite. Charles. {Brit,) Born, 1817 Son I a mini:: 


painter, from whom he received his first instructions in art. Began 
his career as a sculptor and received the silver medals of the Society 
of Arts in 1837 and '38 for figures in bas-relief. He began painting 
a few years later, exhibiting in provincial galleries of England with 
considerable success. He was elected an Associate of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colors about 1850, and still contributes regularly 
to its gallery. Among his later works are, " Post Haste," " A Moun- 
tain Stream, North Wales," " April Showers on the Eastern Coast," 
" Kilgarren Castle," " An Old Lime-Kiln,— Winter Sunset," " Winter 
Twilight, — a Black Frost," " The Old Salmon-Trap on the Conway," 
"Snow-Storm, North Wales," " Moonlight, — Salmon Poaching," etc. 
Brascassat, Jacques Raymond. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux (1805 
-1867). Member of the Institute, and Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor. Pupil of Richard and Hersent. This painter has been called 
the " poet of animals." Several of his best pictures, among them the 
" Fighting Bulls," are at the Museum of Nantes. His works are very 
numerous. At the Demidoff sale, 1863, Lord Hertford paid 10,100 
francs for a water-color of " Dogs attacking a Wolf." At the sale of 
Khalil-Bey, an ordinary little picture by Brascassat of " A Spaniel 
carrying a Pheasant " brought 4,100 francs ! At a Paris sale in 1871, 
" A Bull defending himself from the Attack of a Dog " sold for ,£404 ; 
at a London sale in 1872, "The Bull at Liberty " brought 960 guineas; 
at the Strousberg sale, Paris, 1874, "A Bull attacking a Dog" sold 
for £ 780 ; and at the Latham sale, New York, 1878, " Dogs attacking 
a Wolf" (35 by 46) sold for $ 1,525. 

"No one not a Dutchman paints so broadly, nor with a more sure and firm touch, the 

speckled, rough skins of bulls and cows No one has modeled with more energy 

and boldness their necks and shoulders, their hanging dewlaps, their bespattered rumps, 
and those horned heads in which the fronts are all bristling, frowning, and furious, and 
those fine feet, like the feet of goats, which bear bodies of monstrous size, nor those 

eyes, sometimes sweet and dreamy, and sometimes cruel and frightful The study 

of sheep is the graceful side of his talent." — De Saint-Santin, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 
June, 1S68. 

Brendel, Heinrich Albert. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1827. 
Member of the Berlin Academy. Professor at Weimar. Medals at 
Paris Salons, at Berlin, Nantes, Munich, and Vienna. Studied at the 
Berlin Academy and under Wilhelm Krause, afterwards at Paris un- 
der Couture and Palizzi. He traveled in Italy. He is an animal- 
painter, and has lived much in Paris and at Barbison with the colony 
of French artists there. In the Berlin Gallery is his " Return to the 
Village." At the Exposition of the Royal Academy at Berlin, in 
1876, he exhibited " Up the Stream," " The Duplicate," and " Auf 
dem Gutshof." His " Sheepfold at Barbison" (1863) is at the Luxem- 

" Brendel is not precisely a landscape-painter, although he shows us, from time to 
time, through some farm porch a bit of perfect scenery. He is classed among animal- 
painters, and has chosen sheep for his specialty Established in the sheepfold, he 


is strong ; a muster there, no rival will come to dislodge him. lie is m sure with the 

\ animals as Ikirye with lions, or Protala e Itb tool soldi! re, li< kn<>w> tin ir habits, 

their behavior, ami t'Veii their thoughts, if they have IHJJ lb Bndl 

imlng under the wool winch nfioaali it from tin- ordinary tight, ami cleanly 

draws that which N II - thick, firm paintu; 

that ho mixes Ins oil with mutton-tallow All is so true, so just, treated with 

surh ease ami such assunuuc of talent, that I dan to counsel ltieml.l X" be mOTC am- 

- Let him enlarge his frame ; let him not fear to undertake larger lUbjecl 
has a beautiful succession to strive for, since the poorTroyon works no more." 

Breton, Jules Adolphe. (/•>.) Bom at Cfeurrieres, L827. ( Hficer 

of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Drolling and ofDevigne. The land- 

iiis artist are too well known to require description. Ham- 

erton .-ays of hi- " Benediction dea Bles " (\^')~ \ at the Luxembonrg: 

'• Ho is a true poet ami true painter, with an infusion of delicate 

humor which reaches <>ur sympathies at once. The 'Benediction' is 

: ally a work of singular importance in modern art, for its almost 

t interpretation of sunshine," Among his works arc, u Tin- Ete- 

fthe Gleaners" (1859) and "Evening" (1861) ai the Luxembourg; 

Women digging Potatoes" (1868); 

"The Washerwomen of the Coasts of Brittany "' ( L870) ; "A Gleaner" 

(1877); etc A- the Walters Gallery, Baltimore, is his u End of the 

• two Peasant-Women after their Toil," — a beautiful 

picture. At tin- Forbes sale, London, 1874, " When the Cat 's away, 

BO guineas. At the Johnston sale, "A 
Brittany Sheph i 23 by 17) brought £2, 

" Le choix de ses couleurs est toujour* heureux : il a lea mains pleines de lumierc, et 
▼ous diriez qu'il d£robe au eoletl des rayon- \ih>ct, in a critique 

of the "Be\aliction,' 

" He is at once a painter of landscape and of human nature. The two are harmonized 
in all bis works in - portion, and with such eqaal ability an<l care brought to 

the representation of each, thar lition of excelling in two d 

branches of art : in each he shows a dl :aial sympathy in the pn 

of nature ; his eye | . bnleal capacity la 1 

question. .... It is noteworthy that p polar and arti>ti<- opinion is more united in 
favor of the merits of J v „ t | l( . r | ivil| ., Fn . ri ,. M ,,,,;,„,.,. Tne 

Germans pay him the l,i,:h compliment of a- DB the qnallth 

man artists. In hard times he is the only i • r he price .,f his paint in 

■tantly risin. 
in the contemporar B.O.W. B 

"There is wit a proftmad ■antimeni f"r rnatk beauty which a 

■m some vul^r peeaaai homely in 

artuU. truly worthy of a till- used ir. this .lay. has comprehended the 

grave, serious, and i ,,.try. which he expresses with ! 

«nd»' - nutritive laU.r, of man have their grandeur and their 

***** • re solemnly fullilh-.l in 1: 

k>u« rite*, with forms and att. . as if . ■ 

mysterious impression w 
already his red disc has more than half di 
» end of a vast plain where some » 


One of them, fatigued, without doubt, has risen and stands in the second plane, detached 
in silhouette on the clear sky with a slightness of figure and a rare elegance. The 
toil ends with the day, and the beautiful creature holds up her head as a plant to the 
evening freshness ! Is it the same one who dreams, leaning on her elbow, in the picture 
entitled the ' Evening,' while her more playful companions join hands and form a circle? 
This type seems to preoccupy the painter, and it reappears through his works like the 
involuntary repetition of some village Fornarina. One can, moreover, see it again with 
pleasure. It recallc with more strength and style the ' Claudia ' of George Sand." — 
Theophile Gautier, Abecedaire du Salon de 1861. 

Breton, Emile Adelard. (Fr.) Born at Courrieres. Medals at 
Paris in 1866, '67, and '68 ; one also at Philadelphia in 1876. Brother 
and pupil of Jules Breton, and a painter of landscapes. " A Winter 
Evening" (1874) is in the Luxembourg. At the Corcoran Gallery, in 
Washington, are his " Snow-Scene, — Moonrise," and " Sunset," both 
painted in 1873. At the Paris Salon of 1877 he exhibited " A Sum- 
mer Morning" ; in 1876, "Winter" and "A Marine View" ; in 1875, 
u The Canal at Courrieres, — Autumn," " The Village of Artois in 
Winter," and "The Star of the Shepherd," etc. At the Salon of 
1878 he exhibited "A January Night, — After a Battle," and a land- 

"Pictures like those of Emile Breton charm by a mixture of poetry and reality; his 
moonlight effects and winter scenes assign to him an eminent position among our best 
painters. When the invasion came he separated himself from his family to defend his 
country, and his conduct was such that his general embraced him on the field of battle. 
After the war he returned to art, and in the last exhibitions his pictures had so much 
success that public opinion now places him by the side of his brother. " — Rene Menard, 
The Portfolio, January, 1875. 

" The landscape which he comprehends and loves is not the free and varied landscape, 
open to the air, to the light, to all the vivifying breaths of nature. Breton willingly 
shuts himself in a narrow and somber frame, where few objects can find a place ; he 
forces himself to produce a tragic effect by grand simplicity of aspect. His horizon is 
narrowed, his sky low and veiled, his forests black and thick ; he loves to cover the 
earth with a sad cloak of white hoar-frost ' The Twilight under the Snow ' repre- 
sents the entrance to a village where a few lights are seen in the windows of the cottages : 
at the horizon the chilly silhouette of a snowy steeple shows itself against a yellow light 
which pierces some black clouds. This picture, with a large and strong handling, 
breathes that sort of powerful desolation which belongs to the talent of Emile Breton." 
— Ernest Duvergier de Hauranne, Revue des Deux Mondes, June, 1S74. 

Brevoort, James Renwick, N. A. (Am.) Born in West Ches- 
ter County, N. Y., 1832. He studied architecture in New York for 
three years under James Renwick, but, turning his attention to paint- 
ing, he became a pupil of Thomas S. Cummings. In 1863 he was 
elected a member of the National Academy, and was made Professor 
of Perspective in 1872, a position he held for two years. He went 
to Florence in 1874, where he has since resided. Among his best 
works in America are, " Lago Maggiore," belonging to Mr. Fitzgerald; 
" November Winds," in the Longworth Collection, Cincinnati ; and 
" Farmington Meadows," painted for Jay Cooke. Since his residence 
in Italy he has made several sketching-tours in Germany, Holland, 
Switzerland, to the Italian Lakes, etc., and the result has been among 


his finished picture tie in Holland, near Arnheim" j " M ly 

of t !omo " ; •■ Lake of ( tomo, Dear Varenna " ; M ( Iroup 
istle of Heidelberg, - Sun 
"At istle in the Abruzxi, Italy " ; M Views on Lake Lugano " ; M Vesu- 
vius, from Naples" ; u i hi tin- Gulf of Salerno" ; M A Ba 

^capes are broad ami thoughtful, chai 

• in exhibit! 
rare feeling, and ! ith a Storm Coming up' ihowi advancing 

• rUgbi." Tll'KliltMAN's Hook v/tllr J 

Bricher, Albert T. (.!-.) Born in Portsmouth, N. H., 1837. K 1- 

l in the Academy of Newburyport, Haas. In 1851 be entered a 

mercantile house in Boston, painting and studying art without instruc- 

tre hours. In 1868 he began the practice of art 

. sketching along th I N< w ESngland, and working 

with considerable success in Boston for ten years. In 1868 he Bettled 

in New York, exhibiting at the National Academy his "Mill Stream" IK- began the painting of water-color picttu 
little later, and was elected a member of the American Society of 
Painters in Water-Colon in 1873. Among his water-color drawings 
be mentioned, "An Indian Summer's Sunset "(1868) ; "Sunset 
on the Ellis River, X. H." (1869) ; "The Maiden's Rock, 
in" (1870); "Mt Adams" (1871), "Time and Tide,'' 
"By the River-Bank," " On the Winding Bsopus," "Break, Break, 
I Iff Halifax Sarbor," "Spring Morning" (1875) ; 
-A Lift in tie nd Menan," M Rest in the Woods,'' "Gath- 

(1876) : "OH* the North Head, Grand Menan," 
li-ht on the Michael's Mount,*' and "S 

Time" (1 among the Hazards" and -What the 

Bis "Foggy Morning, Grand Menan," " Sum- 
mer Mori.. Menan," and u Morning at Xarragaiisett " were 

at the Centennial Exhibition oi w<; ; his •• In a Tide Harbor," at 
lition "t l 

• I the American school «>f paint- 
ing, has already as- ng j*>sition as an artist, not only as a marine painter hut 

also in - .;••-. n im at Newburjport' is remark- 

• r its beauty, ami the in .-lliint way in which it 

midsummer scene, as the boatii and luxuriant foliage of 

the overhanging trees evi: . forms of the eJoodfl and tli<- anadowi upon 

the wat« - rlewan idyllic charm." — Art Journal. BJorember, 

Bridel, Frederick L. tthampton (1831 -18( 

in his native town, painting l»or- 
aicfa he went to the < lontinei 
bited at the Royal Academy, in I860, "TheColi- 

: nre which attracted nni,hattenti(jn. In l-'il 
he 5e: «no " ; in 1 B6S, u I 

the Hill. among his 

- are "The Temple n the Atlantic," 1 1 . He 

was considered a young man of much promise. 


Bridgeman, Frederick A., A.N. A. {Am.) Born in Alabama, 1847. 
Taken to New York at an early age by his family, he began his pro- 
fessional work as an engraver with the American Bank Note Company, 
studying in his leisure hours (during the four years of his connection 
with that company) in the Art Schools of Brooklyn. In 1866 he 
went to Paris, becoming a pupil of Gerome, who has shown much in- 
terest in him. His summers were spent in sketching tours in Brit- 
tany. In 1870 he settled in the Pyrenees on the borders of Spain, 
where he remained two years. He passed the winter of 1872-73 
in Algiers, the winter of 1873 - 74 in Egypt, Nubia, and on the Nile. 
He is at present (1878) a resident of Paris. Among his works may 
be mentioned, " Up Early," " Girls in the Way," " Apollo bearing off 
Gyrene," " Interior of a Harem " (Paris Salon, 1875), and " The Fu- 
neral of the Mummy" (Paris, 1877), for which he received the third- 
class medal, and in which he is said to " have approached the highest 
qualities of his master Gerome " (Lucy Hooper, in Appletons' Art 
Journal, September, 1877). He did not exhibit at the National Acad- 
emy, New York, until 1871, when he sent his " Illusions of High 
Life" ; in 1874, "Bringing in the Corn," belonging to A. A. Low ; 
in 1875, " The American Circus in Paris," " Tete-a-Tete in Cairo," and 
" In the Pyrenees," being made an Associate of the National Academy 
the same year ; in 1876 he exhibited " A Moorish Interior " and 
" Chapel, — Noon, Brittany." His " Donkey Boy of Cairo " was sold at 
the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, for $ 630. His " Market Scene 
in Nubia " is in the collection of Thomas G. Appleton of Boston. He 
was commended by the Judges of the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 
for artistic excellence, contributing, " Kybelian Woman," " Flower of 
the Harem," and " The Nubian Story-Teller." To the Paris Exposition 
he sent, in 1878, " The Funeral of the Mummy," belonging to James 
Gordon Bennett, receiving the decoration of the Legion of Honor. 

" Bridgeman's ' Circus ' was painted when he was scarcely more than a student, and 
when exhibited at the Salon, the masterly character of the composition and its brilliancy 
of coloring excited general admiration even among the critics of Paris. Many of his 
works have been purchased by Goupil, and they are always well hung in the Salon." — 
Art Journal, February, 1876. 

" ' Hurrah ! Hurrah ! ' by Bridgeman. The bright green of the sea-weed, the brown 
of the old anchor on which a tattered fisher-boy stands, the bright surf and water fad- 
ing up through the cliffs to a dark cloudy sky, are all fresh and suggestive. " — New 
York Times, February 25, 1877. 

" Mr. Bridgeman exhibited three pictures of remarkable power, — ' Bringing in the 
Corn,' 'The Nubian Story-Teller,' and 'Flower of the Harem,' all painted with great 
skill and truth. "-— Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition 

" If the American pictures are fewer than usual this year [1877], as a rule they are 
of a far higher average of merit. Gerome himself might have signed Mr. Bridgeman's 
' Funeral of a Mummy,' — such was the verdict of the severe critic of the Paris Figaro, 
M. Albert Wolff. " — American Register, June, 1877. 

Bridges, Fidelia, A. N. A. (Am.) A native of Salem, Mass. 


Pupil of W . T. Richards in Philadelphia* Bhe also ipent ;i year in 
rvation in Europe. In I860 she sent to the National 
lemy, in oil, M Winter Sunshine" and *• Wild-Flowers in Wh 
in l- tushes" and "Views on the Ausable"; in 

. - Thistles and Yellow-Birde " ; in l s 7-i, when she was elected an 
Associate of the National Academy, "Cornfield " and u Salt liars] 
in 1-: Field"; in 1876, "An Old Grave"; in 1-77, 

•• Th She turned her attention to painting in water- 

: in 1-71. ami has been wry successful in that branch of art She 
was elected a member of the Water-Color Society in i s 7.">. In 1-71 
nd Clover " and - Pickerel- Weed a ; in I874j 
nd"; in L875, "Mouth of a River"; in 1878, u By the 
; in 1-:- Field"; in 1878, "Morning-Gloriee" and 

I on tin- Lookout" She sent to Philadelphia, in 1^7<;, in 
r, M Kingfisher and Catkins" belonging to William B. Ken- 
dall, -A Flock - la," and the "Corner of a Uw-Firld.'' 

Many of her pictures are in the possession i A. Whitney "1* 

Philadelphia,;'. f Brooklyn. Her "Daii 

:t. the artist. 

iong the for M young women in Miss Bridges. ITer works, which are 

already well -;, are like little lyric jkmmiis, and she dwells with 

touches on each t.f her buds, 'like blossoms atilt ' among the leaves. In this humble 
vein of feeling she seems to be a true artist" — Art Journal, February. 

mund of wild roses and 
wee d s, is a close study, and shows that she is as happy in the handling of oil-colors as 
those ni Art Journal, May, 1-7V 

Bridoux, Francois-Eugene- Augustin. (Fr.) Born at Abbe- 
. 1M:$. T ok the prixde Rotm in 1834, and since 

return fr<>m Italy in 1841, has I two medals f<»r works 

principal plates are, "The Virgin with the 
■• A Boly Family " and u T! 
r Murill-) ; M I. " after Da Vinci ; " Portrait 

of Louis-Philippe,* 1 after Winterhalter j "Laure,* 1 after Simone 
mi; "Hagar and lshmael 9 M alter Bastlake; and the " Aldo- 
brandini V fitcr Raphael. 

Brierly, Oswald W. - English artist, resident in London. 

ty of Peinten in Wat . and for 

Painter in '1 [e Bailed with 

in 1887 68 on the Galatea'i trip round 
nting that -hip otr the Gape of Good Hope. Among 
- are, " B Ward th<- Besolution off Dover 

in 1( 

\ M m l tart lard in the Baltic Fleet," 
was at tin* Philadelphia 
■it ion of 


"The works of Mr. Brierly have long placed him in the foremost rank of our water- 
color painters, in the representation of marine subjects, for it is to such that he almost, 
if not entirely, confines himself." — Art Journal, March, 1875. 

Bright, Henry. (Brit.) Landscape-painter. (1814- 1873.) Edu- 
cated as a physician, but soon relinquished a profession uncongenial to 
him for the study of art. Settled in London at an early age, became 
a member of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, and also painted 
in oil. He first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1845. His " En- 
trance to an Old Prussian Lawn, — Winter/' painted in 1844, was 
purchased by the Queen, who is the possessor of several of his earlier 
works. He exhibited but rarely at the Royal Academy in the later 
years of his life, — in 1869, " The Ray after the Storm"; in 1871, 
" Battle of the Frogs and Mice." 

" The subjects of Mr. Bright's pictures are very varied, but his manner of treating all 
shows great originality and a high degree of self-possession, while his manipulation ia 
broad and masterly, and his coloring rich and deep. With us his most attractive sub- 
jects are the banks of a stream or a river His snow-scenes also are most skill- 
fully and faithfully represented." — Art Journal, November, 1873. 

Brillouin, Louis-Georges. (Fr.) Born at Saint-Jean-d'Angely. 
Medals in 1865, '69, and '74. Pupil of Drolling and Cabat. At the 
Salon of 1877 he exhibited "Les racoleurs" and " A Bouquet for 
Chloe " ; in 1876, " The Vocation of a Younger Son " and " The 
Antechamber"; in 1874, "The Wedding of Georges Dandin"and 
" Lindor." At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, " The Book- 
Worm " (14 by 18) sold for $ 570. " The Smoker " is in the collec- 
tion of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston. At the Salon of 1878 he 
exhibited " The Malady of Polichinelle " and " The Portrait." His 
" Cavalier " is in the gallery of Mr. T. R. Butler of New York. 

Brion, Gustave. (Fr.) Born at Rothau (1824- 1877). Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor, 1863. Medal of Honor, 1868. Pupil of 
Guerin at Strasbourg. In 1850 he went to Paris to copy the Dante 
of Delacroix. He exhibited, in 1852, " The Road for tracking Boats." 
The Emperor purchased his "Battery of Military Machines" (1863). 
" The Pilgrims of Saint-Odile, Alsace " (1863) and " The End of the 
Deluge" (1864) are in the Luxembourg. At the Johnston sale, 
" Brittany Peasants " (6 by 4) sold for $ 600, and " Brittany Peas- 
ants at Prayer " (53 by 82), for $ 7,150. The last was from the Wolfe 
sale, 1863. In 1877 he exhibited at the Salon, " The Awakening " (en- 
campment of pilgrims on Mount Saint-Odile), and sketches of " Grin- 
goire " and " Esmeralda," made for an edition of " Notre-Dame-de- 
Paris " ; in 1876, " The First Steps," and sketches of" Lantenac" and 
" Radoub," for an edition of " Quatre-vingt-treize " ; in 1875, " The Day 
of the Baptism" ; in 1874, " A Wedding in Alsace " ; in 1872, " The 
Dance of the Cock," a souvenir of the customs of Alsace ; in 1870, 
" A Burial at Venice, 1868." At the Blodgett sale, New York, 1876, 
"The Conscript " sold for $ 1,050. At the Oppenheim sale, Paris, 

a: THE MM ill \ ill CENTURY, '.'7 

1877, "The Dance of the Dock" iold fa 9,000 Iran 

neral Scene in n in the collection of Mi- 11. I".. Maynard 


•• ■ I . I lis t" tlie f '■' 

■ubje< - .ter. the old l still tn sum. ■ pi- 

ftlithfi:. t, which ar I the before tiny disap|»ear. 

knows how feo Mte with .1 chaniiin- I'.n ticul.n • 

costumes, these interiors with characteristic details . ha ghraa aontlmont ami l»auty to 
these r Ok art- not tin if. perhaps ; l>nt if it is a falsi -li. 

:i.t ti vi in 1. 1881, 

.1.0 : ha oompoMi his picture, be baJanoaa bia group*, 

he in.iU.i-s thr fairs .iinl li_-uris of his 
poraoragra say all that they oojjkt to say. Without bataaj portraiti ins haada h i\ «■ par- 

sonality and char.i I I mi ■ pictures [04 effect ami attentive to tin 

aories. sogrraoto hia fL afenaos, the furniture, and the rarroundingi which 

belong to them Brion is one of our ^oikI workmen. He knows the use of hrown 

tones, he combines and calculates their values. His painting is always full, solid, and 
.lamed. Thanks ; : on, Brim is in the path of modem 

art; his sincerity stands instead of ideality." — Tail Mantz, Gazettt des Beaux-Arts 
July, 1869. 

Brisset, Pierre-Nicolas. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1810. Chevalier 
of tl: of Honor. Pupil of Picot, whom he assisted in the 

the church of Saint- VincL'iit-<l. --Paul. Brisset gained the 
• de Rome in 1840. He paints historical 1 subjects, and por- 
ta l s 77 he exhibited a portrait of II I>. ; in 1870, the 
*Tn 5 f Charity" ami two painting! for the church of the 

Trinity, in Pari- : in l^To. a portrait executed for the Museum of 

72, a portrait. 
Bristol, Edmund. {BriL) (1787 1876.) Animal-painter. Fa- 
■• cularly fat his horses, in which branch of the art i; 
en the opinion of Sir Edwin Landseer that he had no 
equal He chibited of late jean in the Royal Academy. 

Bristol, John Bunyan, N. A (Am.) Born at Hills.lal. •. N. T n 
ii.-'l from nature in hii own country, spending 1 1 i -* 
d life in the city of New Fork. In L859 he wont to 
Florida, pajnting tropical pictures, which attracted some attention 
ibited. li in Associate of the National Acad" 

: m in 1875, exhibiting regularly in its 
ry. He the Artists 1 Fund Society in 

lier woria are, "Haying-Time, Berkshire, 
Mas.". "Sunrise, 

Mansfield n ; u Adiitmdacks, from Lake Champlain." II 

in the collection of Cyrus Botler; 
•• M :.:.:■ :.: M antain, Berkshire County " (N. A^ 1 pur- 

chased by K. K. Button; M Mt Equit 

Baltimore, M& ing by the II 

• . in 1878^ irai bought by Breyl m 

5 o 


He received an award and medal for his single picture at the Cen- 
tennial Exhibition of 1876, and he sent to Paris, in 1878, " Lake 
Champlain, from Ferrisburg." 

" Mr. Bristol as a landscape-painter is well known all over the United States, and his 
pictures are in all of the leading collections. Although at the beginning of his career 
as an artist he painted figures and portraits, he soon abandoned that branch of art and 
turned his attention exclusively to landscapes. His country home is among the Berk- 
shire Hills in Massachusetts, and the beautiful scenery of that region no doubt largely 
influenced him in choosing that branch of art in which he has since become so eminent 
His best pictures were studied in that region, although his pencil has at times assumed 

a wide range in its choice of subjects In the present exhibition [1875] he has two 

pictures, ' Ascutney Mountain' and 'In the Housatonic Valley.' The latter picture is 
one of his finest efforts, and probably led to the nattering vote by which he was elected 
Academician." — New York Evening Post, April, 1875. 

" Mr. Bristol has lately acquired a more thorough manner, and his picture of ' Lake 
Memphremagog' has decided merit. The evanescence of lights and shadows over the 
summer landscape is well expressed." — Professor Weir's Official Report of the Centen- 
nial Exhibition of 1878. 

Brodie, William. {Brit.) Native of Aberdeen, living in Edin- 
burgh for many years. He is a member of the Royal Scottish Acad- 
emy, and was elected its secretary in 1877. By profession a sculptor, 
he has turned his attention particularly to portrait busts. Among 
his sitters have been the Queen, the Baroness Burdett-Coutts, and 
others. He is the author of the statue of Sir James Simpson, in the 
Princess Gardens, Edinburgh. His bust of the Queen is in Windsor 
Castle, and a duplicate in the Scottish National Academy. 

Brodwolf, Ludwig Gustav Eduard. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 
1839. Studied under Professor Moller. In 1869 he executed a 
group, " Minerva teaching a Smith to forge Weapons," now at Span- 
dau ; in 1872, a relief of " The Sermon on the Mount," over the 
main entrance to the Zion's Church at Berlin ; in 1874, a group for 
the Royal Bridge at Berlin, " Care for the Wounded." At the Na- 
tional Gallery, Berlin, are some reliefs by him, portraits of German 
artists. At Berlin, in 1871, he exhibited " A Praying Christ." 

Bromeis, August. (Ger.) Born at Wilhelmshohe, 1813. Pro- 
fessor at the Academy of Cassel. Medals at Berlin and Vienna. 
After being awhile in Munich, he went to Rome, where he remained 
some time, after which he went to Frankfort and Diisseldorf, from 
which last city he was called to Cassel. His pictures are landscapes, 
and in the National Gallery at Berlin is an " Italian View." 

Bromley, William. (Brit.) Grandson of William Bromley, As- 
sociate Engraver of the Royal Academy. He is a resident of London, 
began his professional career as an engraver, and has been for some 
years an active member of the Society of British Artists, contributing 
to its exhibitions landscapes and pictures of a genre character. Among 
his later works may be mentioned, " Down the Glen," " The Glean- 
ers," " Will He Pass this Way 1 " " In the Spring a Young Man's 
Fancy, etc.," " Teaching Brother," and " Come Along ! " 


Bromley, Valentine W. (Brit.) (1848-1877.) Be belonged to 
■ family of artista lli> father, William Bromley, is a member of the 

;\- of British Artists ; his grandfather, William Bromley, was a 

tint-engrayer, who died in 1838 ; and his great-grandfather, Wil- 
liam Bromley, an Associate of the Royal Academy in the beginning of 
the present century, was also an engraver of some note. Valentine 

dey, Btndying art under his father, was elected an Associate of 
the Institute oi Painters in Water-Colors before lie was twenty yean 

ge, and an Associate of the Society of British Artists a few years 
later. He devoted some time to the illustration of books and period- 
icals, being upon the stall* of the Illustrated London News. 

11. gained a -old medal for his u Big Chiefs Toilet," at the Crystal 

ihibition of 1^77. Among his works in water-colors may 

be noted, "The White Rose" (engraved), "The Nearest Way to 

Church," etc. To the Royal Academy, in 1877, the year of his death, 

at, in oil, "The Fairy King." 

"The composition of 'Troilus and Cresida' [by Valentine Bromley] shows much of 
the antique feeling in art. The two principal figures might stand as a group of Greek 
sculpture, in their united action, while that of Pandarus is perfectly picturesque. The 
treatment of the whole subject shows much of the pre-Raphaelite schooL .... The 
picture, however, has throughout merits of no common order." — Art Journal, Decem- 
ber, 181 

" ' The Fain- Ring * represents some country children erecting a make-believe little 
house within a fair)' ring of mushrooms, which they have discovered under a great tree. 
The incident has much vraisemblance about it, and was indeed painted on the spot, just 
as the artist saw it.'* — London May/air, May, 1877. 

Brooks, Thomas. (Brit.) Born in Hull, 1818. At the age of 

twenty he went to London to enter the Royal Academy, and Btudied 

later in Paris. He painted portraits in bis native city for five years, 

■ending from Hull, in 1843, his first picture to the Royal Academy. 

London in 1M">. exhibiting, the same year, "The Vil- 

: in 1851, "Happiness"; in 1856, "Qny Pawkea 

; 1857, M The Courtship of Shakspere" ; 1859, "Consolation" ; 

Aimching the Life-Boat"; I860, "Thames Lilies"; 1871, 

: 1-7 1. Errand" ; 1878, " Absorbed." 

To the British Institution he sent, u A Peasant Home," "Crossing the 

than forty of his pictures have 
been engraved. Hifl "Shaks] re Sir Thomas Lucy," at the 

International Exhibition of 1862, attracted much attention. 

" Mr BfeOOka 1 artists, may not haw won Academic honors, but 

be has held on his way ■ It fOOdlfllat of irorka,thfl DM! 

which have DO< k.-d by the i>ublic."— A 

Brown, Henry Kirke, X. A. (.1///.) Born in Massachusetts, 
1M4. Studied in Boston for tin.. pent three yean in Cin- 

cinnati, Ohio, where, in 1837, hit first marble bust was executed. In 

ttled in Albany, N. ST., and subsequently spent fouryi 
in Italy. On hi- return . 1846, he cast, in bronze, his 


"Indian and Panther," and the statue of Washington, in Union 
Square, New York, the first bronze statue executed in this country. 
It was unveiled July 4, 1856. He was elected full member of the 
National Academy, New York, in 1851. 

His statue of DeWitt Clinton, in bronze, is in Greenwood Ceme- 
tery ; his General Greene, in the Capitol at Washington ; and his 
latest work is an equestrian statue of General Scott, for the same city. 

Among his ideal works are, " David/' " Buth," " Rebecca," and 

Brown, J. Henry. (Am.) Born at Lancaster, Pa., 1818. As an 
artist he is entirely self-taught. He began his professional career in 
Philadelphia in 1845, and has since resided in that city, painting 
miniature-portraits, on ivory and canvas, of many persons of high 
social and professional position in Philadelphia and throughout the 
country. In his particular branch of art he has been very successful, 
and his work is highly praised and highly prized. Among his sitters 
have been Abraham Lincoln, James Buchanan, John M. Read, Su- 
preme Judge of Pennsylvania, Commodore Stockton, and many more. 
The miniature of President Lincoln was painted for Judge Read, and 
is now in the possession of Mrs. Lincoln. Of the two portraits of 
President Buchanan one belongs to his niece, Miss Harriet Lane (now 
Mrs. Henry E. Johnston of Baltimore), the other to the Rev. E. Y. 

Mr. Brown was elected a member of the Pennsylvania Academy of 
Fine Arts in 1862. He received a medal and diploma for ivory minia- 
tures at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

Brown, Ford Madox. (Brit.) Born in Calais, France, where 
his parents were temporarily living in 1821. Displayed a taste for 
art at an early age, and in 1835 was placed in the Academy of Bruges. 
He studied also in Ghent and Antwerp, remaining in the latter city 
two years, painting there " The Giaour's Confession," exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, London, in 1841. He spent some years in Paris, 
and settled in London in 1845 or '46. He has exhibited but rarely at 
the Royal Academy. Among his earlier works are, " Wickliff reading 
his Translation of the Scriptures," painted in 1848; "King Lear" 
and " The Young Mother," in 1849 ; " Chaucer reading at the Court 
of Edward III.," in 1851 ; "Christ washing Peter's Feet " and " The 
Pretty Baa- Lambs," in 1852 ; " Waiting " and " The English Fire- 
side," in 1853. To the International Exhibition of 1862 he sent 
his " English Autumn Afternoon " and " Last of England." In 
1865 he exhibited a collection of his works in London, including 
"Cordelia and Lear," "King Rene's Honeymoon," "Death of Sir 
Tristram," " Parasinas," "Sleep," "The Infant's Repast," "Oure 
Ladye of Good Children," " Faithless," and several landscapes. 

" Of all these works in whichever class, the prevailing note may be stated in the one 
word Realism. Mr. Brown is one of the most accurate and unimaginative of pictorial 


I, whose preat pre- present is - seen It, as it was, 


"There is scarcely a livinjr painter of our own country whoso pto da cttoi 
•edto so mu omit of r, [• 

g all said and written id VMM t<> i irt he 

thouj: • • DOreoed l»i-» 

Of Um roiiiiiiunity who will tike the 
to analyze the mind and .spirit of a picture, instead of being captivated l>y its 
d graces, which constitute with the general multitude the only sun- pros; 
popularity ... The picture which attracted, as an individual example, the ^; 

ply ' Work.' a oompoeitioa so full of 
saatrrisl that an entire page might l» tion and oonunent without ex- 

haust:- :. It is in H hlgB dev el opment of tl, 

combined with great and varied execution." — Art Journal, Apr:! 

Brown. J. G. N. A. (Hrit.-Am.) Born in the North of England, 
lied art in Neweastle-on-Tyne, and in thfl Royal S 
:uv. Edinburgh, where h . ■ medal in the Antique 

Be also received ■ medal in Boston, and the first 
in 1877. Mr. Brown'i professional life, for 
the mo-t part, lias l I in New York. He was made ■ mem- 

ber of the National Academy in l^»"»o ; was an original member of the 

and has been for some yean its vice- 
He holdi the same office in the Artists' Fund Society. 
[r. Brown's earlier works are. "His First Cigar," belonging 
L O. Roberta ; and "Trudging in tl belonging to K. L. 

:ral Park,'' the property of Robert Gor- 
don (at tl. leiny in 1863), was exhibited in Philadelphia 
in 183 ih- Water Sailor," the property of CoL Rush 
kins. To the National Academy of 1873 he sent u Pennies in 
: in 1874, - Hiding in the Old Oak" ; in 1875, u Yet or 
We Are Off" and "The Country Gallai I 
in 187 •• By the Sad Sea' Waves'- and 
"Pull fa -." To the Water-Color Exhibition of 1871 he 
: in 1874, -The Rustic Milliner"; in 1876, "A 

; ." To 1 

tri k'i Day " and " TL 

'- Brown contributed his 'Curling Match.' which is the picture that exhibits his 
merit* to the best advantage. Mr. Brown's subjects are de ri ved front Um hmnely imi- 
deata of every -day life, and are usually treated with sJmpHeti 

realistic powers are marke«l, but the sentiment of his pictures is not always equal to 
their te c h nical qualities." — Paor. Weir's Official Report of the American Centenn 
kibition of 1S7S. 

Brown. Henry B. {Am,) Bora in Portland, Me., 1831. H 
pan life i:: id banners, bat for 

• years ha- If to Ian 

i succeM. He has made m;r riong the 

coast- i -ntly painted the rough 


scenery of the Grand Menan. He has exhibited in England and 
America, and his works are owned by Longfellow, Whittier, and other 
prominent gentlemen. His " East Highlands " was at the Philadel- 
phia Exposition of 1876 ; and " On the Androscoggin" and " On the 
Coast of Maine " at the Exhibition in the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, in 
1878. Of this artist's early works, Paul Akers, the sculptor and critic, 
wrote as follows to the Portland Transcript, December 29, 1860, a few 
months before his death : — 

" ' Twilight on the Connecticut ' is indicative of Mr. Brown's recognition of one of Na- 
ture's tenderest moods. I know of no picture Avhich more completely renders the spirit 
of early summer evening. In this sketch there is a brave violation of the conventional 
mode of treating distant mountains. They are brought flat and sharp-edged against the 
sky, even as if inlaid in it, as is the crescent moon. This is as it should be. Yet not 
one artist in a thousand so represents the distant mountain horizon. 

" Other pictures attract us as we linger among those which are of this year 1 s harvest ; 
but they are landscapes of pleasant inland scenes, rivers with living trees imaged therein, 
traceable by ever-lessening fringes of foliage up to the hills, fields, pastures, with the 
' blue sky bending over all.' But these, fine as they are, are such as other men paint. 
That which is more remarkable is Mr. Brown's wonderful rendering of the sea. I do 
not hesitate to say that in this department of art he stands among American artists, 
unrivaled. We, who have lived upon the most picturesque coast of our continent, may 
be justly proud that the man to represent its character as none other can should be one 
of our own." 

Brown, George L. (Am.) Born in Boston. At an early age he 
studied wood-engraving in his native city, and furnished illustrations 
for juvenile publications issued by several Boston houses. Attracting 
the favorable notice of a wealthy Boston merchant, opportunity was 
given him to go abroad, and he studied and copied the masters in the 
Galleries of the Louvre for some time. He spent several years in 
Florence, where he painted some sixty landscapes, which met with a 
ready sale in his own country. He returned to America in 1860, and 
has since resided in South Boston. 

Among his works may be mentioned " Doge's Palace and Grand 
Canal." The Boston Art Club owns one of his works ; another was 
presented to the Boston Athenaeum. His " Palermo " belongs to T. G. 
Appleton ; " Atrani " and " Bay of Naples," to Gov. Claflin ; " Foun- 
tain of Trevi," to Mrs. Alvin Adams; and "A Moonlight Scene," to 
the Art Union of Rome, where it took a prize. His works are owned 
by Gov. Fairbanks of Vermont, Henry Ward Beecher, Lady Clay- 
mont, etc. Brown's " Crown of New England " was purchased by the 
Prince of Wales during his visit to this country, and his " Bay of New 
York " was presented to the Prince of Wales by a few New York mer- 
chants. A frame of landscapes etched by Brown on copper was at the 
Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876, as well as his "Ariccia 
near Rome " (water-color), and " Venice," " Sunset, Genoa," and " Ni- 
agara by Moonlight " (in oil), the last belonging to H. N. Barlow. At 
the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, 1878, was exhibited a large picture of 
" Capri," belonging to Mrs. E. D. Kimball of Salem. 


• 1 under the Influence irf I trie, hea kno* 

la <>r no Inferior order." Jak\ i 
M Bi la one <>f 1 1 1 -. Idealiaed, has* Italian 

-. for which tins arti>t la bo mncfa noted, in the rein <>f Turner. The efleot is. <>r 
. fine, although th< n Brown'a pietoreil oommon cnaracfe 

e in tn-at niiMit ami choto M . L875. 

Brown, J. Appleton. (.1///.) Bomin Newburyport, Mass., 1844. 

led hi- art studies chiefly on the Continent, spending some time 

a; ■ pnpil of I'.iuiK' Lambinet in Paris. On his return to America be 

studio in Boston, where he still resides, and where he has a 

yearly exhibition of hia works, studying from nature in the neighbor- 

I of hia native city during the summer months. To the Paris 

: 1-7"' : Bent "Summer'' and "A Viewal Dives Calvados, 

France," the latter belonging to Geo, I). Howe, Hia "November," 

exhibited at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, belongs to Martin 

Brimmer ; " An Old Road near Paris," to T. (J. Appleton ; "On the 

mackal Newburyport," to Augustus Flagg ; M Autumn," to bliss 

E. I! Salem ; and "Storm at the Isles of Shoals,'' to (i. D. 

• II • — the cloud shadows in Mr. Brown's picture [' On the Artichoke, West New- 
Thoagh done with one iweep <>f the brnsli, it would l>e hard to conceive how 
any subsequent caressing or tinkering could add an Iota) to tin; tender and evam 
eat " — Thrte Boston Pointers, Atlantic Monthly, DeccmlMT, 1-77. 

Brown, Agnes. Born at Newburyport, Mass. Wife of J. Apple- 

- te paints in oil, landscapes, flowers, etc., and has of 

turned her attention to pictures a a specialty, which have 

likened to the work tried Mind. She exhibits at the 

rt Club and elsewhi 

Brown, Charles V. | : rrn at Philadelphia, 1848, studying 

art under his father, J. Henry 15: own, and under Prof. Schussele and 

Thomas Eakins at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arta He lias 

bally to portrait-painting in Philadelphia, where 

ional life I pent He was made a member of the 

Phil. i . Club in L874, and of the Society of Artist 

Brown, "William Beattie. (Brit) Native of Madding! 
land. He received hia art education in Edinburgh, spending his pro- 
ud lif«- in that city. He is a landscape-painter, devoting himself 
ulariy to the i tlaad An Associate of the 1: 

nay, he exhibits there and at tin- Royal Academy in I 

1 Bolton Abl of Killiecran- 

Blair AthoV -o,, the Lubnaig," "Thn 

thro' the W I," "Last of the 

"f tie- <■ ill of th ,,„. 

' Uothian,' I ; '»>'- 

Brown, John Lewis. • v.ili-r of the 


Legion of Honor. Pupil of Camille Roqueplan and Belloc. At the 
Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Piqueurs a la francaise " and " A Visit 
to the Salt Marshes of Croisic " ; in 1876, " High Sea, Mont Saint- 
Michel " and "A Sentimental Journey" ; in 1875, "Norman Horse- 
Jockeys," " The Interrupted Journey," and " The Marshalsea conducts 
to the Court of Guerande a Gang of Salt-Smugglers of Bourg-de-Batz " ; 
in 1874, "Landscape and Animals," " Zoological Garden," and "An 
Episode of the Battle of Froesch wilier." At the Salon of 1878 Brown 
exhibited " An Episode in the Military Life of the Marshal of Con- 
flans " and " Deux chasseurs a courre." 

Browne, Mme. Henriette (nom d'emprunt), daughter of the 
Count of Bouteiller, and wife of M. Jules de Saux. (Fr.) Born at 
Paris, 1829. Four medals for painting and one for engraving. Pupil 
of Chaplin. Her genre pictures early attracted attention, especially 
those of 1855, viz. "A Brother of the Christian School," "School for 
the Poor at Aix," " Mutual Instruction," and " The Rabbits." In 1877 
she exhibited "Portrait of Mile. S. " ; in 1876, "The Ducat" and 
"The Lover of Books" ; in 1875, " The Parrot" ; in 1874, two por- 
traits and "A. Poet " (Egyptian) ; in 1873, " Ca ne sera rien" and 
" The Medallion " ; in 1872, " Alsace ! 1870 " and a portrait ; in 1870, 
" Portrait of the Reverend Father H." and " Oranges in Upper 
Egypt." At a sale at Christie's in London in 1876, " During the 
War" sold for £262. At a Paris sale in 1868, "The Sisters of 
Charity" sold for £ 1,320. At the salon of 1878 Mme. Browne ex- 
hibited " A Grandmother " and " Convalescence." 

"That which pleases in her talent, is, independently of the skillfulness of the painter, 
the native distinction and modesty of the woman, an artist to all the world except per- 
haps to herself, and recognized as such by her peers and her masters without betraying 
in her works the infatuation of dilettanteism. Here is a flower of good color, such as the 
best education produces. It seems that this flower gives its perfume to this painter, 
who is a woman to the end of her fingers, and remains a woman of the world without 
ceasing to be an artist. Her touch without over-minuteness has the delicacy and the 
security of a fine work of the needle. The accent is just without that seeking for 
virile energy which too often spoils the most charming qualities. The sentiment is dis- 
creet without losing its intensity in order to attract public notice. The painting of 
Mine. Henriette Browne is at an equal distance from grandeur and insipidity, from 
power and affectation, and gathers from the just balance of her nature some effects of 
taste and charm of which a parvenu in art would be incapable The contempora- 
neous critic indulges in analogies If it is necessary to follow this mode, we would 

willingly say that Mme. Henriette Browne fills in French painting a role analogous to 
that of those aristocratic English ladies who disdain not to write a romance, who even 
write many, and produce a considerable work, whence detaches itself, at the end of a 
certain time, some more luminous page which remains and establishes definitely the 
rank of the author. Or rather, since in the beginning of this article we mentioned the 
names of the chiefs of Oriental painting, we may be able to demand a place for her be- 
side them, which they, above all others, would not hesitate to give. Mine. Henriette 
Browne is their relative, and if she had had time to wait before choosing her pseu- 
donyme, might feminize the. first name of some of them ; for her painting is the cousin of 
theirs."— T. Chasrkl, L'Art, 1877. 

" The picture which is the best modern instance of this happy hitting of the golden 

/• THE \I\ ■ // I i \ TURY. 105 

mean. I dy an«l homely fact are jvrfectly combined, is. in my 

Btok CUM and tin- Sisters of (h;mty.' 
ago in ! ami since in the OfMl Exhibition, [ know not how better to 

s easy to bfl at once beautiful anil true, if one only knows how, than by •!• 

I den not ; for 1 better* that it w.u surely be i 

hereafter among uV it works of BMden art. If I find no fault in it, it 

cause I have none to find : bet right of the picture ptodneed in BM 

taneous content end There was nothing left t<> wish for, nothing to argue 

about. The thing was what it ought to l>.-. ami neither more nor less, ami I eoiiM look 
on it, not as a critic, but as a learner only."— Rev. Chas. Kini;sley, Fine Art* (Jiuir- 

Browne, Hablot Knight. (Brit.) Born about 1 SI 2. Early dis- 
played a marked talent for drawing, particularly of caricature. A 

" Phiz" he IS known as the designer of the illustrations of the novels 
of Dickens, Ainsworth. ! ;t, the Abbotsford Edition of the 

Waverley I ad the works of Byron, etc. His first drawings 

for Dickens were in 1836, on M Pickwick." A drawii 
Browne's entitled "Changeable" was exhibited at the Academy, New 

in 1-71. 

" Between the first and second numbers of ' Pickwick,' the artist, Mr. Seymour, died 
by his own hands. There was at first a little difficulty in replacing him, and for a single 
number Mr. Buss was interposed. But before the fourth number a choice had bet D 
made which, as time went on, was so thoroughly justified that through the greater part of 
the wonderful career which was then beginning the connection was kept up, and Mr. 
Hablot Browne's name is n<>t unworthily associated with the masterpieces of Dickens' 
genius." — Forster's Life of Dickens, Vol. I. Chap V 

Brownell, Charles D. W. (Am.) Born at Providence, R. I.. 1822. 
He began life by the practice and study of the law in Hartford, Ct. 
Having from his youth a decided predilection for art, he turned his 
attention to painting as a profes>ion in 1^">4 or '55. In 1860 he op 

a studio in New York, going abroad in 1^'>.*> and spending the g: 

. * that time in Europe. He has painted 

Browning, Robert Barrett. (Brit) i^on of Robert and Elizabeth 
Barrett Browning. Se studied art in Antwerp, and exhibited for the 

fir-t time in England, at the Royal Academy, in 1*7^, "A Worker in 
." a picture which attracted much attention. 
" The primary interest of this work arise* no doubt from its authorship, but b 
this it has conspicuous promise of its own, and indeed in no mell 
attainment The handiwork penerall ij bold and solid. eonMOf tbc 

ug, such as the specimen of brasawork, is highly efficient end 1 the 

whole treatment in good accessories being what they should be and where 

they should be.'' — William M Roecm. 

Brownscombe, Jennie. 1 < ) Bom in W . I't. 

1 her art education under Victor NVhlig, at the 

maining i iad gainii. 

la] for drawing. Later, she entered the National 

a Prof. Wilmarth, and won then the Eliot Medal for 

the antique. He*] : 


in New York. She has exhibited frequently at the National Acad- 
emy. Among the more important of her pictures are, " Grandmother's 
Treasures," purchased by William H. Penfold (N. A., 1876) ; "Autumn," 
(1877) ; and "June" and "Happy Childhood" (1878). 

Brozik, Vacslav. (Bohemian.) Born at Pilsen. Pupil of the 
School of Fine Arts at Prague and of Piloty. Medal of the second class 
at the Salon of 1878, where he exhibited " The Embassy of the King 
of Bohemia and Hungary at the Court of Charles VII., 1457." At 
the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " The Departure of Dagmar, Daughter 
of the King of Bohemia, affianced to Valdemar II., King of Denmark, 
1205 " and an " Episode of the War of the Hussites, in Bohemia, 1419." 

Briilow, Alexandre. (Russian.) Born at St. Petersburg at the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. Among the more important 
works of this architect are the Evangelical Church of St. Petersburg, 
the Theater of Michailoff, the Observatory of the Academy of Sciences, 
and the restoration of the Winter Palace ; in which last he was asso- 
ciated with Strassloff. 

Brunet-Houard, Pierre Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Saint- Mai- 
xent. Pupil of Couture. Medal at Philadelphia, where he exhibited 
"A Dog and a Monkey " and " The Interior of a Menagerie." At 
Paris, in 1876, he exhibited " Ecole de tir, at Fontainebleau " and 
"After the Action." 

Brunnow, Ludwig. (Ger.) Exhibited at Philadelphia a statue, 
in hronze, of Count Moltke, and received a medal. 

Bruycker, Francois Antoine. (Belgian.) Born at Ghent, 1816. 
Pupil of the Academy of Ghent, and of Ferdinand de Braekeleer, at 
Antwerp, in which last city Bruycker has resided since 1839. His 
genre pictures and his flower-pieces are favorites with amateurs and 
collectors. " Les Soupcons" (1842) was purchased for the King of 
Wurtemberg. " The Old Gardener " (1857) was bought by the Grand 
Duchess Maria of Russia. In 1860 "The Widow" took a gold 
medal at Amsterdam. At the Crystal Palace, in 1864, his "Calling 
to Mind Old Times " took the prize of forty guineas offered " for the 
best picture, irrespective of subject, by a foreign artist, not French, 
resident on the Continent." It was purchased by Mr. John Margetson. 
He has also painted « Hot Cockles," " The Frolic," " Maternal Kind- 
ness," " A Mother's Happiness," etc. At the Leipsic Museum is his 
" Child playing with Kittens." Among his works are " Envy and 
Defiance " (cats). 

Bryant, Henry, A. N. A. (Am.) Born near Hartford, Ct., 1812. 
He began his career as an engraver under E. Huntington, turning his 
attention to painting about 1832, and opening a studio in New York 
a few years later. In 1837 he was elected an Associate of the National 
Academy. He has spent the latter part of his professional life in his 
native city, where many of his works, landscapes and portraits, are 
owned. He has not exhibited at the National Academy in many years. 


Bunce, w. Gedney. ..(//(.) Born at Hartford, Ct Asanartkri 

i comparatively self-taught. 11*.' has spent some time in study 

■I llunich, having lived on the Continent for i number of y Lie, At 

t (1878) he nee ■ studio in Tan-. His 4> Venice, N 
at tin- Paris Salon in L876 ; " Venice, Korning," in 187& In L8? 

American Artists in New York " La Lima 
nana," and to the Paris Exposition, "Approach to Veni 
Buoninsegna, Michele. (ItaL) Of Bologna. At Philadelphia 
this sculptor exhibited M The Slave," and received a medal. 

Burchett, Richard. (BriL) Born in Brighton (1817-1875). 
Studied in the School of Design, Somerset House, London, and in 
ippointed Assistant Master, and in 1S51 Head Master of the 
: Art. South Kensington. He was favorably known as an 
.1 historical paintings, and assisted by his student 
executed the decorative portraits of the Tudor Family, in the ante- 
chamber of the New House of Parliament. He contributed but 
rarely to the exhibitions. 

Burdick, Horace R. (Am.) Bora at East rXillingsly, Ct, 
1844. Lived in Providence, R. I., for some years, where he wat 

I in a photographic establishment, and where he first began to 
draw in crayon. Moved to Boston in 1864 ; opened a studio in 1866, 
and studied for some years in the life classes of the Lowell Institute, 
and of the schools of the Museum of Fine Arts. His portraits are in 
n ami oil. He sometimes paints still-life. 
Burger, Adolf August Ferdinand. (Pole.) Born at Warsaw 
(1833- 1876). Medal at Munich. Pupil of the Berlin Academy and 

[Uently taken from the life of the 
Em people. 11 snted decorative work, and painted pa?* 

A; the N wional Gallery, Berlin, is his " Burial of the Wen- 
den, in ti. - 1 L" 

Burgess, John Bagnold, A. R. A. (BriL) Born in London, 
- a pupil of the late Mr. Leigh, of Xewinan stl 

ilso in the Royal Academy, where he gained the 

ulver medal for best drawing from life, lb- ha- lived in Spain, 

taking the subjects of many of his works from incidents of life and 

character in that country. He was elected an A— ociate of the Royal 

Academy in 1877. Among hi- more important picture! sre, M i 

: a bull-fight, at ti. .-my in 1 

(R. A.. 1866 in Spain, '• in 

Visit to the Nursery," in 1-: ber*i Pro,; 

in l-~ in Spain," in 1877 ; and "Child 

in 1878. 
"Mr. Burge*« is still faithful to Spanish theme* ; his ' Licensing the Beggars ' is full 
Of character, a spirited picture, worthy to rank with his earlier jicrfunuaiicea of the 
class." — London World, May, 1878. 

Biirkel, Henri. (',' r.; Born *t Pinnasentx (1802- 186 


orary Member of the Academies of Munich, Dresden, and Vienna. 
Biirkel was the son of an innkeeper, and was early placed at some 
commercial pursuit, but showed such disinclination for it that he 
was changed to an office of a Justice of the Peace. Here he em- 
ployed all his leisure in drawing and sketching ; the visitors at his 
father's house affording him good subjects. In 1822 he went to 
Munich, and followed the course at the Academy, studying also with 
Guillaume K obeli. In 1831 he went to Italy, where he spent two 
years. He has depicted a great variety of subjects, but his best pic- 
tures are representations of popular life, such as, " Scenes in an Inn," 
" Fetes in the Alps," " Village Scenes," etc. ; these are true to life, 
and painted with great spirit. In 1867 he sent to Paris "The Envi- 
rons of Rome" and a "Winter Scene in the Tyrol" ; in 1868, "A 
Chalet in the Bavarian Alps " and " The Traveling Menagerie." 

Burling, Gilbert. (^4m.) (1843- 1875.) Began his art career as 
a painter in oil, but his later and better work was done in water- 
colors. He excelled in the portrayal of game birds, and contributed 
to several American journals articles on the habits of birds, which 
were illustrated by his own drawings. ' His pictures were small in 
size, but careful in finish and treatment. He was a frequent contrib- 
utor to the American Society of Painters in "Water-Colors, of which he 
was a prominent member. His last works were exhibited in 1875, — 
" Normandy Sketches," " Beach below East Hampton, L. I.," and a 
"Canadian Lake." His "Old Harness- Maker " is in the collection of 
Samuel V. Wright of New York. 

Burne-Jones, Edward. (Brit.) Intended by his family for the 
Church, he was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, where he devoted 
much of his spare time to drawing. Without early art training, and 
almost entirely self-taught, he determined to adopt painting as a pro- 
fession, and has attached himself to the so-called " romantic school " 
of Rossetti. His studio is in London. His pictures, until within a 
few years, were rarely publicly exhibited. Among the more im- 
portant of his works are, " Chant d'Amour " (painted in 1873), " Dor- 
othy," " Cupid and Psyche," " Circe," and " Spring." To the Gros- 
venor Gallery of 1877 he sent, "The Beguiling of Merlin," " The 
Days of Creation," "Venus's Mirror," " Temperantia," "Fides," "Spes," 
"St. George," and "A Sibyl" (the last two unfinished). To the 
same gallery, in 1878, he contributed "Day," "Night," "Spring," 
"Summer," "Autumn," "Winter" (painted in 1867-68), "Laus 
Veneris " (painted in 1873 - 75), " Pan and Psyche," and " Perseus and 
the Graise." His " Beguiling of Merlin," in oil, and " Love as Wis- 
dom " and " Love Among the Roses," in water-colors, were at the 
Paris Exposition of 1878. " The Dark Tower," belonging to Avery 
was at the National Academy, New York, in 1874. 

"There may possibly be some of our readers to object that all these things are not 
life, that Mr. Jones, after all, does not paint nature, but a fantastic ideal of his own, which 


r to dm, or • ;i the nineteenth oentury To this we can 

- dosa not petal every day nature, bnt thai what In pa nta \a 

;' nature, when nature la loveUeel v Bower painted by bin 

•. r deaoribad tin- fragrenoa and oolor and parity "f It an- naught ana 

Tr.itod ni tin- magic pencil-strokes Tin- sum of tha whole matter is tins, tliat 

;'.;>'e<'. by Mr. Hurne-Jones there have been faults within 
y tyro, ami that in all of these there huv- been beautiflfl beyond thfl 
attainment of any master hut hinisell.' i \ in. in VagHaft Painter* of ti. 

ent /Viy. 

- paintings appear from dryness of treatment to be in distemper on 
D of a purely decorative eharaeter. and to the last degree ideal in 
ent and subject The drawing Of the human form is masterly, and it cannot he. 
: that the harmonies of color are often very subtle and beautiful, and win one eon- 
• to return and gaxe Ion,;, until the Influence of tic - into ami wins the. 

half-reluetai ' lintiugl are often inspired by unmistakable power, 

and occupy a high but anomalous position in contemporary art." — Dknjami.n's Contem- 
porary Art in Eurojt . 

•• Mr Burne-Jones his DO work here [Grosvenor Gallery, 1S7S] of as great decorative 
completeness as la-- it ion ' ; but wo encounter in the vestibule a 

startling invention of his which is destined to form part of a great decorative whole, but 
which, standing as it does here, alone, will probably strike nest who see it, at first 

is a product of Japanese rather than BngUab Art. This is a group of ' p. 
robbing the Three Grebe.' .... The {>eculiarity of the work is its execution, in i 

:«'ards, and Inlaid with silver and gold, so that the depth of the lines 

.t there is of light and shadow The mass of Mr. Burne-.Ioncs's work 

will be found in the place of honor in the East Gallery. Five of the pictures are emble- 
N Jit,' 'Spring' ami '.Summer,' 'Autumn' and 'Winter,' 
1 s.i showing the painter at an earlier itagfl of his pi 
before lie had attained the full mastery of his resources shown in the two larger dl 
la ' and ' La- Jardin d'Amour.' .... It is impossible to limit the expn 
of individual genius, and we may therefore congratulate ourselves in possessing in 
.-:ie-Jones a painter who can walk in the ways of the earlier Ronaltiaanro with 
so stately and assured a *\-\>. and with so much passion ami fervor of imagination, as 
well as < . ' — Ltmdem 1 M -. 1878. 

' Heal art in the lirst phVM, it Ins a 

tender • little more than a trick produced by the point of thfl brush 

itae, in a large sense, of this art, and of the poetry which is its companion, we 
must seriously protest against it (with a reverence for its genius and a tenderness for its 
beauty) as unraasculine. and. what is worse from a purely artistic standpoint, self-con- 
sciously im • ... : t)[U ]S n()t 
medic . . j.i-anisin emasculated D] 

mod*-.-: m more modern, more entirely of thfl 

nineteenth century, than is a factory or a positivist." — JfOfOfltafl of Art, July 

Burnet, John L) Born near Edinburgh, Scotland (1781- 

ai the Tin ; -inv, aii'l 

ing under Robert Bootl in nil native citj. II'' 

irnishing platet for Mrs. [nchbold'a 

and other irorka Tin- first important picture 

. Harp," followed by M The 

i illage School," 

the Will," "Tin- Babhil on tin- Wall," and other 

well rintingt by the tame artist. Hi- al.-o . 


Jew," « The Crucifixion," " The Nativity," " The Salutation of the 
Virgin," after Rembrandt, etc. He practiced painting with some 
success. His "Cows Drinking" and the " Fish- Market" are in the 
Sheepshanks Collection. His " Greenwich Pensioners " was engraved 
by himself. He was the author of " Practical Hints on Painting," 
and other volumes of a kindred character. 

Burr, John. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh, 1831. Educated in the 
Trustees' Academy, pointing portraits and landscapes in his native city 
for some years. Went to London in 1861, where he still resides. Ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1862, " The Poor helping the Poor" ; 
in 1863, "A Traveling Tinker" ; in 1865, "The Tender Muse"; in 
1869, "The Intercepted Letter" ; in 1870, "A Wandering Minstrel"; 
in 1871, " The Fifth of November" ; in 1873, " Children of the Sea" ; 
in 1875, "Blackberry-Gatherers"; in 1876, "Sea-side Sport"; in 
1877, " The Village Doctor " ; in 1878, " The Truant." 

" The boy peeping in fearfully at the door has evidently, under the inspiration of 
modern scientific zeal, dissected the bellows, and whether they will ever help the pot 
to boil again is doubtful to grandpa ['Domestic Troubles,' R. A., 1876]. The figure 
of the younger child, mute with awe and anxiety, yet not wholly guiltless of his 
naughty brother's curiosity, is very delightful. Avenging Fate at the chimney-piece is 
too severe." — Ruskin's Notes of the Academy, 1S75. 

Burr, Alexander H. (Brit.) Born, 1837. Younger brother of 
John Burr. Educated at the Trustees' Academy in Edinburgh, and 
exhibited in 1856 at the Royal Scottish Academy, " The Fruit-Stall" ; 
in 1857," The Politicians" (engraved by H. Lemon); in 1858, "Caught 
Napping" and "The Music Party." In 1861 he settled in London 
with his brother, sending, however, his first picture to the Royal 
Academy the year before, " Reading the Bible." In 1862 he sent to 
the Royal Academy " The Mask"; in 1863, " Dora "; in 1864, " Fun "; 
in 1869, "The Escape of Queen Henrietta" ; in 1870, "Charles I. 
at Exeter" ; in 1873, "Echoes of the Ocean" ; in 1876, "Returning 
from Market" ; in 1878, "Music." 

Among A. H. Burr's other works are, " The Jumping-Jack," " The 
Flute-Plaver," " Grandad's Return," " The Lesson " (Brit. Inst. 1865), 
" Holy Water," " Nursing Baby " (Brit. Inst. 1867), and " After the 
Battle of Culloden," many of which have been engraved. 

Bush, Norton. (Am.) Born in Rochester, N. Y., 1834. He 
studied art with James Harris, in his native town, for some time, be- 
coming a pupil of J. F. Cropsey in New York in 1852. The greater 
part of his professional life has been spent in San Francisco, where 
his studio now is. He was in New York from 1869 to '72. In 1853, 
; 68, and '75 he made professional visits to South and Central America. 
He was elected a member of the San Francisco Art Association in 
1874 ; director of the same in 1878. He has received four gold medals 
from the State Fair of California for painting. He devotes himself 
particularly to tropical scenery. Among his works are, " Lake Nica- 



Stamford ; M Bay <>t' Panama," to I>. 1>. 
"Summit of th< and M River Stn Juan, Nicara 

are in tl. r Gallery, Sacramento; "Mount Chimboi 

Klmifti, Pern," end " Mount M 

John <i. W ' London; "Western Slope of Cordil- 

I W. CL R 

Ecuador,' 1 to the estate of 3. W. ( >T.iien. 

Buss, Robert William. (Brit) Born, 1804 Was apprenticed 

ther, an engraver in London, and subsequently was a pupil 

Clint In his youth he executed designs for the Penny 

Magazine. K n i^ht's Shakspere, and Cumberland'! "British Drama." 

ag his oil-paintings, generally "fa humorous character ami many 

ofth< 1 la- Biter Bit," "Soliciting a Vote," "Chair- 

"The Mnskal Bore," "The Stingy Traveler," 

: *l Out," an. I 

d the Time of Elisabeth," exhibited 

at the Society of British Artists, is tin- best known of his historical 

_in of Music " an<l " Triumph of Music ■ (20 by 10 

I are the largest and must successful of his allegorical subjects. 

They arv in tl; m of the Earl of Hardwiek. Mr. Boss lias 

furnished illustrations for Mairyattfi and Ainsworth' 
and other standard works of fiction. He has not exhibited in public 
Butin, TJlysse-Louis-Auguste. (Fr.) Bom at Baint-Qoentin. 
lain 1875 and 78. Pupil of Picot and Pile, In 1877 he ex- 
• Th.- Departure 1 ' and " Ls Peche" (a 
i: in 1876, "Women at the Capstan at Villerville''; in 1^7.">, 
irday at Villerville, — the Waiting " ; in 1878, "The Interment 
of a Marine at Villerville," and a ehaTCOa] sketch, called "The Bath." 
Butler, George B., Jr., N. A. (Am.) A native of New York, he 
studies in that city under Tin. ma- Hicks. In L869 

1 uture in Paris. He returned 
to Ai be beginning <'f the Civil War, serving 

rmy and losing hi- right arm in action. This, however, did not 
.- he has always held the brash in his 

left hand. Later 1. his profession in San Francisco, had a 

Btndj i went to Italy in 1^7"), v. 

,11 member "f the Nati 

ialty i- the painting of animals, wild and 

' exhibited in 1^7 1 
at tli- lemy. To Us position of 1878 he 

I by II. K. Ilnwland, ami "Dogl on th-- Camps 

Cabanel, Alexandre. (Fr.) ' nt jm-11 i.-r. L8S3. Ifem- 

[nstitnte ; Professor in 1 I 

ICedall of II" nor in 


Pupil of Picot. In 1844 his picture of " The Agony of Christ " gave 
him considerable notice, and the next year he gained the second 
prize only, but as a vacancy occurred at Pome he was granted the 
pension. At the Paris Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Lucretia and 
Sextus Tarquin," bought by Mr. Hawk of New York ; in 1876, " The 
Sulamite," belonging to Miss Wolfe of New York ; in 1875, 
"Thamar," now in the Luxembourg ; in 1874, "The First Ecstasy 
of John the Baptist " ; in 1872, " Giacomina" (Florentine costume); 
in 1870, " Death of Francisca de Rimini and Paola Malatesta," now 
in the Luxembourg ; etc. Cabanel has painted numerous portraits. 
Many of them have been seen at the Salons ; among others, that of 
Napoleon III., in 1865. " The Glorification of St. Louis " (1855) is 
at the Luxembourg. At the Corcoran Gallery, at Washington, is his 
" Death of Moses " (painted in 1851), spoken of in our first extract 

At the Latham sale, New York, 1878, his " Marguerite " (30 by 21) 
sold for $ 2,700. At the Salon of 1878 Cabanel exhibited two por- 

" M. Cabanel, with the harmony of tones and the softness of the brush -which seduces 
the men of the world, knows how to preserve all the serious qualities of the artist. He 
is agreeable and tender in his painting, but not effeminate ; under his flesh, so soft and 

of so fine a grain, there are bones, muscles, and nerves Any other painter than 

M. Cabanel, taking the line of the pretty, would perhaps disturb us a little ; but his 
grace is the grace of strength, and in order to be convinced of this it is sufficient to 
think of the ' Death of Moses,' that imposing and Michel-angesque picture with which he 
made his debut." — Theophile Gautier, Abecedaire du Salon de 1861. 

" Our conscience as a critic reproaches us for nothing in regard to Cabanel. We have 
never praised more than was proper his 'Venus,' his ' Nymphe enlevee,' his 'Paradis 
perdu,' but we admired, for their aristocratic distinction, the portraits of Mine, de Ganay 
and the Countess of Clermont - Tonnerre. This artist has not long maintained this 
level ; he has grown insipid very rapidly ; his exhibition of 1868 was alarming, that of 
1869 is truly unworthy of his past: in the two portraits which he exposes, Cabanel 
ceases to paint, he enters the domain of the sugar-house. We are convinced that he had 
some charming models ; but the desire to be amiable and to sacrifice to the graces has 
led him to suppress all the characteristic traits, all the individual marks, Avhich are the 
signs of life. His portraits, grounded and polished to their injury, resemble photo- 
graphs retouched by some method in which the vulgar search for conventional genteel- 
ness has suppressed the individual traits, and consequently all true beauty." — Paul 
Mantz, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, June, 1869. 

Cabanel, Pierre. (Fr.) Born at Montpellier. Medal, 1873. Pupil 
of A. Cabanel. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Shipwreck on 
the Coasts of Brittany" ; in 1875, " Nymph surprised by a Satyr " ; in 
1874, " The Death of Abel " ; in 1873, " The Flight of Nero." 

Cabat, Nicolas-Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1812. Member 
of the Institute, and Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Camille 
Flers. Early in life he visited many picturesque parts of France, and 
his first landscapes (1833) were accused of realism. He continued 
to paint to please himself, and in time received much honor. He 
has twice visited Italy. His " L'etang de ville d'Avray " and " An 


Autumn Evening" are in the Lnzembooig. Hii "Souvenir of I 
Nemi" was purchased by the Ministry of the Beaux-Arts. In 1^77 he 
exhibited, "A Morning in the Park of Magnet," M After the Shower/ 
and a pastel, a Sunset "; in 1873, "A Lake" and a A Pool n ; in 1872, 
her" and" A Druid Fountain"; in L869, u After the 
ad " Solitude " (in the Tyrol , etc At 
the D de in Paris, 1 s 7l\ "A View in Normandy" sold 


Cabet, Jean-Baptiste-Paul. (Fr.) Bon at Xuits (1815- U 

ilier of tin- Legion of Honor. Pupil of Nargeon, and Rude, 

■ daughter ho married. From i s it> to '.*^ he was occupied in 

me decorations in the church of Saint- 

irft made several busta of membera of the royal 

family, and erected a monumental Fountain at Odessa. In 187:2 lie 

exhibited at the Salon a plaster figure of MDCCCLXXL It was 

purchased by the State, to he cut in marble. In 1875 he executed a 

figure of " Theology," cut in stone, for the chunh of the Sarbonne. 

M The Awakening of Spring" was cut in stone for the court of the 

: the Louvre : tin- same subject in marble is in the Museum 

of Dijon. This artist has made many portrait husts, and after the 

b of Rude he completed some works left unfinished by that 

sculptor. Cab 1 for the city of Dijon a statue of "Resist- 

ommemorate the combat of October 30, 1870. Herepre- 

1 the figure, witli flag in hand, marching to the enemy. Some 

OS thought that in it they traced the republican sentiments of the 

l-ei. 1^7o. the statue was thrown from its pedestal 

and broken in ; theft did not live to see its restoration, hut 

: that the second one will meet a like fate. Cabet was 

mber of the jury of L'Ecole dee Beaux-Arts, and after 1864 was 

ted on the jury of the yearly expositions, lie was much 

ed and respected by his fellow-artiste ; his nature was profound 

and loyal, his industry was untiring, and though he had long Buffered 

from a cruel disease, which necessitated a terrible operation, he worked 

ind at the time of hi- death was occupied with a group in marble 

for the Pantheon, called "Saint Martin." 

Cafferty, James H., N. A. (.1///.) (1819-1869.) His merits as 
rtrahVpainl i him decided reputation in his early j 

but towards the end of his life he painted game pictures and still-life. 
iate of the National Academy in 1849, and 
inin 1853. In 1867 he sent to the Academy a portrait, (( My 
: in I^n.-Mv Father" and several studies of fish; in 1 989, 
Trout n and u The <; from Hamlet), hia name 

I in the latter picture with that of L. M. Wil 
:i the nnssrasinii of Dr. 1'. 
Caffi, Hippolyte. / o at Bellnna, 1814 Hh family, 




with poverty while he pursued his studies. At Venice he won aca- 
demic honors that freed him from military service, and earned money to 
go to Rome. His " Carnival," which was at Paris in 1855, has been 
repeated by him more than forty times for amateurs. Cam entered 
the army in 1848, and afterwards took refuge in Piedmont, where his 
works are popular. His subjects are chiefly monumental views. 

Caille\ Joseph-Michel. (Fr.) Born at Nantes, Medals at Paris 
in 1868, 70, and '74. Pupil of Duret and Guillaume. At Philadel- 
phia he exhibited " A Bacchante playing with a Panther," in bronze, 
and received a medal. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Elegy," 
statue in stone, for the Palace of the Tuileries. 

Calamatta, Luigi. (Ital.) Born at Civita Vecchia (1802 - 1869). 
Officer of the Legion of Honor. In Italy he studied under Marchetti 
and Giangiacomo. Went to Paris when very young. He belonged 
to the severe school, and his engravings are remarkable for correct- 
ness and exquisite finish. He first exhibited, at the Salon of 1827, 
"Bajazet and the Shepherd," after Dedreux Dorcy. At the Salon of 
1869, after the death of Calamatta, his engraving of " La Source," 
after Ingres, was exhibited ; in 1863, the " Madonna della Sedia," 
after Raphael ; in 1859, " Portrait of Rubens," after himself, and the 
"Madonna di Foligno," after Raphael; in 1857, "Beatrice Cenci," 
after Guido ; etc. His works are quite numerous. His plate of 
" Martha and Mary," after Lesueur, was bought by the Calcographie 
of the Louvre for £ 600. Calamatta died at Milan, but was taken 
to Nohant, to the chateau of Mme. Sand, for burial, his daughter hav- 
ing married M. Maurice Sand. 

Calamatta, Mme. Josephine, wife of the preceding, is a painter. 
She has received two medals at the Salons. In 1877 she exhibited 
"An Idyl" and " Dear Grandma ! " ; in 1876, " The First Gift " ; in 
1875, " A Portrait" ; in 1851, " St. Veronica" ; in 1848, "Eve"; and 
in 1878, " Philippa of Hainault " and a portrait. 

Calame, Alexandre. {Swiss.) Born at Vevay (1810-1864). 
Member of the Academies of St. Petersburg and Brussels. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Diday. He traveled in Germany, 
the Netherlands, England, and Italy. His pictures of wild mountain 
scenery are remarkable both in drawing and color. Some writers 
have likened the poetic vein in his works to that of Corot, saying that 
in Calame the same feeling took on a more robust expression. At the 
National Gallery, Berlin, is his " Lake Lucerne " and " A Mountain 
Ravine." At the Leipsic Museum are several works of his, and in 
the Walters Gallery at Baltimore there is a large picture of Alpine 
scenery by him. The etchings and lithographs of Calame are famous ; 
the latter are very numerous : the eighteen views of Lauterbrunnen 
and Meyringen, and twenty-four views of Alpine scenery, are well 
known and much admired. The works of Calame are rare in this coun- 
try, and, indeed, they are not numerous in any case. When offered for 


oietly bought by connoisseurs at 1 l-Vw, if 

any paint i rv of the Alps with the tree 

spirit we feel in the pictures of this Swiss artist ; be was born, reared, 
. and died in their midst. They spoke to him a language which 
instated with his brash ; be loved and he knew bow to tell 
his love of these glorious heights ; those on his canvases bear one up 
above low and depressing things, jnsl as the Alps themselves do. 

Caiaiidrelii. Alexander. (Get.) Born in Berlin, 1834. Studied 

in the Academy of Berlin ; worked under Drake and August Fischer. 

in Italy for a short time. Among his works arc the statue of 

lins in the old Museum, a relief on the column of Victory in 

the Konigsplatz, and the equestrian statue of Frederick William IV., 

the National Gallery. Be also executed the 

led u Kunstgedanke a ( a Art Thought") in the National 

Gallery, Berlin. 

Calderon, Philip H., R. A. (Fr.-Brit.) Born in France, 1 

England in his boyhood, and began the ^t lid v of art in L"ii- 
don in 1850, studying in Paris under Picot the next year. First 
exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, in W)7, " Broken Y< 

1800, " Nevermore" ; 1866, when 

iate of the Royal Academy, "Her most High, 

at Grace"; 1868, he was raised to the rank of 

and exhibited the "Young Lord Hamlet" and 

11 Whither f" (his diploma work); 1871, "On her Way to the 

New Picture" ; L87S t ol II. S. Marks, 

A EL A., and "Summer"; 1873, "Good Night" and "Tl 

" . : ! on with the Best Authors" and 

• • " : : ijours fidele" and 

hful Eyes,'' and <■ His 
. ' •• Reduced T 
end "The Fruit-Seller"; 1878, "La Gloire de Dijon" 
: ford. He received the nrst- 
! of the P ition of L8( 

His "After tl I idemona," and "The SI 

ibitioo in Philadelphia in 1870. and a number of 
works at Paris in 181 

"Cal Massacre of PL Bartholomew tmmtt tho 

'■assy, when • BbatMtfc md tl..- 

M Walsingham keep open a ■tagla harbor of ntaga horn Um bl per- 

sedition wttl . r„n ,,f Hgh| :iu ,\ air , ln , lIv tll 

and drawn. A few hanl 

■ H * tcor n Art. 

"The p: 


" Bu " •* tO 


pore. b«althfti1. and graceful fancy More lately he has shown a lassi- 


cal subjects, as in his ' iEnone,' 1868, and ' Virgin's Bower ' and • Spring pelting Winter 
with Flowers,' in 1870. " — Tom Taylor, in English Painters of the Present Day. 

" ' After the Battle ' and ' The Siesta,' by Mr. Calderon, are both clever : the former 
tells its story with very decided interest ; the latter is probably a more recent work, 
evincing greater breadth and freedom in execution." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of 
the American Centennial Exhibition o/1876. 

Calverley, Charles, N. A. (.4m.) A pupil of Palmer in Albany. 
Has occupied a studio in New York for some years. He was elected 
an Associate of the National Academy in 1872, Academician in 1875. 
Among his sculptures are, "The Little Companions," "Little Ida" 
(medallion), Lusts of Horace Greeley (at Greenwood), of Charles 
Loring Elliott, N. A., Rev. John MacLean, ex- President of Princeton 
College, and of John Brown (belonging to the Union League Club). 
He sent his John Brown (in bronze) and a bas-relief of Peter Cooper 
to the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. 

Calvi, Pietro. (Ital.) Of Milan. At Philadelphia he exhibited 
" The Flower " and " Michael Angelo," and received a medal. This 
sculptor exhibited at the London Academy in 1872, " Selika " and 
" Othello." 

Cambi, Ulisse. (Ital.) Born at Florence, 1807. After complet- 
ing his course at the Academy of Florence, he went to Pome to study, 
and from there sent his group of " Daphnis and Chloe," which was 
put into marble for Count Ladarel in 1841. In 1844 he executed the 
monument to Giuseppe Sabatelli in the Choir of Santa Croce ; in 
1845, the statue of Benvenuto Cellini for the Loggia of the Uffizi ; in 
1849, the monument of the Marquis Luigi Tempi for the Church of 
the Annunziata at Florence, — a bas-relief on which, representing a 
choir of angels, is exquisite. Among other good works we may name, 
the "Dancing Bacchus," "Begging Cupid" (exhibited at Paris in 
1867), the " Fisher- Boy," " Eve and her two Children" (the figure of 
Abel very fine), colossal statue of Francesco Burlamaccbi, erected at 
Lucca, and the beautiful statue of Goldoni near the Ponte del la 
Caraia at Florence, erected in 1873. His small terra-cotta models 
are much valued by amateurs. He is not grand, but in the pretty 
and agreeable he is unrivalled. When his " Eve " was first exposed 
it was much admired, but while it is certainly graceful and pleasing, 
it carries the impression that Eve knew that people were looking at 
her and had posed for admiration. At the Paris Exposition, 1878, he 
exhibited "A Hunter," a statuette in marble. 

Cambon, Armand. (Fr.) Born at Montauban. Medals, 1863 
and '73. Pupil of Delaroche and Ingres. At the Salon of 1876 he 
exhibited " Roland fighting the Ork in Defence of Olympia " ; in 1875, 
" Echo and Narcissa" ; in 1874, "The Evening and Morning of Life." 
He has exhibited also several portraits. 

Cambos, Jules. (Fr.) Born at Castres. Medals at Paris in 
1864, '66, and '67. Pupil of Jouffroy. At Philadelphia he exhibited 
"La Cigale" and "Let Him without Sin cast the first Stone " (in 

A: THE MM II I \ I II ' I \ FURY. 117 

d .1 medal At the Salon "l" L878 he had a por- 
trait bust in marble »>f Ruprich-Robert, architect. 

Cameron, Hugh. {Brit) Born in Edinburgh. He was educated 
in t! tdemy, working at his profession in that city until 

his removal to London in 1^7<">. II.- paint-, generally, small '/-///■>• 
pictures, illustrative of the homely cottage life of Scotland, exhibiting 
in tin- Royal Academy and the Royal Scottish Academy, of which 
latter institution he has been a member for some years. He has 
\ produced some small water-color drawings of Venetian views. 
ng his works an-, "Tea-Time," u Rummaging/ 1 "By the 
shore, "Help from Tiny Hands.*' 

His - Age and Infancy " was at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 187$ 
and '• Maternal Care" and "Alone," at the Paris Exposition of 1878, 

Cammerano. Michele. (ItaL) Of Rome. Medal at Philadelphia, 
where he exhibited "The ( Jrandmother's Admonition," which 
one of the best pictures of the Italian section. 

Camphausen, Guillaume. (Gcr.) Born at Diisseldorf, 1810. 
Professor and member of the Academy at Diisseldorf where he 
studied. He painted horses ami battle-scenes, and for the purpose of 

ids subjects better he joined a company of hussars, and re- 
mained several years with them. He traveled in Belgium, Holland, 
cerland, Italy, and Germany. Among his works are, " Puri- 
rving the Enemy," purchased by the Consul Wagner of Ber- 
lin. and copied for the King of Hanover ; " Charles II. at the Retreat 
of W purchased by the King of Bavaria ; "Taking of the 

Entrench:. ippel, " purrhsnrd by the Emperor of Germany, at 

:ion of I md Roundheads ; etc, This 

arti-t made ma: | for illustrated publications, I 

cially for the " Almanach inen.-uel de Dusseldort" In 1870 be ex- 
hibi: tc4 Di igooni at N 

Camuccini. Vincenzo. {ItaL) Born in Koine (\~ ■). Mem- 

: the [nstitute of Fiance. President c( the Academy of St. 

Luke. Roman Baron, and a Knight of the Austrian Order of the Iron 

itudied drawing under his brother Pietro and 

Hi Ee copied much from the works of the great 

The - D .:h ■ : and the " Death of Virginia," two 

' t Lord Bristol ; copies of the* 

Many of his pictures- are illustrative of event- in Roman 

His paint 3t. Thomas the Apostle " was made for 

the Vatican, and has been reproduced in moi the church of 

inni in Pi a magnificent " Presentation 

tuple," which is much praised by Oiordani. As 

rtrait-painfc .1 Tintoretto. His 

portr ; Vienna. lb 

Tines 'I'orlonia. at R >iw. 
Canella. Giuseppe. (/' - ; ) B in a- 


medal of Louis Philippe. His father was a decorative artist, and the 
son early showed his love of painting. After various other works, 
he made two landscapes for Doctor Sprea of Verona, which were so 
much praised at the Brera at Milan, that he devoted himself entirely 
to landscape-painting. He traveled in France, Germany, and Swit- 
zerland, and when visiting Tuscany died at Florence, where he is 
buried in Santa Croce. At Venice he refused a professorship which 
was offered him. His pictures are line. 

Caraud, Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Cluny. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Medals, 1859, '61, and '63. Pupil of Abel de 
Pujol. To the Paris Salon of 1878 he sent " Louis XV. and Madame 
du Barry at the Petit Trianon" and "A Coffee- Mill " ; in 1877, 
" Spring" and " The Pleased Abbe " ; in 1876, " The Little Farmer." 

Carlin, John. (Am.) Bom in Philadelphia, Pa., 1813. He grad- 
uated at the Pennsylvania Institute for the Deaf and Dumb, after 
four years' schooling, in 1825. He studied drawing under J. R. 
Smith, and portrait-painting under John Neagle, in New York, in 
1833 and '34. In 1838 he went to London, spending some months 
in the study of the antique in the British Museum, and, going thence 
to Paris, he became a pupil of Paul Delaroche. He returned to 
America in 1841, taking up his permanent residence in New York, 
devoting himself to miniature-painting on ivory for many years. His 
portraits in that medium are owned in various quarters of the United 
States. Since the popularity of photography he has turned his atten- 
tion to landscapes and genre subjects, painting, among others, " The 
Flight into Egypt," " Dolce far niente," " Red Riding-Hood," " Pulpit 
Rock, Nahant," " Old Fort, St. Lawrence River," and others, sent to 
the annual exhibitions of the Artists' Fund Society, of which he has 
been a member since 1859. He has been a frequent contributor to 
the National Academy, sending, in 1870, "Playing at Dominos" ; in 
1871, "An Autumn Afternoon"; in 1873, "A View of Trenton 
Falls" (belonging to J, G. Brown); in 1875, "The Toll-Gate"; in 
1877, "Nodding" ; in 1878, "After Work." 

Caron, Adolphe-Alexandre-Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Lille (1797- 
1867). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. This engraver studied 
with Bervic, and made his debut at the Salon of 1822. He executed 
many commands for the government and for the Societe des Amis des 
Arts. He made copperplate engravings and etchings. Among his 
plates are, " Madame de Sevigne," after A. Deveria ; " The Nativity," 
after Decaisne ; " The Resurrection of Jairus' Daughter," after T. 
Johannot ; " Christ in the Garden of Olives " and " Faust watching 
Marguerite," after Ary Scheffer ; " The Lesson on the Harp," after 
Cosway ; etc. 

Carom, Prof. Emmanuele. Sculptor of Florence. Born in 
Switzerland. At the Philadelphia Exhibition were seen his " Effects 
of Cold Water," " L'Africaine," " Bust of a Roman Girl," " A Christ- 


:i at School," and M Youth as % Butterfly,* 1 
b last is in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington. The catalogue of 
the Centennial says : — 

J >uth in Um form of a tmttcrtly which, while flying over 

. m-t that MflhSM to lvality." 

rcoran Gallery sayi : — 
itartled look, ami delicate Umbi of this figure, oombtned with 
r> and ims, make it a notable srampta of the plotaraaqiM 

■ the modern Italian sculpture." 

Carpeaux, Jean Baptiste. (/■>.) Born at Valenciennes (1827 - 
i. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Medal of Honor at Brus- 
- a pnpil in l'Ecole dee Beaux-Arts at Paris, and 
studied under Rude, Duret, and Abel do Pujol. He gained fourteen 
medals, and in 1864 took the prix d* Rome, In 1869 Ik- exhibited a 
•• Y rang Fisher," in bronze, which showed his inclination to disre- 
conventionalities. The group of " Ugolino and his Children" 
(1^73). purchased by the government, and cast in bronze, was placed 
in the garden of the TuHeries. The 4> Neapolitan Fisher" (1803) was 
purchased by Baron Rothschild j and M Lajeune filled la eoquille" 
I), by the Due de Mouchy. Among his smaller works may be men- 
tioned, M Hope.*' •• Abundance," " Springtime," and the M Mater Dolo- 
•lle.l in portrait busts, of which he executed a large 
numl>er. In 1866 he was commissioned to decorate the Pavilion of 
Flora in the Louvre ; he then- executed one of his larger works, 
called " Imperial France bringing Light to the "World, and protecting 
ultureand Science" In I s '"!) ms group of " Dancers" was placed 
on ti. v w Opera at Paris, and excited much hot dis- 

r and against it- merits. In the night of August 27 the 
work was disfigured by having ive ink thrown over it. The 

removed, and it has since remained unharmed. The last 
• work of ' for the fountain of the Observatory at 

Luxembourg. The group is called ''The Four Quarters of the 
Id rapport ing th.- Gl< ar women — a Chinese, an African, a 

European, and a Peruvian — hold up a globe on which tin- signs of the 
rved in bas-relief. The plaster model (at this group 
exhibited in \^~-. ami before the work was finished the health 
of the arti.-t was much impaired, and lie slowly and surely faded 
v. He had littl«- money and no hope ; he wished much to 

Italy, hut could see no possibility of it, when the Prince Stiihey. who 

- " Wounded Love," placed at the disposal 

of the sculptor a villa at N Here, with every luxury and comfort, 

ral month- in the winter and Spring of 1^7.">, and only 
returned to Paris when itwas plainly to be seen that bis 
appi While at v ketched continually, and mourned 

d to he filled with new 
and pur : 


of a higher type ; grand ambitions possessed him, and, as Mantz sug- 
gests in his account of Carpeaux, " He who had made his prose so 
valiant and pronounced had, perhaps, at the bottom of his heart a 
poem that he had never written." 

" Carpeaux is one of our most learned sculptors ; there are few hands more sure than 
his. To his merits of execution he joins a bold imagination which (let it be said with- 
out offence) resembles genius. His group of Ugolino, exhibited last year, will bring him 
the best honors of our time : it will be admired a long, long time. But it is not neces- 
sary that an artist of the first order should make his debut with a cannon-shot and 
follow it with Roman candles. ' La jeune fille a la coquille ' is an unhappy effort. She 
is a fensionnaire at an ungrateful age, lean, dry, and mannered ; a poor little worm who 

twists herself painfully It is not less true that Carpeaux is an artist of the first 

order. One does not always make chefs-d' ozuvre : if we never were mistaken, we should 
needs exchange our hats for aureoles ; we should be gods." — Edmond About, Salon of 

" Carpeaux has an ideal, which is life in sculpture, and a defect, which is a fever. 
Under the pretext of animating the bronze or marble, he tortures it and makes it un- 
natural. He takes frenzy for movement, and a shriek for a sigh. Pupil of Rude, he 
has exaggerated the manly independence of his master, and, having a talent of singular 
power, his works often border upon hopeless vulgarity. Carpeaux has long since broken 
with all classic conventionality. It has seemed established and accepted, for a long 
time, that sculpture was, above all, suited to the representation of majestic immobility, 
the noble and harmonious movements of the human body. On the contrary, Carpeaux 
has resolved to express in sculpture passion and movement ; but, instead of stopping at 
what might be called a romantic manner, he has pushed on, with singular boldness and 
a sureness of handling frequently admirable, to absolute realism. He has followed, 
without criticising them, the suggestions of his temperament. Therefore it is necessary 
to do Carpeaux the justice to say that he is not what he is from theory, capacity, or in- 
tention, but by nature, simply and entirely. .... It is his nature, his manner of con- 
ceiving expression and life, which forces him to this exaggeration of movement." — 
Jules Claretie, L'Art Frangais en 1872. 

^ Carpenter, Francis Bicknell, A. N. A. (Am.) Born in Ho- 
mer, N. Y., 1830. Displaying a taste for drawing at an early age, 
he became a pupil of Sandford Thayer, at Syracuse, in 1844, remain- 
ing in his studio six months, and receiving no other instruction in 
art. After painting portraits for a few years in Homer, he settled in 
New York City in 1851, spending the rest of his professional life 
there. In 1852 he was elected Associate of the National Academy, 
and was at that time the youngest member of the society. Among 
Carpenter's portraits are (full-length), Abraham Lincoln, in the Capi- 
tol at Albany, painted in 1874 ; President Fillmore and Gov. Myron 
H. Clarke, in City Hall, New York ; Horace Greeley, belonging to 
the Tribune Association ; David Leavitt, in American Exchange 
Bank, New York (painted in 1852) ; Asa Packer, in the Lehigh 
University, Bethlehem, Pa. ; and three-quarter lengths and heads of 
Lieut.-Gov. Woodford, in the Senate-Chamber, Albany ; Ezra Cornell, 
George William Curtis, James Russell Lowell, and Goldwin Smith, 
for Cornell University ; Alice Carey, Horace Greeley, and President 
Barnard of Columbia College, for A. J. Johnson of New York ; Henry 
S. Randall, Presidents Tyler and Pierce, William L. Marcy, Lewis 


. William II. Seward, s. I\ chase, Charles Sumner, Caleb Cuahing, 
K. M. M.m;.''i. Montgomery Blair, Qideoo Welles, Edward B 
I>r. Cbapixi, Dr. Storm, Dr. 8. EL Cox, Dr. Lyman Be 
(presented l>y Henry Ward Beecher to Lane Seminary, Cincinnati, 
Ohio); Dr. Leonard Bacon of New Baven, Dr. Bnahnell of Hartford, 

Yale Coll r Aiken, for Dartmouth ; 

lent Cottell of Lafayette College, Eaton, Pa.; Benry Ward 
ber (painted in l s ">M. belonging to F. I). Monlton ; Schuyler 

\. John c. Fremont, Fitz-IIugh Ludlow, and Emma Abbott 
Bii most important work was "The Emancipation Proclamation," 
which was exhibited in 1864 and '66 through the principal citi 
the Northern States, attracting much attention. It was porch 
for 5 26,000, by Mi— Elizabeth Thompson, and presented to Congress 
in 1:>77. It now bangs in the east wing of the House of Representa- 
tive. It has been I by Richie. Mr. Carpenter is the 
author of a book entitled "Six Months in the White House with 
Abraham Lincoln.'' 

" The Emancipation Proclamation' is a conscientious work, executed with patient 
gtudy. We could wish that more grace and vitality inspired the scene, aud can imag- 
ine that in the hands of a more ideal artist higher and more magnetic effect would have 

been given, but the intrinsic value of the work is none the less apparent The 

likenesses in the picture are excellent, the attitudes are characteristic, the groupings 
well managed ; the scene, in a word, is truly represented." — Tuckebmajj's Book of the 

Carpenter, Margaret (Brit.) (17D3-1S72.) She was a daugh- 

teartist, and married, in 1817, William Carpenter, who 

keeper of the Print-Room of the British Museum for many years. 

She deroted herself chiefly to portrait-painting, numbering among 

litters, John Oil . John Manners, and other distinguished 

peop] dubited frequently at the Royal Academy until 1864, 

after which she gradually retired from active professional work. 

Carpenter, Miss E. M. (Am.) Born in Killingly, Ct, 1831. 

itodied art with Thomas Edwards, an English artist, and in the 

11 Institute in Boston, when she has lived since 1858. She 

! irope in WJ7, and again in ls73, studying the masters and 

hing from nature m Great Britain and on the Continent Among 

her beat pictui "The Tempi.- of Pssstum" (24 by 4C), "A 

View from Mariposa Trail of the Yosemite Valley" (40 bj 

ac from Chamounix," "A View on the Grand Canal, 
Valley, on the Merrimack," and " Lake Attitaah in 
bury." The m of John G. 

- the original sketch. M .veil- 

known teacher of art in Boston. 

Carrier, Joseph-Auguste. (/>.) Born at I 

tlier of t: . of Honor. Pupil of Groa, Prud'hon, and 

and miniatup Anions 

. near the Lake of Grand bi.-n in 


Brittany," " A Woody Road, from Jouarre to Ferte," " Entrance of a 
Road in the Forest of Compiegne," " View in the Forest of Coni- 
piegne," " A Farm near Nantes," etc. 

Carrier-Belleuse, Albert Ernest. (Fr.) Born at Anizy-le-Cha- 
teau. CheA^alier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of David d' Angers. 
In 1877 he exhibited at the Paris Salon, a portrait bust, in terra-cotta, 
of F. Carmon, painter ; in 1875, two statues of angels for a monu- 
ment in Chili, and a bust in plaster of a " Grand Roman Lady " ; in 
1874, a plaster bust of " Mile. Oroizette" ; in 1873, two portrait busts 
(ladies); in 1872, portrait bust of M. Thiers, and a statue of "The 
Deserted Psyche," etc. Of the latter Jules Claretie in his " Peintres 
et Sculpteurs " says : " This figure is coquettish and charming, a 
little worldly, perhaps, but it does great honor to the man of taste 
who has composed it." His "Sleeping Hebe," of the Salon of 1869, 
is in the Luxembourg. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Moliere" 
(a plaster model) and a bust, in terra-cotta, of Monsieur Mathieu, a 
member of the Institute. 

Carter, D. M. {Am.) Born in Ireland, 1827, but taken by his 
family to the United States in 1839. As an artist he was compara- 
tively self-taught, beginning his professional career as a traveling por- 
trait-painter, visiting a large portion of the country, and working 
constantly from life. He settled in New York some years ago, and 
was one of the original members of the Artists' Fund Society in 1859. 
In 1850 or '51 he painted a series of pictures illustrative of Gold- 
smith's " Deserted Village," one of which, " The Parting Day," was 
purchased by Mrs. Lorillard Spencer. "The Village Schoolmaster" 
belonged to William and John O'Brien, and two others to Nelson 
Robinson. Among his historical pictures are, "The Battle of 
Bunker Hill" (at the National Academy in 1857), "Decatur's Attack 
on Tripoli," purchased by Morris Ketchum, and " Moll Pitcher at 
the Battle of Monmouth," now in St. Louis. He painted also, " A 
Legend of St. Michael," " The Death of the Virgin," and portraits 
(from life) of Henry Clay, Andrew Jackson, James K. Polk, and 
many other distinguished men. 

Carteron, Eugene. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medal of the third 
class, at the Salon of 1878, where he exhibited " The Prodigal Son." 
Pupil of A. and L. Glaize. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
"Lazarus" and a portrait. 

Casilear, John W., N. A. ( Am.) A native of New York. At 
the age of fifteen he began the study of engraving under Peter Mav- 
erick, at whose death, in 1831, he became a bank-note engraver. In 
1840 Casilear went to Europe to study, turning his attention to paint- 
ing in oils. He opened a studio in New York in 1854, going abroad 
a second time in 1857. He was elected an Associate of the National 
Academy in 1835, and Academician in 1851. Among his earlier 
works are, " Riverside," " Moonlight at the Glen," and " Niagara 


ft]W In 1868 he sent to the National Academy U A Swiss Lake" 
(belonging to EL ILOlyphant); in 1^71, "Genesee Meadows* 

Qg to Mr-. Richard Scbell); in 1874* M September Altera 
and • neva"; in 1875, M Troo1 Brook"; in L87G, M I'lls 

r, England" and "Autumn"; in (877, "Lake Leman" and 
"AScei in New Hampshire"; in 1878, "A View on the Sbemnng 
River." His M Lake Lucerne," belonging to John Taylor Johnston, 

- II in 1876 for 11,0001 

"Casilear's work is marked by a peculiarly silvery tone and ilelieaey of expn 
which is in pleasant accord with nature in repose and of his own poetically inclined 

- His pictures when sent from the easel are as harmonious as a poem, 

and it is this perfect serenity in their handling which is so attractive to connoisseurs." 
— Art Journal, January. 

"Ca- nes ; his foregrounds are often beautifully elaborate ; a 

pure light and neat outline and distinct gmoe or grandeur mark the works of this faith- 
ful, accomplished artist." — Tcckerman's Book of the Artists. 

" The small summer la: .silear, with its peaceful stream in a lush meadow 

under the gokkn radiance of a late afternoon, is interesting for its admirably apprc- 
i and managed atmospb • is a very happy piece of composition also." 

York Ectning Post, January 11. I 

Caas, George N. (Am.) For many years a resident of Boston. 
He studied with Innes, and paints landscapes in oil and water. He 
exhibits at the Boston Art Club and elsewhere, His pictures are 
generally owned in New England, where they are popular. His largest 
and moat important works are, " Evening on the Cennebeck River, 
M. .," belonging to J. G. Abbott ; and " A View 
in Mi belonging to L. A. Elliott, at the Mechanics' Fair, 

Mrs. George N. Cass teaches drawing and painting in Boston, 
where her pictures, fruit, flowers, and still-life, in oil, are exhibited. 

Cassagne, Armand Th^ophile. (Fr.) Born at Landin. At 

Philadelphia he exhibited "Tin- id in the Forest" and 

..ugh the Becks" ("il). and "A Forest View" (water-color), 

i medal ; at the Pari- Salon, in 1877, "A View of Fon- 


Cassatt, Mary. (Am.) Born in Pennsylvania. Sin- has lived 
for.- in I\iri>, where she has studied under Soyer and C. 

v. To the Salon of 1^74 she sent M Ida" ; inothi reral 

exhibited at the National Academy, New Fork, in 
1878, a portrait. She fa I tdied and sketched in Spain, and 

some of her later works sre of Spanish subjects. At the Mechanics* 
in Boston, i the BuE- 

1 M The Music-Lesson." 
Cassie, James. | in in Ah. -tlmd, he WS* Com- 

paratively Sftlf-taoghl as an arti-t,and DSS ipeni the greater l»art of his 

. il Life in Edinburgh. His specialty is marine news,— 
erally quiet, calm effects of m 


of the Royal Scottish Academy, exhibiting in its gallery, and at the 
Royal Academy in London. Among his later works may be men- 
tioned, " A Summer Afternoon, Firth of Forth " ; "A Highland 
Goatherd," "Chalk Cliffs, Coast of Sussex," "Ben Lomond from 
the Head of the Loch," " The Fisherman's Haven, Firth of Tay," 
" Holy Island Castle, Northumbrian Coast," " Early Morning, South 
Queensferry," etc. 

Cassioli, Amos. (Ital.) Born at Siena, 1838. Professor in the 
Academy of Fine Arts in Florence, and Honorary Member of that of 
Siena. Pupil of Prof. Luigi Mussini. His correctness in drawing 
was remarkable, and in 1863 he received the first prize of the Tuscan 
government. His picture of " Lorenzo de Medici showing his Jewels 
to Ludovico Sforza," now in the collection of Count Saraceni in 
Siena, first called public attention to him, and immediately gave him 
a high rank as an artist. His other principal works are, " The Battle 
of Legnano," a large work, with many figures (now in the Gallery 
of Modern Paintings at Florence), and " Provenzano Solvani receiving 
offerings from the Citizens for redeeming a Prisoner from Charles I. 
of Puglia " (in the Palazzo Publico at Siena). " Bianca Cappello " 
and " The Studio of Leonardo da Vinci " are also pictures worthy of 
his reputation. 

Castellano, Manuel. (Span.) Medal at Philadelphia, where he 
exhibited " Death of the Count Villamediana," belonging to the 
Museum of Fine Arts at Madrid. 

Castiglione, Giuseppe. (Ital.) Born at Naples. Medal at Phila- 
delphia, where he exhibited " The Warrants " and " Visiting the 
Cardinal Uncle." At Paris, in 1877, was " The Terrace of the Palace 
Royal at Naples " and " A Duel without Witnesses"; in 1878, " Por- 
trait of Pandolfini of the Theatre des Italiens " and the " Lesson to 
the Paroquet." At the Paris Exposition, in 1878, he exhibited " A 
View of Haddon Hall, England, invaded by the Soldiers of Crom- 
well " and " Visiting the Cardinal Uncle." 

Castres, Edouard. (Swiss.) Born at Geneva. Medals at Paris 
in 1872 and '74. Pupil of Zamacois and Menn. In 1877 he ex- 
hibited at Paris, " Gypsies crossing the Simplon" and " A Game of 
Quoits on the Terrace of a Convent " ; in 1876, " The Gratuitous 
Consultation " and " A Caravan near Cairo " ; in 1875, " Cairo," 
" The Return from Market," and " Le frere queteur " (or the Men- 
dicant Friar). At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, the " Japanese 
Bazaar " (25 by 36) sold for $ 1,675. At the Salon of 1878 he exhib- 
ited " A Relay at the Hospice of the Simplon " and a " Japanese 
Woman at the Bath." 

Catel, Franz Louis. (Ger.) Born at Berlin (1778 -1856). Mem- 
ber and Professor of the Berlin Academy. Studied by himself, and 
had such natural gifts that his industry and love of art enabled him 
to arrive at a good degree of skill in composition and execution. At 


the National Gallery at Berlin art bis " M • lit. m Wagon with a 
Nun and ■ lVi< tples,* 1 and the *• Roman FestivaL" 

Catlin, George. (Am.) Bom in Pennnylvania (179fl 1872), 1 1<> 
studied and practiced law in Connecticul foe ■ few years, l>ut later 
tuned hia attention to drawing in Philadelphia, painting and study- 
ing in that city until i^:'.l\ He wat entirely self-taught. Qoing 
among the Indian tribes of the West and Southwest, he painted ■ 
Indian portraits, quite unique in their way, interesting in 
themselves, and valuable as historical records of the appearances, cus- 
. and habits of the fast disappearing aboriginal people. These 
have been exhibited in almost every city of the United States, and 

taken t<> Europe, where they attracted much attention, and were 
afterwards for a long time at the Smithsonian Institute at Washing- 
ton. Catlin was the author of several volumes: "Letters on the 
Indian Tribes," in L841 (illustrated); •■ I Eight Fears* Resi- 

dence and Travel in Europe"' ; and M Life Among the Indians," pub- 
lished in 1867. One hundred and twenty-six of his drawings, illus- 
trative of Indian life, were at the Philadelphia Exposition of 1876. 

"Catlin's gallery of aboriginal j>ortraits was a popular and interesting exhibition both 

at home and abroad, and some of the practical knowledge he obtained, added to tho 

lagenda and statistics col lt-rt.d by Schoolcraft, with the numerous portraits and scenic 

published by them and other native explorers, form curious historical artistic 

data." — Ti ckermas's Book of the Artists. 

Cattermole, George. (Brit) (1800-1868.) Studied architec- 
ture at an early age, and furnished illustrations for M Cattermole's Hie- 
J Annual" (the text being written by his brother), for Britton't 
glish Cathedral**? "The Waverley Novels/* etc*, while compara- 
tively a youth. About l^3»> he turned his attention particularly to 
r drawing, and was made a member of the old Water-Color 
ontributing frequently to its exhibitions until 1846, after 
which he devoted himself to oil-painting, executing <l Macbeth," a 
picture which h publicly exhibited. At the Paris Exposition 

of the two ftrst-clasi medals awarded to Eng- 
lish artiats (Lai eiving the other). He was ;i member of the 

Is and <»f the Royal Academy of Amster- 
dam. Among his pictures in water-col M 01d English Hospi- 
tality of Newbury" ; -The Unwelcome Return"; 
.; to the Ifonaatei i Walter Raleigh witnessing the 
itionof Essex" B rising pf I. -The 
Marria-e of ("ana,"' and M The Last Bupj 

1 was George spare 

of fun aa well aa fi • uly a little more ballast 

and steadiness to have had all that could give attraction t hip." — FoRSTEK'a 

" Cattermole's place among English artists Is assuredly in the highest rank of watcr- 

ident and manners .. . , I! i f Hght 

and gradations of relief in dresses, plate, arms and armor, furniture and figures, as well 


as the expressions and characters of faces by a few touches, exactly of the right form and 
in the right place, was distinctive of this painter, and has never probably been pos- 
sessed in the same degree by any other English artist." — Tom Taylor, in Art Journal, 
May, 1870. 

" There are signs in George Cattermole's works of veiy peculiar gifts and perhaps also 
of powerful genius The antiquarian feeling of Cattermole is pure, earnest, and nat- 
ural ; and I think his imagination originally vigorous; certainly his fancy, his grasp of 
momentary passion, considerable ; his sense of action in the human body vivid and 
ready." — Ruskin's Modern Painters, Vol. I. 

Cattermole, Charles. {Brit.) Nephew of George Cattermole, 
resident of London, and for some years a member of the Institute 
of Painters in Water-Colors, and of the Society of British Artists. 
Among his works in oil are, " A Council of War," " Attacking the 
Baggage-Wagon," "Disarmed," and, in 1878, "A Puritan Preacher." 
To the Gallery of the New Water-Color Society he has contributed 
" Beaten," " The Ford," " A Wounded Comrade," " Returning from 
a Border Raid," etc. 

Cavelier, Jules Pierre. {Fr.) Born at Paris, 1814. Member of 
the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of David d' An- 
gers and Paul Delaroche. He gained the grand prix de Rome in 
1842. In 1849 he sent to the Salon his "Sleeping Penelope," pur- 
chased by the Due de Luynes for his chateau of Dampierre, for 10,000 
francs. In 1853 he exhibited his statue of " Truth," which, with a 
bust of a woman, in marble, and the " Mother of the Gracchi," are in 
the Luxembourg. Cavelier has executed several works for public 
edifices, such as, two statues of the Seine and the Rhine which sur- 
mounted the clock of the Hotel de Ville at Paris, " Fame recompensing 
the Arts " on the front of the Gallery of Apollo, statue of St. Matthew 
for the principal doorway of the cathedral of Notre-Dame at Paris, 
statue of Monseigneur Affre for the court of the new sacristy of the 
same cathedral, a group of Caryatides for the central pavilion of the 
new Louvre. He has made several portrait busts for public places, and 
was charged with a part of the decoration of the new church of St. 
Augustin at Paris. The father of this artist was a designer of bronzes, 
gold-work, and furniture. The son sometimes made models for fine 
jewelry and gold-work which were very elegant, among others, that of 
the handle of a sword presented to General Cavaignac, which was 
executed by Froment Meurice. 

Cazes, Romain. (Fr.) Born at Saint-Beat, Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Ingres. At the Salon of 1877 he ex- 
hibited "The Theological Virtues " ; in 1870, "The Mission of the 
Apostles" ; in 1878, " Sappho " and a portrait. 

Celebrano, Francesco. (Ital.) (1789-1814.) This illustrious 
artist was director of the sculptors and painters of the famous porce- 
lain manufactory of Capodimonte, master of drawing of the military 
engineers, master of drawing to the Royal Family, and Court Painter. 
Pupil of Solimene. His mausoleum of the Prince of St. Severo in 


rnmptuous chapel of Si S rois one of the finest works of art in 
Naples. He also made some good pictures : and several fine rases with 
figures in relief were modeled by him, and sent m presents from the 
court of Naples to the court of Spain. 

Cermak, Jaroslav. (Bektmian.) Born at Prague. Pupil of Gallait 

ami of Robert-Fleury, Chevalier <>f the Legioo of Honor. His >ul>- 

sre historical, and he is ■ great artist. At the Salon of 1^77 lie 

exhibited "Some HersogOTinians returning to their Village and finding 

it ravaged by Bachi-Bousoucka, the Cemetery desecrated, and the 

Church d< . "An Episode of the Siege of Naum- 

,"; in 1873, "An Episode of the War in Montenegro, 1862," and 

"Hunting and Fishing, — Souvenirs of EtosconV (This painter merits 

rtended notice, but no more reliable information could be 

obtained.) At the Pari- Exposition of 1878 he exhibited M A Mon- 

_ ;in Wounded "' and "The Return to the Country." Died, 1878. 

Chabal-Dussurgey, Pierre-Adrien. (Fr.) Born at Charlieu, 

about 1815, Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Studied in L'J&cole of 

■ sme to Paris in L840, and BOOB made his debut at the Salon. 

In W><> he was attached to the Qobelins Manufactory. His principal 

works are water-colon of fiowers and fruits. At the Salon of 1878 he 

exhibited " < Joncordia." 

Chalmers, G. Paul. (Brit.) Born at Montr—.- (1836 -IE 

Displayed artistic talents as a lad. l»ut was comparatively self-edu- 

I in the profession, his tirst exhibited picture being a boy's head 

in chalk. This was followed by small figure-pieces in oil, "The 

Smoker," etc. ; many of which were purchased by the 

\ •!!. He made sketching-tours in Brittany and the 

hern Hebrides : painting hut few landscapes, however, until 

within a few years of his death. He was elected an Associate of the 

idemy in L867, and Academician in 1871, very 

few of his works appearing publicly outside of Scotland. Tin- better 

known of End «.f the Harvest " (R. S. A.. 187 

i irs and Ten," sent t<» the 

demy, Lond >n. in I87fi ; in 1*70, M Prayer"' ami "Knitting." 


i trait of a venerable divine, painted with rare bfOadth of hand and 

purit> ire mu< h pleased with Chalmers' ' Knd of the. Harvot ' The last 

stack- r.m^'e<l in t 1 ;. with the wit of woodland beyond, 

the rooks swaying and swinging <>n their h- I ■,.- swed fisding light of 

\zt>n, are nl! inony of tone." Art Journul, A\>r\\, 1 

Chalon, John James, EL A. (Brit.) Born in Geneva, Switzer- 
land (177- 1854> Brother of A. E Chalon, R, A. Spent the 
r part of his professional lite in England, being educated at the 
demy with his brother, devoting himself to 
painting in oil. Elected Associate of tin- 1; 
•■my in 1-. ii- ian in 1842. II;- "Hastings Pish- 



Chalon, Alfred Edward, E. A. (Brit.) Born in Geneva, Switz- 
erland (1781 - 1860). Taken to England by his family in his youth, 
and placed in the schools of the Eoyal Academy at the age of 
sixteen, he devoted himself to portrait-painting in water- colors for 
many years, turning his attention somewhat late in life to oils. He 
painted occasional figure-pieces, generally of a historical character. 
He exhibited frequently at the Eoyal Academy, of which he was 
elected Associate in 1812 and Academician in 1816. He was also 
Painter in Water-Colors to the Queen. 

Champney, J. Wells (" Champ "). (Am.) Born in Boston, 
1843. As a youth he studied in the Lowell Institute, Boston, enter- 
ing the shop of a wood-engraver there at the age of sixteen. In 
1863 he served in the 45th Volunteer Eegiment of Massachusetts, and 
later taught drawing in the school of Dr. Dio Lewis at Lexington, 
Mass., for two years. He went to Europe in 1866, studying in Paris, 
and spending the summer of 1867 in Ecouen as a pupil of Edward 
Frere. He was at the Academy at Antwerp in 1868, but returned to 
Paris, and again worked under Frere in 1869, painting his first genre 
picture, which was purchased by Goupil & Co. He passed the win- 
ter of 1869 and '70 in Eome, returning to America and sketching in 
Nova Scotia the following summer. He opened a studio in Boston, 
but went to Europe for a few months in the spring of 1871 and '72. 
In 1873 he traveled with Edward King in the different Southern 
States of America, making sketches illustrative of King's work, pub- 
lished by the Scribners, and entitled " The Great South." He went 
again to Europe in 1874, and in May, 1875, he visited the Basque 
Provinces of Northern Spain, during the Carlist Eebellion. Commis- 
sioned by the editors of the French journal " L'lllustration " to furnish 
figure drawings of American life, he returned to America, and built 
a studio at Deerfield, Mass., in 1876, where he still resides (1878). 
He is a member of the American Society of Painters in AVater-Colors, 
to the annual exhibitions of which he is a frequent contributor. On 
account of the number of artists bearing his surname in Boston he has 
been in the habit of signing his works " Champ," since the sale of the 
first one there in 1869. 

Among the better known of "Champ's" works are, " Not so Ugly 
as he Looks," at the Paris Salon of 1875 (now owned in Boston) ; 
" Boy shelling Peas," painted in 1869 (owned by W. A. Camp of 
New' York) ; "The Best Scholar" (exhibited in Chicago) ; "Hearts 
and Diamonds" and "Which is Umpire" (in the possession of 
Thomas Wigglesworth of Boston) ; " The Sear Leaf" ; etc. To. the 
Centennial he sent "Grandma's Pet" and "Your Good Health" 
(from the collection of Thomas Wigglesworth) ; " Don't Touch ! " 
(belonging to Dwight Cheney of Manchester, Ct.) ; and " Speak, 
Sir!" (belonging to Mr. DeWolf of Boston). 

Mrs. Lizzie W. Champney, his wife, is the author of several 
books bearing upon art. 

AL /• THE ZvTA '// CENTURY. 129 

Chaplet, Ernest. (IV.) Born at Sevres, 1885. This artist, who 
ranks among the notable men of his age, on accoant of hi^ inven- 
in the decoration of faience, commenced life 
if china in an atelier in Pari-. Be wenl later to I 
rnmental manufactory, and while there, commenced the experi- 
ments and investigations which were the first step* towards hit end. 
But the rules of that establishment hampered him, and he went to ■ 
manufactory of white earthenware, where he was at liberty to pursue 

Kperiments. About i s 7:i he discovered the mode of eeramio d< 

ration call y which be placed himself among the 

nal ceramists of his age. M. Baraoquemond had followed his 

course with great interest, and brought M. chaplet and his inventions 

to the notice of the Messrs. Baviland A Ca, who at once bought the 

right to employ his methods, and ML Chaplet went to their atelier at 

ail, when-, after surmounting many obstacles, his beautiful faience 

is the exhibit in Paris of this year (1878) has 

n. But at firsl there were many discouraging experiences, and 

:' those day- would certainly have discouraged men of 

letermination than Bracquemond, Chaplet, and Charles Edward 

Havfland. Fine specimens of this faien Ben at Philadelphia 

in l^7<;. Since then the process has l»i-<-n enlarged and perfected, 

until to-day the Ilaviland faience is considered the most artistic faience 

of th is precisely that of oil-painting, and 

with it an artist can produce a painting equal to what he can do on 

Chaplin, Charles. (Fr.) Born at AnderljS, L825. His father 

was an Englishman and his mother French, but by life, love, and all 

that : man, he is French, and French only. Chevalier of the 

Iloimr. Pupil of ri;< 1- des B*aux-Aits ami of Drolling. 

to 1851 were Dot such i £ his 

nt rank as a painter. In l s ">i he exhibited a portrait of hii 

hich won a Daedal, and his subjects since that time have been of 

a different order from the earlier ones. Anions them are many por- 

(al the Luxembourg), u Loto" (at tlie 
Museum of Rouen), "A Bather," u A roungOirl with a Collared 

I haplin he l many decorative 

tel Ifnsard, which i> a 'A 
in ti. Lty. Hi- decoratiotis are also in the Tuileriesand at 

Qumerous and much sought Be 
has a lar^'e numln-r df pupils, and is mccessfnl as an instructoi At 

■v i) i Id 
D rry, Baltimore, i- " < lirls kneeling at a Shrine." 
At the Salon of 1878 Chaplin exhibited two portraits ofladi 

"Chaplin U a man of a light and pleaair:. 
qneathrd to him in part fl 

and attractive, aa he tues it in painting houdoira and pier-glaaaea. He lovea t-> 
6 I 


with roses the bosom of a young girl, —to fold back, on a white shoulder, a fichu coquet- 
tishly torn, — to dazzle with a little leg, seen under a skirt a little retroussee. These are 
his favorite tricks, and he succeeds in them without too much effort ; it is another thing 
when he undertakes a higher sort of subject. His ' Haidee ' is only a keepsake figure, — 
a blonde doll dressed in gauze, running over with pearls. She is an Oriental of fantasy 
and the hot-house, whose fragile and vernal freshness has never felt the caresses of 
the midday sun. One can easily see that she is of the same race as this lady in a rose- 
colored dress, between two ages, whom the painter has carefully transformed into a 
young girl in spite of her gray hair and faded features, wisely dissimulating by means 
of a cottony chiaroscuro or a cloudy white light. Who dares to say that Chaplin is 
wanting in the ideal ? He has, on the contrary, an inexhaustible provision of it, at the 
service of the ripe beauties who wish to rejuvenate themselves either with ash-colored 
hair or with throats of lilies and roses." — Ernest Duvergier de Hauranne, Revue des 
Deux Mondes, June, 1873. 

" He is a fine officer in the army of progress. I regretted, some days since, that one 
could not yet find in art a style characteristic of our epoch. Perhaps I wronged Chap- 
lin, who, without copying Watteau or anybody else, without recourse to the types or 
the costumes of another time, has positively invented a genre of new, elegant, rich deco- 
ration, in harmony with the luxury and comfort of modern palaces. Princes have chosen 
him to brighten their apartments, and they have employed a happy hand. This fresh 
and laughing painting is truly a charm to the eyes, a delight to the mind. The darkest 
melancholy is soon dissipated in the midst of agreeable objects, which suggest no pain- 
ful idea, not even that of the labor they have cost I seek to make you understand 

the distinctive beauty and merit of these two pictures. My brother critics, who are all 
more competent than I, would place in relief the qualities of the painting, the skill 
of composition, the ineffable charm of the color. They would tell you that ' La fille aux 
bulles de Savon ' is blonde, in a corsage of rose, and a skirt of white satin ; the transpar- 
ent sleeves reveal her beautiful arms ; the gray background, a blue vase, a wooden spin- 
ning-wheel, are in delicious harmony with the white and rose. All the freshest tones of 
the palette have made an appointment to meet in this picture. The other one is, per- 
haps, more rich, — the ' Fille aux tourterelles ' is brunette, and the tone of her flesh the 
most dainty; her white doves, her yellow skirt, the flowers and green leaves which make 
a frame around her, are a delicious accompaniment to her beauty. But all this, for me, 
is only an accessory. The principal thing is, that the pictures seem to have made them- 
selves, not to have been painted with a brush, with oil and ground colors. One would 
say that the dream of a happy spirit posed itself lightly on the canvas, like a bird on a 
tree in bloom." — Edmond About, Salon o/1864. 

Chaplin, Christine (Mrs. Brush). (Am.) Born in Bangor, Me., 
1842. Her specialty is wild- flowers in water-colors. She spent about 
a year in Europe, where she painted with Charles Chaplin and Har- 
pignies of Paris and Bomford of London. Her home has been in 
Boston until 1878 ; but she has painted from nature on the sea-shore, 
some of her best pictures being of the flowers of Osterville. She ex- 
hibits at the Water-Color Society of New York, in Brooklyn, and occa- 
sionally at the Boston Art Club. Her pictures are owned by Mrs. 
S. F. White of Brooklyn, Jeremiah Milbank of New York, Governor 
Claflin of Massachusetts, Mrs. Harrison Maynard of Boston, and others. 
She has made several little books, in which she has illustrated, in water- 
colors, verses of her own. These are very dainty, and are owned by 
Mrs. S. D. Warren, Governor Smith of Vermont, etc. Prang has re- 
produced, in chromo, several of her pictures, including " Petunias " 
and " Nasturtiums." 


"Mint imOOf the llrst Humeri. a!', illy, in tin- 

catalf- prifht atodiea of add-howi 

the hi an soma of hei »wi at Bchaus*, 

and will dooblhss i-iii i\>r morv ns it beoomas battel known. 1 do nut know "I an\ MM 
whodi L the tntrioafc terns and their eub* 

:. bolder bund than she." — Old and Ntw, kagOMt, 

Chapman, John Gadsby, X. A. (.1///.) Born at Alexandria] Va», 

L808. Re displayed ■ talent for art at an early age, and studied for 

time in Italy. Returning t<> America, he painted in New fork 

and elsewhere ; was one <>f the founders of the Century dub, and was 

1 a full member of tin- Academy of Design in 1S5<>. Il<- waa 

interested in wood-engraving, and instructed an entire generation of 

young artists in that branch of his profession with decided su< 

IK- went again to Italy in 1848, settling in Rome, where he has since 

He made a viait to America in l v 7^. Among the more 

important of his works are, •• The Baptism of Pocahontas" (in the 

Rotunda of the Capitol at Washington), "Sunset on the Campagna," 

- : ■ Last Arrow," M Valley of Mex- 

"St ae Tines in the Barberini Valley, 1 * etc. He has furnished 

llnstrationa fop many books, among others, Harper's Bible, and 

is the author of a " Drawing-Book," said to be one of the best of its 

kind in the language, which has passed through many editions both 

in Great Britain and in the United States. Among his etchings from 

The Return from the Vintage," " Piferari 

playing before a Shrine of the Virgin," M A Monk asking Alms,'' 

'• It... I'll.- Gleaner," "A View on the Campa§ 

"A View in the Vicinity of Rome," -The Departure of Bench 

rnment of hi- [aland," M ICaswaddox Creek, Eastern shore, 

Chapu, Henri-Michel-Antoine. (Fr.) Born at Nice. 1'r 

Officer of the Legion of Honor. Medals of Honor in 
1^7"» and '77. Pupil of Pradier, Duret, and Cogniet. His M Mercury 
inventing the Cadeuceus ' (1 -»'•:'>) i- in the Luxembourg, together with 
unremy " (1870). At the Salon of 1877 he exhib- 
ited a stat t u Thought " and one of Berryer, — the last for the 

• Youth " for the monument 
It ami other artists who were -lain during the war ; in 
1872, l : and in 1867, u The Death of Clytie." Hehasalsomade 

many portraits, in statues, busts, and medallions. 

•eks, who have remained <>ur masUm in sculpture as in many olhst tillage, 
t!»at the Ufj 
•<*1 fragmen- 

•.t Wautiful anti'iue itatoas. Bj t)i<- brilliant li-'lit shed ■•'■• 

jiart>i :n retti f >-> the h ilf-tinti stfc d lat ii. ih.-m-.. Ivw to the nson dial urf parte, bj tha 

ning shades ind In the Mdo of the di 

oat ev. 

relief which belong* to the rondt-ba**. 
they posh to the last degree of j is, above all, 


on account of the masterly distribution of the light that the statue of Chapu merits the 
highest praise. The light breaks over the face, runs down the arms, lights up the 
breast, and falls in a powerful jet on the thigh, which it reveals beneath the drapery. 
The shade falls under the chin, and to the left throws into relief all the outer line of 
the figure, giving the greatest value to the lighted parts. But that which the Greeks 
(who expressed themselves in art by the equilibrium of lines, not less than by the nor- 
mal movement of gesture and the just expression of action) would with difficulty par- 
don in Chapu, is the conception of the work. What ! is this statue made for the fu- 
neral monument of Daniel Stern ? Is it Thought which this draped figure represents, 
who, fixing an inspired look towards heaven, raises the right arm above the head 
in the adorable pose of a Nereid or a dancer of Herculaneum, le pan de son hima- 
tion, and holds in the left hand, pressed down along the thigh, a roll of papyrus? It is 
not in this attitude that men, gods, or symbolic beings meditate ? The head and the 
lower part of the body belong to Polymnia, but the bust and arms are those of Terpsi- 
chore. The decision of the jury which has given to Chapu the medal of honor will, 
however, be approved. The 'Thought' is a beautiful statue of an elegant contour, 
learned execution, harmonious arrangement, and exquisite and vigorous modeling." — 
Henry Houssaye, Revue des Deux Mondes, June, 1877. 

Ckardin, Paul-Louis-Le"ger. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of 
Dauzats and J. Ouvrie. His " Chapel of the Fishermen, near Plouha, 
C6tes-du-Nord " (1874) is in the Luxembourg. 

Charnay, Armand. (Fr.) Born at Charlieu. Medal in 1876. 
Pupil of Pils and Feyen-Perrin. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
" The Last Fine Days, Park of Chateau Morand " ; in 1876, " Water- 
falls of Lignon" : in 1875, two scenes on the shore at Yport. 

Charretie, Anna Maria. (Brit.) (1819-1875.) Exhibited in 
the Royal Academy as an amateur in 1839, and for some years later 
flower-pieces and miniatures. Was married in 1841, and at the death 
of her husband adopted art as a profession, sending portraits and 
flowers annually to the Royal Academy until her death. In 1872 
her " Lady Betty Germain " was greatly admired for the grace of the 
figure and the high finish of the details. In 1873 she exhibited " Lady 
Betty's Maid " and " Lady Betty Shopping." Among her other works 
were "Little Trot," in 1866 ; " My New Toy," in 1867 ; "A Stone in 
her Shoe," in 1870 ; " Lady Teazle behind the Screen," in 1871 ; and 
" Mistress of Herself tho' China fall," her last picture, in 1875. 

Chartran, Theobald. (Fr.) Born at Besancon. Medal in 1877. 
Pupil of Cabanel. At the Paris Salon of 1877 he exhibited " St. Satur- 
nin, Martyr," for the choir of the church of Champigny-sur-Marne, 
and " A Martyr in the Catacombs at Rome " ; in 1876, " A Young 
Girl of Argos at the Tomb of Agamemnon " and "A Gentleman of the 
Court of Henri II." ; in 1875, " Angelica and Roger" and a portrait. 

Chase, John. (Brit.) Born in 1810. A pupil of John Constable, 
devoting himself particularly to water-colors and to architectural in- 
teriors and exteriors. Has been for some years a member of the 
Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, exhibiting in 1872, "Capulet's 
Balcony, Verona" and "Lichfield, Evening" ; in 1873, "Studio of 
Leonardo da Vinci at Fontainebleau," and " Heidelberg from the 
Terrace"; in 1878, " Lichfield Cathedral from the Minster Pool," 
" Porch of the Cathedral at Chartres, France," and " Ludlow Castle." 

AB r THE .\7\ rci;y. 133 

Chase, William M. (.lm.) Bon in Franklin Township, Indi- 
an.!. 1^;:». He began hi> art studies in i s <;^ under B. I". Haj 
portrait-painter in Indianapolis. In L869 be wen! to toe city of New 
Fork, where he studied under J. O. Eaton, and spent ■ year in the 
Is of the National Academy. In 1^71 be opened a studio in 
. -uis. painting fruit and flower pieces. Be sailed for Europe in 
1872, settling in Munich, studying in the Royal Academy there, and 
gaining three medals. !!<• was a pupil of Wagner, Piloty, and 
others, in Munich, painting al>»» for ■ year in Venice, where he de- 
. himself particularly t<> the Btndy <>t* the works of Tintoretto, 
og hi- more important works are the portraits of five children of 
Piloty at Munich, belonging to thai artist, and "The Dowa- 
$e study, painted in Munich, and upon the strength of which 
hews I by Piloty as a pupil. The "Dowager," exhibited at 

National Academy, New York, in L875, belongs to Eastman John- 
son. To the National Academy in l s 77 he sent the " Broken Jug" and 
'•The Unexpected Intrusion" ; in 1878, "The Court-Jester, or Key- 
p." To the first exhibition of the Society of American Artists 
in New Fork, in 1878, be sent M Ready for the Ride " (now in po 

f the Union League Club), "The Apprentice," "The Wounded 
Study of s Head." The "Court-Jester" was at the 
Centennial at Philadelphia in 1876, where he received a medaL He 
returned to the United States in the autumn of 1878. 

" The pictures by Chase have the good fortune to please alike a large part of the gen- 
eral public ami the artists then. | fur the subject, the arti-: 

: r. the dtmwtaft thfl handling ; and so, whenever the gallery is 
full. It I tbfl ' Appre ntic e ' an- never without their grOUpe ol ad- 

mirer- be noted in regard to tl is, that they seem to be 

by dir' so free are they from mannerism or individual trick ; and this i9 

so rare a quality thai it should W much remarked on fat 1 

have said.ti 

faults in it that e;i- V>,u cannot walk all round this funic ; than there 

is the ugly dress of w hi. h I asa things are drawbacks, and in 

the case of - Bright DVOfl lint here they on 

mystery and | . „t to the race, which K after all, the 

whole ■, lS ban nomhasfld by the Union I. 

i baaoi by the BoeJety of aaaes> 

lean Artist*, as the nur-fcus of such a | either they Off MM OM aUM must 

soon begin to fonn, if we would be binding artists here at home."— I 
Ymk Tribune, March 10, : 

Chase, Henry. \ nature of Vermont H<- studied art in 

the Pari* Salon in i teurs 

my, New York, the isms 
"Kullen Point. . ; ,i, % Welsh Coast" was exhib- 

ChatrouBse, Emile. . 1827. ICedall at the 

pi] of Rude. In 1866 hi- ' 


had made the group of " Queen Hortense and Prince Louis." His 
" Seduction" is at the Museum of Vendome. The " Renaissance " is at 
the entrance of the chateau of Fontainebleau. The "Little Vintager" 
is at the Museum of Grenoble. " Comedy " is on the front of the 
theater of the Chatelet. " Magdalen in the Desert " is at the Mu- 
seum of Douai. His group of " The Crimes of the War " was pur- 
chased by the State, and is a work of remarkable power and feeling. 

Chauvel, Th^ophile. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1831. Second prix 
de Rome, 1854. Two medals for lithography at Salons. Pupil of 
Picot, Bellel, and Aligny. Landscape-painter. His " Pond at Brenne * 
is in the Museum at Pau. Studied lithography under Jules Laurens, 
and reproduces most happily the works of Corot, Bonington, Theo- 
dore Rousseau, Diaz, and Isabey. Later he has made etchings which 
are much praised by other artists. He was one of the jurors for the 
Exposition of 1878. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited etchings of 
" La Falaise," after Van Marcke, " A Trunk of a Tree," after Diaz, 
" A Scene in the Forest of Fontainebleau, after Th. Rousseau, and 
" Springtime," after Daubigny ; in 1876, a painting, " The Border of 
a Wood," and etchings after Corot, Gegerfelt, and Troy on ; in 1875, 
pictures of " The Environs of Precy " and a " Scene near Magny-les- 
Hameaux, " also eight etchings, and a lithograph of " Cows at a 
Watering-Place," after Troy on ; in 1874, lithographs of " A Terrier," 
after Decamps, and *' The Cottage," after Eugene de Tabey. 

Chavet, J. Victor. (Fr.) Born at Aix. Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor. Pupil of Roqueplan. At the Johnston sale in 1876, 
New York, " The Man Reading " (8 by 6) sold for $ 280, and " The 
Connoisseurs " (9 by 7), from the Wolfe sale, for $ 420. His picture 
of the " Sleeper" (1859) is in the Luxembourg. At the Salon of 
1878 he exhibited " La lecture da feuilleton." 

Chenavard, Paul. (Fr.) Born at Lyons, 1808. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Studied in Paris under Hersent and Ingres ; then 
went to Italy, where he remained several years. He so admired and 
so studied the old masters that his works all show their influence on 
him. After his return to France he exhibited " The Judgment of 
Louis XVI." and " Mirabeau replying to the Marquis of Dreux-Breze." 
Chenavard sympathized with the revolution of February, and the 
leaders commissioned him to do an immense amount of work for the 
decoration of the Pantheon ; he intended to represent the history of 
civilization, and had completed several enormous cartoons when the 
Pantheon was given up to be used as a church. These carloons were 
exhibited in 1853 and '55 ; and in 1869 the last one, called the " Di- 
vina Tragedia," was finished as a picture and sent to the Salon. It 
attracted much attention, and was first placed in the Salon of Honor, 
but as the orthodoxy of its sentiment was questioned, it was removed 
to a less conspicuous place. While the French government were dis- 
cussing the question of purchasing this picture or not, the government 


ivaria requested tliat it should be tent to Munich for an exposi- 
tion there ; but it ii now in tin- Luxembourg. Chenavard, as a mem- 
f the Committee of the Fine Art- for Lnternationa] Expositions, 
Bade one of the jury at Vienna in 1873. 

Cheney. Seth. (Am.) Native of Manchester, Ct, where be » 1 i t*< 1 
in 18! rttst in crayon, famous f».r his female heads, Si 

ited Europe several times for purposes of study and observation. Be 
oe of the most popular and successful of our earlier draughtsmen 
in black and white, and his works, whether portraits or ideals, are 
still highly pri 

is a keen anil delicate lover of be>ntj ; his ehotesat work was in de- 
• i the crayon exquisite female heads, and tOBM of these far surpassed any- 
this side the water : his likenesses were unequal ; fastidious 
and susceptible, it was requisite that he should be en r.i;>;».,-r with his sitter to as 

j initiated in this country the cultivation and appreciation of crayon 
portraiture, and left .tuples thereof, bi eathin- a delicate and delicious mastery 

i " — Tickebman's Book of the Artists. 

Chenu, Fleury. (Fr.) Born at Lyons, Died in 1875. Medal in 
Pupil of tlb- School of Fine Arts at Lyons. Painter of Land- 
scapes "The Stragglers, — Effect of Snow" 
it the Luxembourg. At the Salon of l s 73 he exhibited 
"The Saone " ; in 1872, M La visite de i The first picture ex- 
hibited by < !henu at the Salon wa- - ene, and was bought by 
. Duma- tils. 
Chevalier, N - m-Brit.) A native of Switzerland. He has 
ed in L(»n»l<>n since 1873, exhibiting frequently at the Royal 
my. Be lived in Melbourne, Australia, for some time, and was 
in tli the Duke of Edinburgh during that prince's trisil 
India, Australia, and N ad. By order of the Queen, be 
painted "The Thanksgiving Day Pro c e s s ion, February -21, 181 

A Bit of the Grounds at Mount Stuart" (at 
Exhibition of 1878, belonging to A. B. Stewart), 
eningof the International Exhibition at Vienna in 1 
lemy in l877),"An Eastern Puzzle," M Chi 

Lima Pri'-t- 

skillfully has the I and distributed the warm lights which 

beat upon the dais, and strike 1ms strongly ujx.n the ether pal - a the 

work poaaeaaea an artistic valu^ ipart from its interest as a representation of 

contemporary hn>: af of the Vienna Exhibition, ' B A , 1 -77 J — London 

Morning Adrrrtiaer, May. 

Chierici, Gaetano (/'-//.) Thi>arti-t paints interiors of kitchens 

with wonderful skill. He usually introdu ry in 

i children play ■ part. At Lond lemy, 1877, be 

exhil oner"; in 1878, u Mother ii 111" and 

rallerv, Washington, ii hii picture 

1 •• Fun and Fright Thii «r rk attracted much sttention when 

exhil .t.i the kitchen in which 


the artist lived when poor and struggling, and the boy and girl are his 
own children. 

Chintreuil, Antoine. (Fr.) Born at Point-de-Vaux (1814- 
1873). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Corot. This 
landscape-painter experienced hardship and poverty, and received the 
honors which came to him late in life. Until ten years before his 
death his works were refused at the Salon, and he received his first 
medal in 1867. He was a true lover of Nature, and learned to be 
her interpreter by devoted study of herself alone. He may be said to 
have had no art education, as the term is used, so limited were his 
means and opportunities. His subjects often seem dull and uninter- 
esting, but they are rendered with true artistic sentiment. " The Ex- 
panse" (1869) and a "Thicket with Deer" (1874) are in the Luxem- 
bourg. In 1864 he exhibited "The Ruins, — Setting Sun "and "A 
Meadow, — Sun scattering a Fog"; in 1867, " A Plain in the Time of 
the Oat Harvest " (rising moon) and " The Fields in Autumn " ; in 
1868, " The Morning Sun after a Stormy Night " and " The Shower " ; 
in 1870, "The Moon" and "A Ray of Sun on a Field of French 
Grass" ; etc. 

"Chintreuil was one of those genuine lovers of nature whose impressions are much 
too vivid to be rendered in set methods ; but an original artist of this kind is generally 
both longer in acquiring technical skill, and longer in commanding public applause, 
than a docile pupil of tradition. The wonder, in our opinion, is that a painter like Chin- 
treuil should ever become famous at all ; not that he did not deserve fame, but because 
there is so little to attract popular attention in his work." — The Portfolio, July, 1874. 

" M. Chintreuil loves to seize that which appears unseizable, to express that which 
seems inexpressible ; the vegetable, geological, atmospheric complications attract him 
inevitably ; his curious mind and his skillful brush are only at ease in the midst of 
the strange and unexpected ; when he succeeds he creates prodigies. We remember his 
beautiful picture, 'L'Espace' ; this year ' Pluie et Soleil ' has no less originality, charm, 
and grandeur." — Georges Lafenestre, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, July, 1S73. 

Christie, Alexander. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh (1807 - 1860). 
Brdught up to the law as a profession, he did not begin the study 
of art until 1833, when he entered the Trustees Academy in his 
native city, studying under Sir William Allan. In 1843 he was 
appointed assistant-teacher, and in 1845 one of the masters of the 
Trustees Academy. He was elected Associate of the Royal Scottish 
Academy in 1848. His specialty was ornamental designs on panels. 
Several specimens of his work are at the Scottish National Gallery. 

Church, Frederick E., N. A. (Am.) Born at Hartford, Ct., 
1826. Showed a decided talent for pictorial art when quite a lad, 
and at an early age became a pupil of Cole at Catskill, N. Y., where 
he lived and painted for some years. In 1849 he was made full mem- 
ber of the National Academy, New York. Went to South America 
for the purpose of sketching in 1853 and again in 1857. A few years 
later he made sketches on the coast of Labrador for his " Icebergs," 
which was exhibited in London in 1863, attracting considerable at- 
tention there, a leading London journal saying of it, " The picture is 


treated with the utmost subtlety and delicacy, both of form and 
color, and brings the weird and wondrous ice-world moel vividly and 
impressively before the spectator." Church went to Jamaica in 1868, 
making many studies j in l s <: s he made his first visit to Europe, 
Palestine and Greece, painting u The Parthenon," " Jerusa- 
lem/ 1 and other important pictures. 

In 1<(J7 Church exhibited at the National Academy, New York, his 
■iv Season in the Tropics" (belonging to Mar-hall 0. Roberts) ; 
in 1868," -A South American Landscape M (the property of the Na- 
tional Academy); in 1869, "Scene among the Andes"; in 1870, 
"The After-Glow" ; in L874> M Kl Chasne' Petri" ; in L878, "Even- 
Bis •• [cebergs" was purchased by Mr. Watson, M. P., of London ; 
i Ecuador" belongs to M. 0. Roberts ; his "Cotopaxi," be- 
longing to William T. Blodgett, was sold for $2,500, and the "Heart 
of the Andes" at the Bame sale, brought $10,000. William T. 
Walters of Baltimore owns his "Twilight" and "A River of South 
America" ; the"Twilight in the Wilderness," belonging to the col- 
li of John Taylor Johnston, was Bold, in 1^70, for $3,600, and 
iko belonging to Mr. Johnston, was purchased l>y the 
ran Gallery in Washington for S 12,600. This is probably the 
known of Church's works: it has been exhibited and reproduced 
by various processes. At the International Exhibits D at Paris in 1867 
I a medal of the second class. To the Exposition of 1878 in 
- he contributed his "Morning in the Tropics" and "The Parthe- 
' the latter owned by Morris K. Jeasnp of New Fork. In Mr, 
olh-ction are "A Tropical Moonlight" and u chimborazo." 
Mrs. ('"It of Hartford owns "Jamaj 

i ireh'a style promises to l>c the best Turnerian, carricil forward with preciseness 
f color." — Lmulon Art Journal, (September, 1S03. 

the Bni Satisfactory delta 
byart of (me of the I iral wooden "f tl«*- Western World, end this is in itself 

m success of the ar • ottag the rspids is nasrveloos 

.... I nd eed, this work forms an era in the history <>f native landscape art, from the 
•peans." — T> Hook of the A 

lunch lea-Is or misleads the way according as the taste prefer! thr- idealistic or 
the tv . f art Certain it is that Church has achieved ■ popular VD 

in hU tropical scenery, [cebsfgi hi rders for pic 

tore* as fast as he khesa, at pri his branch of art 

. • . - I hurcli in the brilliant qualities of his 

lively hi d« t , ntlre, reflecting in 

mind, notwit 
nessofchar. • ■ .ntinue the favorite with a large class." — Jarvbs, 

Art Idea. 

ireh contributed his ' Chimborazo,' which, while it is • of his 

peculiar style, is not one of hi* iwst Ml mi or his 

of the | sat ability displayed by this srUct in the works last meal 

■writs high praise and has been widely ark t. the landscape 

I •!.,. - | •.• -• | .•■•..■- •!. vi .rtist : 

hie estimate of iU values and its facta, therefore, is rather scientific than a; 


art is always attractive and brilliant, but it has a tendency towards accumulation of 
detail in lieu of fullness of sentiment. His merits, however, are so generally recognized, 
and have so properly won for him the distinction due to brilliant talents, that his work 
rarely fails to attract attention and elicit praise. ' Chimborazo ' is one of a series of 
pictures, the materials for which were sought in another continent, and the extraordi- 
nary enterprise manifested by this artist in visiting remote latitudes in search of subjects 
for his pencil was a feature of his art that has since found numerous imitators. But he 
is not insensible to the fact that all the materials requisite for great art may be found 
always near at hand, and even among what is termed mere commonplace." — Prof. 
Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition, 1876. 

Church, F. S. (Am.) He has occupied a studio in New York 
for some years, working in oil-colors, water-colors, and black and 
white. His pictures are generally of animal or bird life, and of a 
satirical or comic character. He has exhibited at the National Acad- 
emy " Weirdness," " Mad as March Hares," " The Solo," " The Sea 
Princess," and others in oils. To the Exhibitions of the Water-Color 
Society, of which he is a member, he has contributed " Hard Times," 
" Foraging Party," " The Phantoms," " The Elfin Tandem," " The Os- 
trich Dance," " The Awkward Squad," " Scraping Acquaintance with 
the Baby Elephant," etc. He has furnished book and magazine illus- 
trations for the Scribners' and other publishing houses. 

Cibot, Francois-Barthelemy-Michel-Edouard. (Fr.) Born at 
Paris (1799 - 1876). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of 
TEcole des Beaux- Arts, Guerin, and Picot. Made his debut at the 
Salon of 1827. Cibot executed mural paintings at the church of 
Saint-Leu. Some of his works are at Versailles. In 1874 he exhib- 
ited at the Salon "The Vision of Ezekiel " and "Environs of Sevres"; 
in 1869, "The Forest of Meudon " and "The Chestnuts"; in 1868, 
"A Sand-Pit near Paris" and "Landscape near Paris" ; in 1867, 
" View of Rochefort "; etc. At the Luxembourg is " Le gouffre, pres 
Seine-Port "(1864). 

Claes, Constant. (Belgian.) Born at Tongres, 1826. Pupil of 
De Keyser, Madou, and Baron Leys. He paints genre subjects. His 
pictures are not numerous, and he is little known beyond his own 
country. Among his works are, " The Country Curate," " The Doc- 
tor," " The Charitable Child," etc. 

Clark, Thomas. (Brit.) A native of Scotland. Died, 1875. He 
was educated in Edinburgh. Devoted himself to landscape-painting, 
and began to exhibit at the age of twenty, contributing regularly for 
many years to the Royal Scottish Academy, of which he was elected 
an Associate Member in 1865. 

Clark, Joseph. (Brit.) Born in Dorsetshire, 1835. He received 
his art education in the school of J. M. Leigh, London, and has spent 
his professional life in that city. He has contributed frequently to the 
Exhibitions of the Royal Academy, and received a medal and award 
at Philadelphia in 1876, sending 'there his " Sick Child " and " The 
Bird's-Nest." Among his more important works are, " The Wan- 
derer Restored," belonging to H. Wallis, Esq. (R. A., 1861) ; and 


:lv Promise," purchased by the Royal Academy, where it i i 
hibited in L877. To the Royal Academy in l s ";7 he sent " Bricks' 1 ; 
\ "The Empty Cradle"; 1870, " School-Time n \ 1-7-'. • All 

Afon irly Efforts"; L875, " A Quiet Aftera i " ; L877, 

. L 878, "Wandering Minstrels" and -A Morning CalL" 
•• • The Bfc k Child, 1 by J. dark, is pathetk and tender la feeling ; a sincere re] 
I true touch of nature which makes the whole world kin. l-Vw ptetai 

■ edmlrahle qualities than this by Mr. Clark." — Prof. 
-f o/ the American Centennial Exhibition o/\^~<>. 

Claude, Jean-Maxime. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals, 1866, '69, 
ami '7-2. Popi] ofGallandi At the Salon of 1^77 he exhibited "Ces 

tion in Byde Park " ; in 1876, 
turn from Rotten Row"; in 1875, "The Park, London" and 

; in \-::). "The Repose" and *۩nversation " ; in 
1878 Dtechamber" and "Souvenir of Rotten Row, London "; 

in 1878, - A Sketch on the Cliff" and the "Exit from Hyde Park 
by the Albert Gate." 

Clays, Pierre- Jean. (Belgian.) Born at Bruges, 1819. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor and of the Order of Leopold. Studied 
.ri> under Gudin, and devoted himself to what may be termed 
marine subjects. Settled at Brussels, where in 1851 he received 
I medal. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "The Znyder-Zee, 
I, in Calm Weather" and "A Canal in Zclande" ; in 1876, 
"Bruges" and " The North Sea *' ; in 1875, " View on the Scheldt" 
and "The Thau London" ; in 1874, "A Dead Calm, — Morn- 

Liight " and " A Squall on the Sclnddt, near Antwerp" ; in 1868, 
"Entrance to Southampton Water, with a Good Breeze" and "A 
. on the Scheldt, d lingue"; etc. At the Johnston 

Fork, 1878, "A Marine, Dutch Shipping "(31 by 51) sold 
At the Latham A View on the 

At a Paris sal.-, L873, " A Calm" 
sold: . of 1878 Clays exhibited "A Calm in 

- ■ and '• - Holland. 

: lilting ; and in his choice of landscapes is some- 
what like the I 1 ten if looenoi paint the sea. but the Scheldt where ttwtdem 
those gray a- r fOO in a steamer from Hoordyh BO Rotterdam. 

With a profound Heeling lor t: ■ urna* in the calme plat, in the grot 

tempt, the humidity of the ski. , ,.,. r# or 

the caress, sometimes m the little, aneaey waves 

shirer around the Koff* loaded to the brim. Biarrelonaly 

exact painter ; be give* and, with happy talent, ha 

knows the *|»ots where the sun's rays cru .• with li e -!i! Ma.ttz, 

Gazette da Beaux-Art*. Jul> 

the sea, or rr than 

Clays: he knows it* clearness, and he knows how to render the little notey waves all 
Sn*had j, h progress this 

-••a,' in spite of certain indecisions in drawing, has some traits of .harming 

fey: and if th b of a hurried a freshness 

and a true tone which is incontestably ailur iieless, Uie brilliant debuts of 


this artist make us difficult to please where he is concerned, and we would not wish to 
content ourselves with a simple mark of esteem." — Ren£ Menard, L'Art, 1876. 

Clesinger, Jean-Baptiste-Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Besancon, 
about 1820. Officer of the Legion of Honor. This sculptor studied 
with his father, visited Italy, and made his debut at the Salon of 
1843. His first work which attracted special attention was " The 
Woman bitten by a Serpent" (1847). He has executed "Louise 
of Savoy " for the Garden of the Luxembourg. In 1877 he exhibited 
"The Dance with Castanets," bronze statue; in 1876, "France," 
bronze bust, and a portrait bust of General de Cissey ; in 1875, 
" Portrait of Mine. Ratazzi," marble bust ; in 1869, " Cleopatra before 
Caesar," marble statue ; etc. Clesinger has occasionally exhibited 
paintings of scenery and architecture. At the Khalil-Bey sale, Paris, 
1868, " Helen," a statue, sold for £680. At another Paris sale, 1868, 
the "Triumph of Arianus" sold for ,£852, and the "Death of 
Lucretia," for £624. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Phryne with 
the Vase " and " A Roman Bull." 

Clifford, E. (Brit.) Born in Bristol, 1844. He received his first 
instructions in the School of Art of his native city, and later was a 
pupil of the Royal Academy. He has devoted himself particularly to 
portrait-painting, spending his professional life, so far, in Italy, India, 
Palestine, and London. Among his sitters have been Lady Ashbur- 
ton, Countess of Pembroke, Countess Brownlow, Lord and Lady 
Lytton (painted in India), Earl and Countess of Shrewsbury, Earl of 
Pembroke, Mrs. Percy Wyndham, Miss Octavia Hill, and many others, 
exhibited at the Dudley Gallery, Royal Academy, and Grosvenor Gal- 
lery. His more important ideal works have been " Entertaining an 
Angel Unawares," " Israelites gathering Manna," and " The Spies," 
the last painted for Lady Ashburton ; all exhibited at the Dudley 

Clint, George, A. R. A. (Brit) Born in London (1770-1854). 
Began life as a fishmonger, was later in an attorney's office, became 
thereafter a house-painter, and finally, about the beginning of the 
century, turned his attention to miniature-painting, in which branch 
of the profession he met with marked success. He was also an en- 
graver in mezzotint, executing several prints for Lawrence, — " The 
Death of Nelson," after Drummond ; " The Kemble Family," 
after Harlow; and others. He painted the portraits of many of 
the leading dramatic celebrities of his day, in groups and singly, — 
notably, Kean as Sir Giles Overreach and Richard III., Liston as 
Paul Pry, Young as Hamlet, Battley as Falstaff, Macready as 
Macbeth, Mathews the elder as the Lying Valet, etc., — which are 
familiar to collectors by the engravings, which are themselves rare. 
Many of the original portraits are in the Garrick Club, London, and 
in famous private galleries of England. He painted, also, many 
other portraits in oil and water-colors. In 1821 he was elected an 


my, but resigned from it in i s ''>">. The 

last years of his life were spent in reti r ement His "Falstaff and 

rnon Collection) is in the National Gallery. 

Clint. Alfred. {Brit) Born in London, 1807. Son end j»upil of 

lint, studying later in the British Institute, where hie first 

pkUu txhibited when he was aboat twenty years of age. Be 

i as a portrait-painter, but turned Ins attention to 

lands I marine views, in which In- has been very successful 

He v. | a member of tin- Society of British Artists in 1^"><», 

11 Secret ry of the Society for seTeraJ years, and 

?ident in L869, a position he still holds (is;s), contrib- 
uting to its exhibitions annually for many seasons. Among his works 
may be mentioned, w The Entrance to the Harbor of Little Hampton 

.' •• Evening — ('oast Scene," "St. Michael's Mount, Corn- 
wall,** in 1^77. Hi- u Lake Scene, — Sunset " ami u Sunset at 1 1 

• at Philadelphia in 1^76 ; his "Twilight" was at Paris in 

Clodt-Jurgensbourg, Baron Peter. (Russian.) Born in Estho- 

nia, I80& Professor in the Academy of St. Petersburg and member 

of the Academy of Arts of Berlin. His father placed him in the 

army, but afier several years, his father being dead, he entered 

- des Beaux-Arts in St. Petersburg, and devoted himself es- 

lv to the sculpture of homes. A number of his works are 

in public places in St. Petersburg, and some of them are in Prussia. 

Cobb, Cyrus. (4a*.) Born at Maiden, Mass 1834. B 

.'►out twenty years was identical with that of his twin-brother, 
Darius Cobb. If.- has painted portraits of the Rev. Dr. A. P. Pea- 
. Dr. .1. Appleton, and others, but at present devotes himself to 
the law, which is hi- profession. He has written occasional philo- 
nays on ar 
Cobb. Darius. (Am.) Born at Maiden, Mate*, 1834. Twin- 
ms Cobb, with whom, until ls>7<>, he studied ami 
d the most intimate relations. The brothers, in the be- 
ginning of their cai 1 opportunities offered them to g 
Europe for instruction in art, having no master but nature, and 

hooL Their professional life has been 
:i and its vicinity. Darius Cobb, besides painting a 
t portrait nted land . ami 

I a bust of I',, p. ShiUaber (Mrs. Partington), cut by 
him in marble, is in the High School bouse at Chelsea. Among the 
: hi- {>or .f Collector Simmons, in the 

1 by 
Suffolk Bar in I rnorAndj | and Prof! 

Aga> both owned by Harvard College : on.- of Charles Sam- 

Dp <>f four children W. W 1 1 k • - r of Boston i a two- 

: in i-7»; by fa I mm, 


Natick. Those of Cyrus and Sylvanus Cobb, Jr., were at the Centen- 
nial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. 

Among the most important of his figure-pieces are his " King Lear " 
and " Judas in the Potter's Field," which were exhibited in Boston in 
1877, and he is at present (1878) engaged upon a picture represent- 
ing "Christ before Pilate." His " Back-Bay Lands " and other land- 
scapes have attracted some attention in Boston. In 1869 the brothers 
furnished the design for the Soldiers' Memorial Monument, unveiled 
on the Common in Cambridge, Mass., in July, 1870, which was 
erected by them, and for which they received $ 25,000. Darius Cobb 
frequently delivers lectures in Boston and elsewhere on art subjects. 

" Darius Cobb has lately finished a view across the Common, from the roof of the 
Studio Building, that is so much a novelty in the way of treatment, as well as subject 
suggested, that it deserves longer mention than is at present possible. The strength of 
the picture is in the sky ; a mass of clouds reaching across the canopy, white with the 
noonday light massed upon it, throwing much of the middle distance, such as the tops 
of the trees, into comparative shadow, and lending to several church-spires and promi- 
nent buildings something of its own clearness and vigor." — Aldine. 1876. 

" Darius Cobb has given us a picture which will go down as the standard one of 
Choate, — a picture which is not only an outward semblance of the man, but one which 
seems permeated with his very spirit. It is full of that shaggy strength which impressed 
itself on every beholder, and which those who remember his forensic eloquence will ap- 
preciate and acknowledge." — Boston Transcript, June 24, 1876. 

Cobbett, Edward J. (Brit.) Born in London, 1815. He de- 
voted himself to art at an early age, exhibiting at the Royal Academy 
when seventeen or eighteen years old, since which time he has sent a 
great variety of pictures to the more important English annual art ex- 
hibitions. He has been a member of the Society of British Artists 
since 1856, and its Auditor for some years. Among his works may 
be mentioned, " The Proposal" (1863); "A Bit of Luncheon"; " The 
Ballad " (R. A., 1864); " Wandering Thoughts," in 1868; "Heme Bay," 
in 1870 ; "Evening," in 1873. To the Society of British Artists he 
contributed, in 1877, " Returning from Market," "A Young Gleaner," 
and "A Cottage Scene, Surrey"; in 1878, " A Rustic Confabula- 
tion," " A Girl Knitting," etc. 

Codezo, Thomas. (Sp.-Am.) Born in Havana, 1839. He re- 
ceived his early art education in his native city, studying later with 
Henri Regnault in Paris, and under Fortuny in Rome. At the age 
of eight he took a first prize for whole-length figure-drawing ; also, 
the first prize for landscape, the same year, at the Academy in Ha- 
vana, and has since received gold medals in other countries. He is a 
member of several foreign academies and societies, and has spent his 
professional life in Cuba, Madrid, Barcelona, Paris, Rome, Florence, 
and has been in the United States since 1869. Among his principal 
works in oil, are a copy of Raphael's " Holy Family," full size, in 
possession of the President of the Bank Espaiiol, Havana ; an ideal 
female head (Flemish school), and an historical painting, " Father 

a;. )F THE NINETEENTH CEh Tl HY. 1 13 

ivingthe Spanish Prisoners," both owned by Condede 
Fernandina, Havana ; also,* "Sleeping Venus," belonging to Voido 
Venier, N-w York. Among his crayon portraits are those of 
Jenn Lndersoo of Rochester, Dp. Fisher of Cin- 

cinnati, Cardinal M infant children of lira. Bird and Mrs. 

Fork, and others. Bis latest work ii ■ portrait, in 
William Orton, in the office of the Western Union 
: iph Company. 
Coghetti. Francesco, (Ital) Born at Bergamo (1804-1875). 
Chevalier of the Order of St Gregory the Great President of the 
Lake. Pupil ofDiottiand Camuccini Coghetti has 
ated many decorative works at the Villa Torlonia, in the Cathe- 
dral and the Bishop's Pal rgamo, and in the Torlonia Palace 
in Borne ; but his chef+jTceuivn in decoration are in the Basilica of 

: praised for style and execution, 
og his oil-paintings arc, M Th ion, 11 in the Cathedral of 

irizio, and the "Condemnation of St Stephen." For the 
last he received hi< decoration. 

etti, endowed with ■ ran- power of creation, 
of the chiefs-of-school whom Italy most honors." 
Cogniet, Le"on. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1794. Member of the In- 
stitute, 1849. Officer oi the Legion of Honor, 1846. Medal, first 
. 1855. Pupil of Guerux Be took the grand friz dt U<>mc in 
1817. Bis •• Marius on the Ruins of Carthage," purchased by the 
rnment, an Murder of the Inn >th exhibited in 

\^i \. were tin- foundation of his reputation. " Noma" was also pur- 
chased by the government "St Stephen bearing Relief to a Poor 
the church of Sainl Nicolas-des-Champs. "The N.i- 
dng to join the Army in lT'.Jii" ami "Tin- Bottle 
of Rivoli ■ are at Versailles, where i> also •* Episodes in the Cam' 

irorked in company with other paint 
I!;- ii tun : •• T tinting hi Daughter* (1845), at 

itly increased his fame. Be 
iling at the L mvre and ■ chapel at the Madeleine. ( bgniet 
of Drawing at the Lyceum of I Irand 

an«l at the School, also a member of the Superior Council 

- that his talent has been judged in divers man: 
but hi i and lin<- color have beei 1 by all. 

Col, David. (/; Born a! Antwerp, and i pupil of the 

of thai <ity. This artist paint- germ pictures, At Phila- " In the Win.- < '-liar" ; at Paris, in 

b inl (k j'ir. sod 

hing the I Mr. T. It. Butler of v 

York. At the P 
Cole, Thomas, N. A. {Am.) Bom in England -18). 


Taken to America as a child, he lived with his family in the State 
of Ohio, receiving little instruction in art, and studying from nature 
under many personal difficulties. He finally found his way to New 
York, where he won the friendship of Durand and Trumbull, and 
began the painting of the autumnal Hudson landscapes, which in 
America and England are highly prized. He made several visits to 
Europe, sketching and painting in England and on the Continent, but 
his most attractive works were his American scenes. His allegorical 
pictures, however, were very popular ; " The Voyage of Life " being, 
perhaps, the best known, through frequent engravings. The original 
series, belonging to John Taylor Johnston, was sold in 1876 for $ 3,100. 
Morris K. Jessup bought the " Mountain Ford " for $ 900, at the same 
sale, " Kenilworth Castle " selling for $ 500. The last two were at 
Philadelphia in 1876. 

Among his works are, " The Course of Empire " (belonging to the 
New York Historical Society) ; " Titian's Goblet " (painted in 1833 
for Lyman Reed, belonging to J. M. Falconer of New York) ; 
" Primitive State of Man " (to E. L. Rogers, Baltimore) ; " Tor- 
nado in an American Forest " (to R. M. Olyphant) ; " The Expul- 
sion from Paradise " (to James Lenox) ; " The Old Mill" (to Mar- 
shall O. Roberts) ; " View on the Thames " (to Jonathan Sturges) ; 
" Catskill at Sunset " (to A. M. Cozzens) ; " Mount Etna," " White 
Mountains," and others (in the Wadsworth Gallery in Hartford) ; 
"Hunter's Return"; "Cross in the Wilderness"; "The Dead 
Abel " ; " Home in the Woods " ; " Schroon Lake " ; " Pilgrim en- 
tering Heaven " ; " Angel appearing to the Shepherds " (in the Bos- 
ton Athenaeum) and the " Cross and the World " (belonging to 
Vincent Colyer, exhibited at Philadelphia in 1876). Shortly after 
his death sixty-three of his works, belonging to different collections, 
w T ere exhibited in the city of New York. He painted few portraits. 
" The Life and Works of Thomas Cole " was written by the Rev. 
Louis L. Noble about 1850. 

" Cole was one of the first landscape-painters of America who united to the right 
feeling for nature a patient and a calm devotion to the practical requirements of art. 
There was a scope and a significance in his maturer efforts previously unattained, at least 
in the same degree, among us, and his example gave a new impulse to the pursuit, and 
a higher standard to popular taste." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

" ' The Voyage of Life ' is of simpler and less elaborate design than ' The Course of 
Empire,' but more purely imaginative. The conception o" the series is a perfect poem. 
The child, under the care of its guardian angel, in a boat heaped with buds and flowers 
floating down a stream ; the youth, with hope in his gesture and aspect, taking com- 
mand of the helm ; the mature man, hurried onward by the perilous rapids and eddies of 
the river ; the aged navigator who has reached in his frail and now idle bark the mouth 
of the stream, and is just entering the great ocean which lies before him in mysterious 
shadow, —set before us the different stages of human life, under images of which every 
beholder admits the beauty and deep significance." — Bryant's Oration. 

Cole, George. (Brit.) Born at Portsmouth, 1810, and articled as 
a lad to a ship-painter in his native city. He received no instruction 


in art, bat while still an apprent inm 

menta for the proprietor of t toweling circus. II 
in that humble line tempted him to adopt art of a higher kind 

He devoted himaelf foi tome jean to animal-painting in 

smouth, exhibiting for the first time in London in L840. Ten 

years later In- a I a member of the Society of British Arl 

of which he Lb at present (1878) Vice-President. Be haa been also a 

frequent contributor to the Royal Academy and British Institution. 

\vr known of his early works are, u l><>n Quixote and 

"A Welsh [nteri A Surrey Har- 

" Pride and Humility," '• Loch Lubnai vera! of which 

lemy, in L870, he sent u Gun- 
naid'a II. sad, I rnwall"; in 1874," A Heath Scene" and 

"A River Scene, Sussex " ; in 1877, u Wheat Harvest, Hampshire 1 ' ; 
in 1878, " Early Morning on the Thames at Windsor." To tl 

itish Artista he Bent, in 1877, " Evening on the Thames "and "A 
the Thames" ; in 1878, "Thirlmere, from Raven Craig "and 
"Windsor Castle, — Morning." 

Cole, Vicat, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in Portsmouth, 1833. Son 

I !ole, an animal and landscape painter, in whose studio the 

btained his first leesona in art, studying as a young man from 

nature and almost entirely in the open air. Hi- first picture was lent 

itish Institution in \bbi. In 1868 he became a meml 

British Artists, exhibiting annually at their gallery 
until 1^64. In 1800 he sent to the Royal Academy, •• Under the 
••" ; in 1861, "Shadows from the I ; in L863, 

Autumn ! ; in L 865, " Spring " ; in L866, M Sumni 

B, - Evi oing " : in i860, u Floating down to 

I ; in l v 7<» (when be w» Associate), "Sunshine 

: in 1871, "April - I •• A Misty Morning"; in 

• The Heart of Surrey " ; in 1 

• Arundel " ; in 1878, R eiy 


re at the American 
ibition of 1876. u Autumn Gold," M Summer Rain," 
line "' wi : ition of 1 978. 

• paaaagee on the left, under the tree-. mi MlbdMi li^ht. in their well- 

■ ta died perfection, are a»- ijx; work in this exlnhi- 

I thhsk 1 MTCT saw a large picture eo inti'h injnn-d l>y a 
' i lit as this || \>.d.r <.f the farthest Wt «>n t. 

impossible : as a « ttsn/theA-- 

- .mmer Show :,"], ia a mac ape. 

It shows a vista of a full stream, enn bed with Collage, rushes, and floating flowers, 
gleams of light and firing shadows. " -Art Juvm -77. 

Cole. J. Foxcroft. (Am.) Bora in the • 

was a pupil of Lsvnbinet 
Indent in one of tin 

7 J 


ment schools of Paris. In 1867 he became a pupil of Charles Jacque. 
His professional life has been spent in Paris and Boston. At present 
(1878) he is a resident of the latter city. A few years ago he sold in 
Boston his pictures and studies, realizing for them about $ 20,000. 
One of his pictures is in the possession of the Union Club, Boston ; 
his " Willow Brook " belongs to the Boston Somerset Club ; " The 
Weakest goes to the Wall " belongs to Peter S. Brooks. In the Paris 
Salon of 1875 he exhibited "A Pastoral Scene in Normandy" ; at the 
Royal Academy, London, in 1877, he had " A Norman Farm " and 
" Sheep- Washing in Normandy." At the Centennial Exhibition of 
1876 were his " Twilight, Melrose Highlands " (belonging to J. Sayles), 
'* Cows Ruminating," and " Coast Scene in Normandy," for which he 
received a medal and diploma. 

"J. Foxcroft Cole gives to landscape its long-needed, poetical, sympathetical element, 
expressed chiefly in delicate gradations of color, and quiet slumberous distances, indica- 
tive of the mysterious tenderness and repose of nature." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

Coleman, Charles C, A. N. A. (Am.) Born at Buffalo, N. Y., 
1840. At the age of nineteen he went to Europe to study art, return- 
ing at the outbreak of the American Civil War, and serving for three 
years in the Union army. He went again to Europe in 1866, where 
he has since resided, working at his profession in Paris and Rome, 
chiefly in the latter city. He is a member of the London Art Club, 
and an Associate of the National Academy of New York. Among 
his more important pictures are, " Interior of Chapel adjoining Sala 
del Cambia at Perugia," exhibited at Rome, and at the Century Club 
and Metropolitan Art Museum of New York, belonging now to W. S. 
Green ; " The Bronze Horse of St. Mark's, Venice," painted for Lady 
Ashburton, exhibited in London and at the Paris Salon of 1877 ; etc. 
To Philadelphia in 1876 he sent "The Troubadour," "The Young 
Monk," " Nuremberg Towers," and others, and to the Paris Expo- 
sition of 1878 a " Decorative Panel." 

Colin, Alexandre - Marie. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1798-1875). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Professor of the School of Design 
at Nimes. Pupil of Girodet-Trioson. Among his works are, " Before 
the Marriage" and "Portrait of a Child" (1874); "A Drama of the 
Sea" (1873); "A Hurricane on the Borders of the Sea" (1870); "The 
Cid after his Duel with the Count of Gormas and his Father " and 
"The Little Sister" (1869); "The Joy of the Fireside "and "Who 
giveth to the Poor lendeth to the Lord " (1868); etc. 

Colin, Paul. (Fr.) Born at Nimes. Medal in 1875. Pupil of 
his father and of J. P. Laurens. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
" The Route to Yport, by Moonlight"; in 1876, " The Moat of Hogues" 
and " The Plateau of Criquebceuf, near Yport"; in 1875, " The Groult 
Farm, at Criquebceuf," " The Little Marauders," and " The Forest, 
near Barbizon." 

Collingwood, William. (Brit.) Born at Greenwich, 1819. He 


red his first instructions In art from J. 1>. Harding, and turned 
attention, early in his career, to water-color painting, and hat been 
Lte Exhibitor at the Society of Painters in Water-Colon for 
upwards of a quarter of a century. Among his later works are, " Aber, 
h Wales," "Cloud-Cape from the Bummil of Snowdon," "Sunset 
from the Rigi," "Sundays! Haddon Hall," "On the Lake of Como," 
Pas w j and in 1878, "On the Lake of Thnn," "Mont 
mtheOolde Balme," "Lndlow Castle," M The Fisherman'! 
Home, Clorelly," and others. Many of hia pictures arc owned in 
Liverpool and it< vicinity, where the greater part of hia prof earional 
life lias been spent. 
Collins. Charles Allston. (Brit) Born at Hampatead (1828 l 
1 William Collins, K. A., whose pupil li<' eras. He devoted him- 
• between 1848 and *88» exhibiting at the Royal Academy; 
.! works of no little merit, lit- turned his attention, 
ver, finally to literature as a profession, painting nothing alter 
ranger brother of Wilkie Collin-, and son-in-law 
: wln.m ho furnished the illustrated title-page of M Ed- 
win Drood." 

" Mr. Charles Collins had been bred as a painter, for stiecess in which line he had 
some rare gifts ; but inclination and c a pa city led him also to literature, and after much 
indecision Wtween the two callings he took finally to letters. His contributions to 
'All the Year Bound ' are among the most charming of its detached papers, and two 
stories publ - l.-utly showed strength of wing for higher flights." — Forstek's 

Life of Dickens. 

Collinson, Robert. (Brit) Born in Cheshire, 1832. He re- 
i bu first instructions in art at the Manchester School of Design, 
settling in London when about twenty j _•• and spending the 

f his professional lif«- in that city. He wtm for some yean Pro- 
fessor of Painting in tin- South Kensington schools. Among the bet- 
of his paintinga may be mentioned, "A Summer Ramble," 

(l:. A.. L862), "Or- 
(I:. A., i-<;i). -A Koney-Chaxu: 

A., I-.;:,). U C\ of j, 

exhibited at the British Institution and 
Academy, where, in ]^7<>, he senl "'I'll.- Dawn of II. 
l-Ti. I ; L878, •• To Win or Die" ; 

n. Nat ui.- "; 1^::., -Sunday 
The Mill Pool" and M Il.-m.:' 
"•Sunday Aftern> 

i histi.ated jxirsoiis who 
ears for English rural lit- i of the Academy, 1 

Colman, Samuel, N. A. 

was well known fork. Fonng 

from nature at an i | the 

harbor and -hi; V rk whih- -till a lad, itudying slso the 

seen*- I'i 1 960 he rent to 


Europe, spending two years in study in Paris and Spain. In 1871, 
lie again went abroad, working in Paris and Rome. In 1874 he was 
in Dresden, returning to New York in 1876, when he exhibited at the 
Snedecor Gallery forty-five sketches from nature, made in Italy, France, 
Switzerland, and the North of Africa. He was elected Associate of 
the National Academy in 1860 and Academician in 1862. He was 
one of the founders of the American Society of Painters in Water- 
Colors, and its first j^resident, holding that office from 1866 to '71. 
He was also one of the original members of the Society of American 
Artists in 1878. 

Among Colman's earlier works may be mentioned, " Two Boats 
on the Hudson," " Lake George," " Harbor of Seville," " Andernach 
on the Rhine," and " A Street Scene in Caen." 

He sent to the National Academy in 1870, " Trout Stream in the 
Adirondacks " ; 1871, "Twilight on the Western Plains"; 1876, 
" Venetian Fishing-Boats," " Dutch Boats at Low Tide, Antwerp," 
"Ruins of the Mosque of Mansowra the Victorious"; 1877, "A 
Sunny Afternoon in the Port of Algiers," and " Merchants en route 
between the Tell and the Desert, Algeria." In 1878 he contributed 
" Fluellen, Lake Lucerne." 

To the Water-Color Exhibition he contributed, in 1870, " Cordova, 
Spain"; 1871, "A Spanish Bull-Fight"; 1876, "Rome, looking 
down the Tiber"; 1877, " Evening, Venice," "Afternoon, Algiers," 
" Venetian Fishing-Boats," " Lincoln, England," and " Durham 
Cathedral, England " ; 1878, " The Cathedral at Quimper, Brittany," 
and others. 

To the Paris Exposition of 1878 he sent " Emigrant Train crossing 
the Ford " and " On the Guadalquivir," in oil, and " The Cathedral at 
Quimper," in water-color. 

" We regard this picture [* The Rock of Gibraltar '] as a splendid success. While it 
does not lack in the poetical treatment of its great competitors [Turner and Achen- 
bach], it has also all the fidelity to the actual that we could desire. The town and craft 
at the base of the Rock, the fortifications, the geological formations, the incidents of the 
busy neighboring shore, from which it is seen, are all carefully rendered." — Tuck- 
erman's Book of the Artists. 

" There is nothing monotonous about Mr. Colman's style ; his work is always pleasing, 
varied, and will be ever welcome in our exhibitions." — Art Journal, September, 1S76. 

" Mr. S. Colman sent his ' Merchants of Laghouat en route between Tell and the 
Desert, Algeria,' which is characterized by the agreeable manner this artist has been 
pleased to adopt. There are some manners, or methods of treatment in art, that are so 
intrinsically pleasing that they appear to be exempt from the criticism that usually de- 
preciates pronounced formalities of style ; and Mr. Colman's manner is one of these. It 
is attractive, thorough in its technical method, pleasing in color, and in every other re- 
spect than that of composition, in which it is perhaps too formal, it is admirable and 
artistic. A little seeming negligence or unstudied effect in composition would produce 
a more agreeable result ; and yet this very thoroughness of discipline in Mr. Colman's 
work offers a contrast to the not unusual weakness of our art in these particulars." — 
Prof. Weir's Official Report oftlie American Centennial Exhibition o/1876. 

Colyer, Vincent, A. N. A. (Am.) Born at Bloomingdale, N. Y., 

fork, and spent a fen years in a 

drug-Store in that city, evincing as a lad a taste for art, which DC 

finally decided to adopt as ■ profession, beginning hi> regular studies 

in 1*>44, under John K. Smith, and remaining with him for fonx 

&, He was all i • pupil in the Life and Antique School of th 

idemy. In 1M!> he wae elected an Associate of the National 
. and from that time until tin- breaking out of the Ann 
: he practiced in New Y.ik with considerable success, his 
•a portraits bringing large prices, lit- was one of the orgai 
of t: 3 iety, its Brat secretary and acting president, 

itial meeting being held in his house. During the war he de- 
ire of the rick and wounded, was an active 
member of the Christian Commission and Indian Commission! resum- 

. the active practice of his profession in 
|] resides. He enlarged some of the many 
r sketches of Western scenery made during his excursion 
:itry, and has been somewhat prominent of 
- in the political life of his adopted State, Connecticut, si- 
ting his painting. To the Exhibition 
National Academy in l v 7."> he sent u Columbia River "and 
tritiah Columbia" (the hitter belonging to John X. 
i York) ; in 1876, •• Pawing Shower, Columbia River'' 
ami portrait of ( '•■ rge EL Story (bel raging to the National Academy), 
traband" is in the possession of Thomas Kensett of llalti- 
I "The Home of the Vackai.. :.." of Horatio Bige- 

unial Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1^7<; lie contrib- 
Mountains" and "Pueblo, Indian Villi. 
Coman, Charlotte B A native of Waterville, X. V. 

mi. lie 1 in America under Jam roort Living for 

itodied the works of Corot, Danbigny, and 

devoting herself to landscapes after 

-t pictures are owned in Boston, New 

.t to the Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1^7'">, 

"A Pren b Vi positioa <.f 1871 Ron- 

Dr. E. W, Hitchcock. Her "Sunset at the 

exhibition in Boston in l v 77, and " On 

Home in Normandy " at 

Comerre. L^on-Franc^ois. (Fr.) Born at Trelon. Medal and 
prix Pupil of GabaneL Medal at Philadelphia, w] 

he exhibit picture which had taken the 

u Jui 

Compte-CalLr, Fraucoia Claudius. (Fr.) Bon tl 

Pupil of • 1 of 


Fine Arts at Lyons. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "A Wed- 
ding in La Bresse " and " II m'a dit . . . . " ; in 1876, " Venice in the 
Sixteenth Century " and " Pas le plus petit frere " ; in 1875, " A 
Path which leads a long Way," " Ou diable vont-ils 1 " and " Good 
Night, Neighbor"; in 1874, "Ne le reveillez pas!" "Adam and 
Eve," and a " Souvenir of Cannes." His picture of " Killing the 
Snake " is in the collection of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston. At 
the Salon of 1878 he exhibited the "Search for the Truth "and 
" Conte-moi done 9a ? " 

" Compte-Calix paints very freely and lightly, with a luminous quality of touch seldom 
found in any but the most accomplished artists. He is far beyond that tightness of 
manner and hardness of outline which most young painters have to contend against, 
and which many older ones do not entirely overcome. His composition is often uncom- 
monly graceful, especially when his backgrounds consist of wooded landscape, and he 
has an acute perception of the wealth of magnificent foliage. The world he most enjoys 
is a sort of modern paradise about some rich man's house, where handsome and well- 
dressed young women disport under very well developed trees. Indeed, the world of 
Compte-Calix is a prosperous, well-developed world altogether, a place for people who 
are very healthy and very merry, and where the trees themselves enjoy long and peace- 
ful summers, and round themselves into great orbs of innumerable leaves." — Philip 
Gilbert Hamerton's Painting in France. 

Comte, Pierre-Charles. (Fr.) Born at Lyons, about 1815. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Medal at Philadelphia. Pupil of 
Robert-Fleury, and like him a painter of historical genre subjects. 
His picture of " Henry III. and the Duke of Guise " (1855) is at the 
Luxembourg. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "The Cards" and 
" The Niece of Don Quixote " ; in 1876, " Winter" ; in 1874, " Carps 
at Fontainebleau, Sixteenth Century "; in 1870, " Marie Touchet" ; in 
1869, " Gypsies exhibiting Dancing Pigs to Louis XI. when 111 " and 
" The Mirror" ; in 1867, "Henry III. at the Time of the Murder of the 
Duke of Guise" and " A Body-Guard of the Seventeenth Century " ; in 
1866, "Charles V. visiting the Chateau of Ghent after his Abdica- 
tion " and " A Young Hollandaise with her Embroidery " ; etc. At 
the Strousberg sale, Paris, 1874, "Louis XI. Sick" sold for £ 324. 
At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited "Dante." In the Corcoran Gal- 
lery, Washington, is " A Scene at Fontainebleau, — Costume of Louis 
XL" (1874), by Comte. 

Conconi, Maur. (Ital.) Born at Milan about 1815. The grand 
prize at Venice and Bologna, and several medals at Milan. Pupil of 
the Academy of Milan under Sanguinetti. Painted historical sub- 
jects. Exhibited at Paris in 1855 "The Youth of Columbus" and 
" The Surprised Bathers," which have been frequently commended. 

Connelly, Pierce Francis. (Am.) Born in one of the Southern 
cities about 1840. He was carried to England as a child, where he 
received a finished education. He developed a great love for art at 
an early age, with so much artistic ability that he was put under the 
best teachers in Paris for drawing and painting, and was a medalist 
in l'licole des Beaux-Arts. Later he was sent to Rome to study the 


old d twenty he became enamored of sculp- 

ture in the studio of Hiram Powers, working for some years in Flor- 
al that profession. Bis genius bad full recognition in England, 
he made a full-length statue of the Duchess of Northumber- 
land, a bust <•!* the Princess Louise (ordered by the Queen), busl 
tlu' I)uk«- of Northumberland and Lady Percy in Alnwick Castle, 
of his bust of tin- Marchioness <>t' Lome is in the 
Inner Temple, London. Among Connelly's works familiar t<> Ameri- 
Thetis" (purchased for the New York Museum of Fine 
it in and the Beggar" (an equestrian group, belong- 
Mrs. T. Bigelow Lawrence), "Ophelia." " Horror arresting the 
Triumph <>t" Death," and busts of the Countess Von Rosen, Mr. Lip- 
n, and others in Philadelphia. Besides several of 
Biennial Exhibition of 1876, "Queen Phi- 
lip]»a," Lady Clare," "Diana transforming Actseon," "Viola," and 
Thread of Li: :t Florence in 1^7(>. and after spending 

months in America went t<> New Zealand. Concerning his ad- 
vent n: we quote from a private letter : — 

• autiful scenery Connelly's old ]..v.- of painting, what lie always 
l happily be has bneo s«» fortunate ee to make many rare 

and beautiful piitures that have MlHttlHJ gnat praise from all who saw then when >x- 

I in Aukland, in 1S77, while the Aakland papen COOld DOl euA i.ntly I 

-•• and admi e.nliiiary adventures un i 

feats as an i entirely unknown to Kin made 

many - raters and lake OO UBtT J todiee of the wonderful 

• than be is aware of." 
1U00 in public estimation by his well • 
s. and a few ideal works, exhibiting both force and feeling." — Tl 
BmI of the Artists, II 

group of ' I nor,' consisting of five figures, and a 

hone, in vigorous action, on which Death Hits revel m.' in slaughter, if not what a nice 

sesthrtic taste would require in its treatment, is a profound idea, harmoniously put into 

plastic form, and calculated to incite the ambition ofot!. rs." — 


• d, most of Connelly's other ; resented 

distin ideas with regent to tie Ipture. . . 

- _•- 
peat the eaedaeee • •:' • »jdi.di.i. Apart from tins, howerer, II In distinguished bv a eb> 
gular smootbneM and gra praeetoaoftl 

Great Amtrxr 

Constant. Benjamin. (Fr.) I ria, 1846. Medals, 1875 

71 1 'hi -il ofCabaneL At the Salon of 1^77 he exhibited por- 

l876, a The E Ifohammed II. into Constants 

il of Emmanuel Arago ; in 1875, 

d of the Harem," and portrait of 

re these i 

hibited al bought by 

ident thai Id- real dram tl only 

I . and all Dope Of th«' 

pruc (U Hum?, i. Which h;i . 


works, — Spain, Morocco, etc. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited, 
" Thirst, — Prisoners of Morocco " and " The Harem, Morocco." The 
first has been purchased by Mr. Schaus of New York. " It is a 
white waste beneath the pitiless glare of an African sun. A slender 
runlet of water crosses the sands in the foreground. An Arab 
horseman pauses there to let his prisoners, three half-naked Moors, 
drink from this scanty rivulet. In their eagerness they have fallen 
prostrate on the ground. One man laps up the water with frenzied 
haste, another has plunged his face in it, a third fills his bottle, 
while their captor looks on impassive. Another Arab, crouching in 
the background, with his rifle across his knees, watches the move- 
ments of the prisoners." 

Conti, Tito. Of this artist no satisfactory account has been ob- 
tained. When in Florence it was a pleasure to visit his studio, and 
see at once the painting and the article painted. The positive exact- 
ness of his representations is startling. All who admire this Meis- 
sonier-like work must rank Conti very high. 

At the Munich Exposition of 1870 he exhibited " Dante and his 
Friends." At the Glasgow Fine- Art Loan Exhibition of 1878 was 
seen a picture, belonging to J. Duncan, Esq., called " After Dinner." 
" Interior of a richly furnished room. A man, in a light-green coat 
and light-colored knee-breeches, sits in a red chair and leans upon a 
table with tapestry cover, while he smokes a long clay pipe and reads 
a book. On the table a glass of wine and a silver jug." 

[No response to circular.] 

Cooke, Edward William, R. A. (Brit.) Born in London, 1811. 
Son of a well-known English engraver. His first professional work 
was for book illustrations and a series of etchings of river and coast 
scenery. Has devoted himself to marine-painting, executing his first 
picture in oil in 1832. Has sketched and painted in Holland, France, 
and Italy. He was elected Associate of the Royal Academy in 1851, 
and Academician in 1864, when he exhibited " Scheveling Pincks 
running to Anchor off Yarmouth," his diploma work. In 1866 he 
exhibited " Dutch Boats on the Dollart Zee"; 1870, " A Calm Day 
on the Scheldt" ; 1871, "A Bit of English Coast" ; 1872, "Hast- 
ings Luggers coming ashore in a Breeze"; 1876, "A Zuyder-Zee 
Fishing-Haven" ; 1877, "A Bit of Bonchurch in the Olden Time" ; 
1878, "A Dutch Galliot aground on a Sand- Bank" and "Fishing 
Lugger coming ashore in a Gale." 

Of Cooke's earlier works, his " Dutch Boats in a Calm," exhibited 
at the British Institute in 1844, and his "Boat-House" (both in the 
Vernon Collection), are now in the National Gallery, London. His 
" Brighton Sands," " Lobster- Pots," " Portsmouth Harbor," and 
others, are in the Sheepshanks Collection. His "Goodwin Light- 
ship" was at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876, and belongs to 
Thomas Brassey, Esq., M. P. 

/• THE .v/\ ifuy. 153 

•okea most remark 

!i. for amount of natural 
;a1 in this year's exhibition. .... The conchoidal ripplL 

.ed features of the cliff and the :. tMMS of roek, an n-iiili-ri-'l with 

1W . 

" I m-iy direct attention lo t ; I -kill of .Iflin-Mtiui with which M 

nderfal itnd] I f> adenl 

brilliancy in light, essaattally .1 principle of 
w. in a gre .■ 1 in this picture 

le rare with which the relations of h^ht an the terms conceded.** — 

Rrssrx's Aotat o/fAe .ioufrmy. I 

Cootnans, Pierre-Olivier-Joseph. (BdgianJ) Bora at B 
L816. Pupil «»f Van Hassclscre at Ghent, De Keyser at Ant- 
werp, ami of Boron Wappers. He passed several years in Africa, 
where he went with the French army in order t<> study the country 
ami : The result of this experience wm shown in his 

pictui rhe Deluge," M Landscape in the Province of Constan- 

migration of Aral > Tribes," "Algerian l^anci iilt-C i irK. 
Tolas first period also belongs bis u Battle of ( 'halou— >ur-Marnr.*' 
ihibited his pictnrei in Pari- in 1^07, where he sent 
'* Th of the Teucri and the Osipetes by the Romans" and 

ri of the Philistines." Tin- latter took medals at The II 
and at Metz. In l s ">7 he went to Italy, and from this time the eh 

: his subjects changed. The influence of Pompeii and Hercula- 

ivd him, and ancient classic Hi onstanl study. 

then he has exhibited "The Last Days of Happiness in Pom- 

aghl by Napoleon III. ; - The Delinquent " and "The 

th Pompej : •• The < lame of Orca," u Phrj 

In 1-77 be exhibited at the Paris Salon, u A Peril- 

The Scltish K;- 
in 18" Loring Billet-doux w ; in 1-72. * L'esearpoletl 

in 1-: lour of Pompeii,— 

: in 1867, Among his other subj 

are, "The ing) an 1 "The Toilet." 

"(18 by 1 1) sold for 

i - Pvtlia. 

efore Im I At the Salon 

libited s portrait of himself, and at the Exposition of 

Cooper, Abraham, i:. A. (llrit.) | lf-taughl 

He ton to tin- drawing 

in which b wonderfully proficient 

j the then Duke of Ifarlborongh, was at the 

• in 1-1 1. He 
in 1^17 upon the exhibil 

been the 

occasion of such a compliment l*;in_ rtist He was 


made Royal Academician in 1820, and for half a century was a con- 
stant contributor to its exhibitions. Among his works may be men- 
tioned, "The Battle of Bosworth Field," " Rupert's Standard," 
"Bothwell's Seizure of Mary Queen of Scots," "The Battle of 
Naseby," " The Dead Trooper," " Waterloo," and " Hawking in the 
Olden Time." Many of these have been engraved. 

"As a painter of battle-scenes, and especially of those fought in long-past years, and 
where horsemen played a foremost part, Mr. Cooper's pictures stand pre-eminent in 

our school, as do those of Horace Vernet in the French school His knowledge of 

horse-flesh was, from his early training, profound ; and he had so well instructed him- 
self in English history, and had acquired such a knowledge of the arms and armor of 
bygone times, that his works may be regarded as truthful representations in respect to 
both." — Art Journal, February, 1869. 

Cooper, Thomas S., R. A. (Brit.) Born, 1803. Displayed a 
decided taste for art at an early age, receiving a few lessons in Canter- 
bury, his native town, and beginning there his professional career as a 
scene-painter, about 1820. In 1823 he went to London, studying in 
the British Museum, and later in the schools of the Royal Academy. 
He was forced to return to Canterbury in 1824, where he taught until 
his departure for France in 1827. He finally settled in Brussels, 
where he remained for some years, and gained much by his intercourse 
with Verboeckhoven, although he was not a pupil of that artist. His first 
picture exhibited in England was at the Gallery of British Artists, in 
1863. He contributed later to the Royal Academy, and was made an 
Associate in 1845 and Academician in 1867. Among his works there 
exhibited may be mentioned, " Watering at Evening," " Reposing," and 
" Going to Pasture." In 1867 he contributed " Snowed Up "; in 1869, 
" Milking-Time in the Meadows " (his diploma work) ; in 1870, "A 
Passing Shower" ; in 1872, "Children of the Mist" ; in 1873, " The 
Monarch of the Meadows "; in 1874, " There 's no Place like Home "; 
in 1875, "God's Acre"; in 1876, "Maternal Affection"; in 1877, "A 
Cool Retreat" and " My Boy"; in 1878, "A Sedgy Brook in the 
Meadows," "A Summer's Sunny Evening," and many more. His 
" Farm- Yard,— Milking-Time " (R. A., 1834) and his " Cattle, —Early 
Morning" (R. A., 1847), both in the Vernon Collection, are now in 
the British National Gallery. He .sent to the Paris Exposition oi 
1878, "On a Dairy Farm, East Kent" and "Amongst the Rocks," in 
oil, and " The Monarch of the Meadows," in water-colors. 

Cope, Charles West, R. A. (Brit.) Born, 1811. Son of a land- 
scape-painter, Charles Cope, from whom he inherited his artistic 
talents and received his first lessons in art. He was also a pupil of 
the Royal Academy at the age of eighteen, studying and sketching 
later in Italy. His first picture, an Italian landscape, was exhibited 
at the Royal Academy in 1831. In 1843 he received a prize of £ 300 
for a cartoon, " Trial by Jury." He was elected Associate of the Royal 
Academy the same year, and Academician in 1848. He is the author 
of a number of the frescos in the Houses of Parliament, " Burial of 

/■ TEE MM i ii:.\ ill CEh TURY. L55 

. •• Embarkation of the Pilgrim Fathers," - Prim 

d to the Law," M The Parting -11.'' 

imdfl Leaving London to raise the Siege of Glouot 
ng his earlier works are, "The Poor-Law Guardian," painted 
b 1841;"' Saturday Night," in 1843; "The L 

g to Prince Albert), in 1848; - M Ll ■.- Dream," in I 
* The Children of Charlei I.." in 1865 j "Evening Prayer," in I860; 
"Two Mother*," in L86S ; "Spring Flood," in L865. In l^*i7 he Ben! 

Lock and • in 1868, "The 

eiplesa! Emmana";in 16 N »!";in 1874, "Taming of the 

w"; in 1875, "Ann ad Slender*; in L 876, " Selecting 

my Exhibition," a portrait group, the 

property now of the Academy. In 1^77 he exhibited u Springtime M 

ami •■ in 1878, "lieutenant Cameron's Wei 

ting Pictures for the Exhibition " and " Maiden 
Strife" were at Pari- in L878. Eight of bis pictures, all of them 
painted during the first twenty years >•!' hi> career, arc in the Sheep- 

Uection. The etchings of this artist are highly reg 
the following extract will show : — 

"This Is a true etchir f the man! " work ever executed in 

England [' The Life School." R. A., 180? rkably good one, h 

it composes of itself so naturally, and beca MaiOMBm is so power- 

ful. Of all recent attempts to r iked Bgwe in pun- etching Um model b 

the moat successful. It U frank and genuine etcher's work." — Hamerton's Etching 
and Etckert. 

Copeland, Alfred Bryant. (Am.) Native of Boston. He lived 

in Antwerp, where be was a pupil <>f the Royal Acad- 

itudio in Paris, working in black 

white as well a.* in ofla He was at one time Art Professor in the 

. mia A t peland took t<> Boston a 

ami copies from Antwerp, which 

exhibited at the Art Club, the former class bringing good pi 

highly regarded in Bos- 
ton in 1^78. He sent to the tlon of 1877 a "Church Inte- 
rior a! Antwerp" ; in 187 bibited "Interior of the Chui 

Tot). tionof L878 he contributed a drawing entitled 

Corbould, Edward H. (J adon, 181ft. Eldest 

son arul pupil <»f Henry Corbould, a well-known British landi 

miniature j»iiiiit«-r, who died in L844 The son devoted himself 
particularly to water-colors, mber of the [nstitut 

aibiting frequently a4 its 
.1 at the 1 that time. He gained Hu- 

ll «.f the S 
tng man. lie first exhibit 


Race between Atrides and Antilochus." Among his early works may 
be noted "The Woman taken in Adultery'' (1842), purchased by Prince 
Albeit and now in possession of the Queen, " The Canterbury Pil- 
grim," scenes from " The Faerie Queene," etc. He was at one time 
engaged as instructor of drawing and painting to the children of the 
Queen. At the Institute of Painters in Water-Colors he exhibited, in 
1872, " Enid's Dream " ; in 1873, " Heloise " ; and in 1878, " Iris." 
He sent to the Royal Academy in 1870, " The Marriage of Nigel Bruce 
and Agnes of Buchan," painted for the Queen, and "Apart from 
the Rest " ; in 1871, " Lady Godiva " ; in 1874, " Canterbury Pil- 

Cordier, Henri- Joseph-Charles. (Fr.) Born at Cambrai, 1827. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts, 
Fauginet, and Rude. Many of this sculptor's works are portrait busts. 
He has made a large number of important heads, illustrative of the 
characteristics of different races, and for this purpose has traveled in 
the East. Cordier made the statue of Marshal Gerard for the city 
of Verdun. In 1877 he exhibited at the Salon, " A Nymph and Tri- 
ton " (bronze group) and " Psyche " (marble statuette) ; in 1876, 
" Christopher Columbus," reduction of a monument erected in Mex- 
ico ; in 1875, "La danse de l'abeille " (marble statue) ; in 1874, "A 
Priestess of Isis playing the Harp " (bronze enamel statue) ; " Em- 
manuel Escandon (marble statue), for the city of Orizava, Mexico ; 
" At Twenty Years " ; etc. He exhibited at Philadelphia " An Ara- 
bian Woman," " Christopher Columbus," and a " Fellah Girl " (all in 
bronze), and received a medal. At the Luxembourg there is a bust 
of a peasant- woman by Cordier, composed of various marbles. 

Cordonnier, Alphonse. (Fr.) Born at Madeleine-lez-Lille. 
Medals in 1875 and '76. Pupil of A. Dumont. In 1876 he ex- 
hibited " Medea," a group in plaster ; in 1875, " The Awakening," a 
statue, plaster. 

Cormon, Fernand. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals in 1870 and 
'72, and the prix du Salon in 1875. Pupil of Cabanel, Portaels, and 
Fromentin. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " The Raising of the 
Daughter of Jairus" and a portrait of Carrier-Belleuse ; in 1875, 
" The Death of Havana " (bought by the Ministry of the Fine Arts), 
" A Woman of Java," and a portrait of Mile. E. M. 

Cornelius, Peter von. (Ger.) Born in Diisseldorf (1787 - 1866). 
Honorary Member of the French Institute. Director of the Academy 
of Diisseldorf, and later of that of Berlin. His father was keeper of the 
Diisseldorf Gallery, and of the works then the pride of that city, and 
now in the Munich Pinakothek. As a boy Cornelius had great literary 
tastes, and was fond to excess of Goethe, Tieck, Novalis, and the Schle- 
gels. He was but nineteen when, without an academic course, or, in 
truth, anything that could well be dignified by the name of teaching, 
he had attracted sufficient notice to receive a commission to decorate 


the old church of Neuss. He also executed a Beries of designs for 
Goethe's Faust and another aeries for the Kiebelungenlied. About 
1811 Cornelius went to Rome, and was soon in the midst of a Ger- 
man brotherhood: Overbeck, Veit, and the Schadows were about 
him ; but Cornelius seems to have been the strongest of the number, 
like all the M ltaxaritea," he worked on the decoration of the palace 
occupied by the Consul-General of Prussia, the Casa Bartoldi, on 
Monte Pincio. Here, together with the painters above named, he 
executed a series of pictures illustrating the life of Joseph, Perhaps 
no better general idea of the manner of Cornelius could be given than 
by saying that he seems to have been imbued by the spirit of Goethe 
in his conceptions, and to have struggled to imitate Michael Angelo 
in his manner ; and while his works show the height to which his 
spirit soared, we are sadly disappointed in them, because he was 
wanting in the power to express himself. His master- works are those 
in the Glyptothek, Pinakothek, and church of St. Ludwig in Mu- 
nich, and at the Campo Santo at Berlin. The first are mythological, 
and the halls in which they are, are called the Halls of the Gods and 
of the Heroes. In the Pinakothek is the " History of Painting." In 
the church and Campo Santo he has shown his manner of treating re- 
ligious subjects. Later in life Cornelius visited Paris and England. 
Some of his scholars have become distinguished men. His works 
have been reproduced by the best German engravers, — Amsler, 
Schoefer, Eberle, and others. All the honors of Germany were lav- 
ished on this artist, and he was recognized as a great man in all coun- 
tries. At the National Gallery, Berlin, there ;ire two salons devoted 
to his cartoons. In the first are those of the religious pictures on the 
walls of the Campo Santo at Berlin and those of the church of St. 
Ludwig at Munich. In the second salon are the cartoons of the he- 
roic subjects painted at the Munich Glyptothek. Since it was in the 
expression of thought in his works in which this artist excelled, and 
since his color added so little, perhaps detracted from the effect of his 
design, many persons prefer these cartoons above the finished works 
made from them. 

"The ]»o\verof Cornelius is felt in that four cities have been subject to his sway, 
Rome, Munich, DtineMoit, and IJerlin. Of these Munich is the only city which gives the 
measure of the painter in the majesty of his giant dimensions, — a majesty, however, 
which sometimes, it must be admitted, grows monstrous The least happy of his efforts 
I have always been accustomed to consider the elaborate series of mythological : 
on the ceilings of the Glyptothek. Among the works by which Cornelius will be best 
reraeml»ered are two grand compositions, 'God the Creator ' and 'Christ the J' 
.... Cornelius, following in the steps of the great Christian artists, bad, even from his 
youth, cherished the ambition to give proof of his jK»wer by a painting of the ' Laal 
Judgment,' the most arduous in the whole cycle of biblical subjects On the car- 
toon the artist spent ten years The fresco itself is sixty-two feet high, and the 

seated figure of Christ occupies no less than twelve feet The execution of 1. 

* Church of St. Ludwig at Munich. 


portant pictures had been delegated to scholars. Cornelius with his own hand painted 
this, his master-work A work such as this is in need of no general terms of com- 
mendation. We may, however, say that it exemplifies both the merits and defects of its 
school. It is studious in the sense of compilation, it is careful after the manner of eclec- 
ticism. For accuracy of drawing it is unexceptionable ; in expression of character it is 
highly dramatic ; for composition it is elaborate, simple in its balanced symmetry, and 
yet complex in the multiplicity of its parts. But, notwithstanding these its rare merits, 
I exclaimed, when last in the presence of the work, How supremely disagreeable ! The 
color is crude, the chiaroscuro harsh, and the execution hard. Again I repeat, what a 
pity it is that Cornelius will not condescend to be pleasing ! " — J. Beavington Atkinson, 
London Art Journal, January, 1865. 

Cornu, Sebastian-Melchior. (Fr.) Born at Lyons (1804- about 
1870). Officer of the Legion of Honor. After some preliminary 
studies, he placed himself under Ingres. He went afterward to Italy 
and Turkey, and finally settled at Paris. He painted many easel 
pictures, and some historical subjects, for public places, and was at 
length commissioned to execute the works at the church of Saint-Ger- 
main-des-Pres, which had been interrupted by the death of Flandrin. 
Cornu held several honorable offices connected with the administra- 
tion of the fine arts. 

Coroenne, Henri. (Fr.) Born at Valenciennes. Pupil of Abel 
de Pujol and Picot. Medal at Philadelphia, where he exhibited "The 
Salutation." At the Salon of 1877 were his " Women fishing for 
Muscles at Cayeux-sur- Mer," and a portrait of Mr. V. L. ; at the 
Salon of 1878, " Bernard Palissy at the Bastile"" and a portrait. 
/ Corot, Jean-Baptiste-Camille. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1796- 
1875). Officer of the Legion of Honor, 1867. This painter studied 
his art against the wishes of his family, and was first instructed by 
Michallon, after whose death -he studied under Victor Bertin, and 
then passed several years in Italy. He made his debut at the Salon 
of 1827 with "A View taken at Narni" and "The Campagna at 
Borne." The following is a list of his principal works : Two " Views 
in Italy," purchased for the gallery of the Duke of Orleans ; " An 
Italian Scene" (1834), for the Museum of Douai ; "Souvenir of the 
Environs of Florence" (1839), for the Museum of Metz ; "Dance of 
Nymphs," for the Luxembourg ; "Christ in the Garden of Olives" 
(1849), for the Museum of Langres ; " Sunset in the Tyrol" (1850), 
for the Museum of Marseilles; "Souvenir of Marcoussy" (1855), 
purchased by Napoleon III. Corot bequeathed to the Luxembourg 
"A View of the Roman Forum " and one of " The Coliseum at Rome." 
At the Salon of 1874 he exhibited " A Souvenir of Arleux-du-Nord ," 
belonging to M. Robaut ; also the "Evening" and " Moonlight" ; in 
1873, " A Pastoral," belonging to M. Cleophas, and " The Ferry- 
man," belonging to M. Herman; in 1872, "A Souvenir of Ville- 
d'Avray," belonging to M. Breysse, and " Near Arras," belonging to 
M. Szorvady ; in 1870, "A Landscape with Figures" and " Ville- 
d'Avray" ; in 1869, "Souvenirs of Ville-d'Avray " and "A Reader" ; 
in 1868, "A Morning at Ville-d'Avray" and "Evening" ; in 1867, 


"View of Marisselle, near Beauvais" and "A High Wind," etc. 
At the Johnston sale, "A Path through the Woods" (32 by 21) 
s,>ld for $ 1,000. At the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is a " Land- 
scape with Nymphs bathing" (unfinished), presented by James Davis; 
and "Dante and Virgil," presented by Quincy A. Shaw. 

Mr. H. P. Kidder has in his collection a very fine picture by Corot. 
" A Landscape," belonging to Mr. B. Schlesinger, was at the Mechan- 
ics' Fair, Boston, 1878. 

" In originality of mind, and force, purity, and individuality of aim and character, he 
seems to be the most considerable figure that has appeared in the art world of France 
during this century. The life of Corot was almost the ideal life of the artist. It has 
been said that he was poor and neglected for many years. This is only measurably true. 
He was born in affluent circumstances, and was destined to carry on his father's busi- 
ness. But the irresistible impulses of his genius led him to painting instead, and his 
father then reduced the artist's income to 4,000 francs, — equal, at least, to twice that 
sum now. But on his father's death Corot inherited a fortune with an income very con- 
siderable in France. It is true that for many years the fact that a new genius in land- 
scape-painting had appeared was recognized by but few. But twenty-five years of 
succeeding triumph amply atoned for early neglect, and rendered his life, on the whole, 
as perfect as an artist can expect, with the exception of domestic happiness, for which 
he seems not to have cared. It is said that one of his paintings was so badly hung at 
the Salon in 1S51 that no one looked at it. Finally, out of pity for the offspring of his 
brain, Corot went and stood before it, saying, ' Men are like flies ; if one alights on a 
dish, others will follow.' And, indeed, a young man and woman soon came up and 
began to examine the picture. ' It is not bad ; there is something in it,' said the man. 
But she, pulling him by the sleeve, said, ' It is horrid ; let us go ! ' Well, this painting, 
after being kept in the artist's studio several years, was sold for 700 francs, and, still 
later, brought 12,000 francs at auction, and the purchaser was so pleased with his bar- 
gain that he gave a dinner in celebration of the event ! Corot's income for several years 
averaged 200,000 francs from his profession alone ; and as he never was married, and was 
a man of warm and generous instincts, he gave much away ; many a poor artist or 
artist's family has occasion to bless the memory of Pere Corot. He was twice decorated, 
first as Chevalier, then as Commander of the Legion of Honor, but he never was able to 
wrest the grand medal from the jurors of the annual exhibition, — a striking instance of 
the caprice of Fortune. However, a splendid gold medal was presented to him by 
friends, a short time before his death. He was by birth a Parisian, and his tastes were 
for Nature as she presents herself to those who wander into the suburbs in the early 
morning or towards eventide. And this was one secret of his success : he painted scenes 
with which his audience were most familiar,— the quiet russet, monotonous, oft-recurring 
bits of landscape in the North of France, and especially around Paris. Simple they 
seem, but they are really simple only because his genius was in harmony with them ; to 

others they might be difficult Some of the maxims of Corot give us a key to his 

methods and principles of art-work, and are of universal application. ' The artist re- 
quires, in the pursuit of art, conscientiousness, confidence in himself, and perseverance ; 
being thus equipped, the two essentials of the last importance to him are the most care- 
ful study of drawing and the values.' Another saying of his was, ' Above all, be true to 
your own instincts, to your own method of seeing ; this is what I call oonseientionsnesa 
and sincerity.' At another time he said, 'Place yourself face to fac? with nature, and 
seek to render it with precision ; paint what you see, and interpret the impression 
received.' His last works received their signature on his death-bed, and liis last wonls, 
as his hand moved against the wall with pressed fingers, as if he were painting, were, 
'Look how beautiful it is ! I have never seen such lovely landscapes ! ' 

"The great aim of the art of Corot was to harmonize manner or treatment with the 


love of nature ; or, like Turner, whom he resembled in this respect, with material sub- 
stances to convey the impression made on a poetic mind by the aspects of nature, —by 
the real to express the ideal, by the objective to translate the subjective. His methods 
and style are still, and always will be, a matter of difference and discussion ; but no one 
any longer disputes the influence of his genius as an idealist withstanding the material- 
istic tendencies of the age So far as foreign influences are perceptible in the works 

of Corot, they are classical and Italian, but never more than faintly discernible. Nor 
did he confine himself to landscape ; he painted numerous figure-pieces, including some 
large canvases representing sacred subjects, like his ' Flight into Egypt ' and the ' Bap- 
tism of Christ' But his reputation is founded chiefly on his landscapes, of which he 
produced an immense number, at first sight in one key, although renewed observation 
discovers a distinct idea and individual beauty in each scene. He most affected the 
sober harmonies of dawn or twilight. When the most has been said in Corot's favor, 
it must be conceded that he was great as an artist moi'e for what he attempted thau for 
what he achieved. But is not this the highest praise that can be awarded to the faithful 
worker in this imperfect existence of ours ? That there is great sameness in the can- 
vases of Corot it is idle to deny. Like Paganini, he performed on an instrument with 
only one chord ; but Paganini played many tunes on that one string, while Corot played 
only one ; still he rendered that single tune sometimes with vibrations that thrilled the 
soul. He evoked, as only genius can, that eerie, mysterious feeling which many experi- 
ence but cannot express, in observing the subtler effects of nature, and sometimes almost 
seemed to seize the ' vagrant melodies ' which quiver through the aspen boughs in the 
dawn of May, or speed the loitering march of the wandering clouds on a day in June. 
But only those of his admirers who belong to the servile class are ready to accept every- 
thing that Corot painted as worthy of his reputation, or as qualified to advance art. No- 
where is this fact better recognized than in Paris itself. The following, from a French 
paper of good standing, only expresses the general opinion there, sometimes given in 
stronger terms: 'Artiste, Corot laisse une ceuvre immense, dans laquelle il faut faire 
deux parts : les tableaux soigne's, traites avec amour ; les tableaux laches, brosses a la 
hate, ceux, en un mot, que Ton appelle les Corots du commerce. Les amateurs mettent 
en tie les deux categories une enorme difference.' It is no secret that the market is 
flooded with spurious Corots, which bear sufficient resemblance to his poorer works to 
deceive those who are not connoisseurs in art. During his last illness the price of his 
works went up rapidly, which gave rise to a bon-mot. ' Why,' said one to an art-dealer, 
* do you not buy the works of such a one as well? His reputation is rapidly increasing.' 
' My dear sir,' answered the other, ' he has a constitution that will survive us all ! '" — 
S. G. W. Benjamin, Contemporary Art in Europe. 

" Corot stands apart. Critics call him a master. In some respects he is one, who 
was much needed in his school, or, indeed, in any other, as a counter-weight to the 
prevalent materialism. He is no profuse colorist. Browns, pale greens, and silvery 
grays, with an occasional shade of purple, or a bright spot of intenser color to represent 
flowers on drapery, are his reliance. Vegetation or figures, which he uses sparsely, are 
thin masses on washes of color, with only a shadowy resemblance to the things in- 
dicated. But Corot is a poet. Nature is subjective to his mental vision. He is no 
seer, is not profound, but is sensitive, and, as it were, clairvoyant, seeing the spirit more 
than the forms of things. There is a bewitching mystery and suggestiveness in his ap- 
prehension of the landscape, united to a pensive joyousness and absorption of self in 
the scene, that is very uncommon in his race. Calame, who is Swiss, has it in a more 
robust way ; Dore also, of another kind. This obliviousness of selfhood is an important 
element in truly great work. Corot's paintings challenge no carping criticism. Their 
tendency is to make one forget it in tranquil enjoyment. They fall upon the eye as dis- 
tant melody upon the ear, captivating the senses and inspiring the sentiments. Con- 
templation, too, and sympathetic reception of Nature's language are quickened by his 
compositions. They ai*e no transcripts of scenery, but pictures of the mind. To soothe, 
to give repose, to evoke dreamy sentiment, such is their mission. Not that there is any 


peculiarly Christian idea in them. This spirit is rather pantheistic, and shown a sym- 
pathy with nmorini, nymphs, ami the Greek's delight in Nature because (if her myste- 
rious beauty of sunlight and shadow, in a subdued way, as if in the presence of gods. 
Ootot ran never be popular in France, for he is too much removed from the common 
characteristics of the nation. He is not materialistic enough. His solitude is too calm. 
His amvrini are not lusty or amorous, but Hit through his copses like ethereal butter- 
flies. Twilight charms him greatly, always silvery-toned and bordering on the shadowy 
boundary that separates the visible from the invisible, and suggesting the inscrutable. 
The consummate success lies in his management of light. With him it is genius. Na- 
ture knows herself in this in his painting, as a beautiful woman knows her face in a 
glass. Water, which he loves next to light, glimmers and sparkles under its rays. 
Shadows and reflections are alive with it. The densest vegetation opens before it. 
Everywhere light penetrates without reminder of either brush or pigment Co rot is the 
painter of air ; as great a gift to art in his manner as was that of Claude of unveiled sun- 
shine in his." — Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

" Of late, no painter has been so much exalted by criticism ; he was not even re- 
proached with the uniformity of his pictures, nor with the calculated absence of colored 
tones and rigid forms. Everybody knows that mythology is now banished from our 
landscapes, and that it is the fashion to laugh at the nymphs whose cadenced steps had 
SO much charm for our fathers; still it is one of the not infrequent inconsistencies of 
French criticism that it does not hesitate to praise, in Corot, a choice of subjects that 
it condemns in theory. It is true that his nymphs add no great value to his pictures, 
but they are placed with so much judgment that it is impossible to realize his land- 
scapes without them. However, he sometimes sought to render nature without altera- 
tion ; for instance, in his ' Vues de Ville-d'Avray et des Environs de Faris ' : but, like all 
true artists, Corot assimilates all he sees to his inward dream, and the varied effects of 
nature uniformly appear to him under the same poetical vision. Had he been painting 
in Egypt by the Pyramids, he would have found there his silvery tones and his mysteri- 
ous bowers. Whether he works out of mythology some graceful tale, or whether he 
renders, in a manner that he intends to be positive, some particular and familiar scene, 
Corot always leaves in his work a poetical perfume, which is his personality, and is as 

good as a signature Corot is par excellence the painter of morning. He can 

render with more felicity than anybody else the silvery light on dewy fields, the vague 
foliage of trees mirrored in calm water. He was not fond of the noonday light, and it 
was always in the earliest morning that he went out to paint from nature. He has him- 
self described his artistic impressions in letters which foreshadow his pictures, and we 
cannot end this article better than by giving one extract out of them : 'A landscape- 
painter's day is delightful He gets up early, at three in the morning, before sunrise ; 
he goes to sit under a tree, and watches and waits. There is not much to be seen at 
Bnt Nature is like a white veil, upon which some masses are vaguely sketched in 
profile. Everything smells sweet, everything trembles under the freshening breeze of the 
dawn. Bing .'* The sun get* clearer; he has not yet torn the veil of gauze behind which 
hide the meadow, the valley, the hills on the horizon. The nocturnal vapors still hang like 
silvery tufts upon the cold green grass. Bing I liing ! The first ray of the sun .... 
another ray. The small flowerets seem to awake joyously ; each of them has its trem- 
bling drop of d.-w. The chilly leaves are moved by the morning air. One sees nothing ; 
everything is there. The landscape lies entirely behind the transparent gauze of the 
ascending mist, gradually sucked by the sun. and permits us to see, as it ascends, the 
silver-striped river, the meadows, the cottages, the far-receding distance. At last you 
can see what you imagined at Krai Btml The sun has risen. Btml The peasant 
passes at the bottom of the field, with his cart ami oxen liing ! Ding ! It is the bell 

* We preserve Corot's interjections, Bing ! Bam ! Ding ! Bourn ! where it pleased him 
to insert them. They mean nothing, except that there is a change in the character of 
the scene, which he chooses to mark in this way. 



of the ram which leads the flock. Bam ! Everything sparkles, shines ; everything is in 
full light, light soft and caressing as yet. The backgrounds with their simple contour 
and harmonious tone are lost in the infinite sky, through an atmosphere of azure and 
mist. The flowers lift up their heads ; the birds fly here and there. A rustic, mounted 
on a white horse, disappears in the narrowing path. The rounded willows seem to turn 
like wheels on the river edge. And the artist paints away .... paints away. Ah ! 
the beautiful bay cow, chest-deep in the wet grasses ; I will paint her. Crac ! there she 
is ! Famous ! Capital ! What a good likeness she is ! Bourn ! Bourn ! The sun 
scorches the earth. Bourn ! All becomes heavy and grave. The flowers hang down 
their heads, the birds are silent, the noises of the village reach us. These are the 
heavy works ; the blacksmith whose hammer sounds on the anvil. Bourn ! Let us go 
back. All is visible, there is no longer anything. Let us get some breakfast at the 
farm. A good slice of home-made bread, with butter newly churned ; some eggs, cream, 
and ham ! Bourn ! Work away, my friends ; I rest myself. I enjoy my siesta, and 
dream about my morning landscape. I dream my picture, later I shall paint my dream.' 
Is not this Corot himself?" — Rene Menard, Portfolio, October, 1S75. 

Corti, Costantino. (Ital) Born in Milan (1823 - 1837). His 
statue (colossal) of " Lucifer " was enthusiastically admired in the 
halls of the Brera, and later in the Expositions of Florence, London, 
and Paris. His statue of Federigo Borromeo is on the Piazza San 
Sepolcro, Milan ; that of Conrad of Swabia is a fine work. 

Costa, Pietro. (Ital.) Born in Genoa. He took the prix de 
Rome at the Academy of Genoa, where he studied, and a medal at the 
Exposition at Naples in 1877. In 1848 he removed to Borne, where 
he still resides. His works have been principally monumental 
statues to be placed in cemeteries. He has executed a monument to 
Mazzini. At Naples he exhibited a group of children. 

Costoli, Aristodeme. (Ital.) Born at Florence (1803-1871). 
Professor of the Academy of Fine Arts at Florence. This sculptor 
was skillful in design, and in all the technique of his art, but before 
his work the heart remains placid and the pulse is not quickened. In 
his design for the monument of Mine. Catalini, the thought is charm- 
ing. The base, divided in three parts, bears the arms of her family 
and an epitaph. The figures above represent Poverty, and the Angel 
of Benevolence, who writes an eulogy of the dead in remembrance 
of her inexpressible charity, while St. Cecilia appears on high. What 
more charming conception for the monument of this sweet singer ? 
And yet, in spite of the truth that it is well conceived and well de- 
signed, the genius which if in it would make us tremble with pleas- 
ure and sympathy before it, exists not. The whole effect is as cold as 
the marble of which it is made. Among his works are, the " Dying 
Gladiator," a portion of the monument to Columbus at Genoa 
(" Prudence " and one of the bas-reliefs), a " Statue of Meneceus the 
Theban," " Monument to Count Guido della Gheradesca," statues 
of " Galileo," etc. The " Conception," one of his latest works, was 
modeled for the Marchese Canossa of Verona. In style Costoli fol- 
lowed the sculptors of the fifteenth century. 

Cot, Pierre-Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Bedarieux. Chevalier of 


the Legion of Eonor. Pupil of Cogniet, Cabanel, and Bouguereau. 

At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited a portrait painted for the Chambre 
dea Nbtaires of Paris ; in 1876, two portraits ; in 1875,a " Magdalene" 
and two portraits ; in 1873, "Springtime" and a portrait ; in 1872, 
" The Day o\' the Dead at the Campo Santo of Pisa " and " Dionisa" ; 

in 1^7<>. " Prometheus " and '* Meditation" ; in 1878, two portraits. 

Couder, Louis Charles Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1790- 
1873). Member of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. 
After studying at Marseilles he was in the ateliers of Regnault and 
David at Paris. lie executed the painting in the Salon of Apollo at 
the Louvre, and some works at Versailles. In 1827, becoming dis- 
couraged by the coolness with which his works were received in Paris, 
he went to Germany, where his practice in fresco-painting gave him 
more ease in execution. After 1830 lie returned to Paris and took 
higher rank than before. At length he was charged with the frescos 
of Saint-Germain-l'Auxerrois, and executed a picture for the Made- 
leine. At the Luxembourg there is a crayon drawing by Couder of 
one of the paintings at Saint-Germain-rAuxerrois, called " Our Lady 
of the Seven Sorrows." 

Couder, Jean-Baptiste-Amede'e. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1797- 
1SG5). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. In early life he was a 
painter, but later a designer for industrial arts. 

Couder, Alexandre- Jean-Remy. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1808. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. At first studied sculpture, then 
entered the atelier of Baron Gros, and made his debut at the Salon 
of 1837. He paints genre subjects and still-life. He has exhibited, in 
1877, •• Rosea and Fruits " and "Wild-Flowers" ; in 187G, "An In- 
terior*' and a "Bouquet of Wild-Flowers" ; in 1875, two pictures of 
u Wad-Flowers"; in 1874, "The Return from the Fields" and a 
" Bouquet of "Wild-Flowers " ; etc. 

j Courbet, Gustave. (Fr.) Born at Ornans (1819-1877). Medals, 
1849, '57, and '01. He refused the Cross of the Legion of Honor, 
after he had accepted that of the Order of St. Michael from the King 
of Bavaria. Courbet was sent to Paris by his father in 1839 for the 
purpose of st uclving law. But he was determined to be an artist, 
and sent a picture to the Salon of 1844. He studied a little under 
Steuben and Hesse, but more by himself. He affected the Flemish, 
Florentine, and Venetian Bchools, He acquired exaggerated eccen- 
tricities, which, added to those of his nature, made him fancy that he 
could establish a new school of art, and produce a remarkable revolu- 
tion in the tastes ami opinions of all who study such subjects. His 
fundamental idea he called " realism " ; that i~, he maintained that 
ait should represent things exactly as they appeared, and that any 
ideality or search for the beautiful was a gross error. " Le beau. 
le laid" was one of hi- favorite paradoxes. He chose models from 
the ugliest and most vulgar types about him, and his pictures were 


repugnant to all artistic sentiment. He made, however, some con- 
verts, and had the honor of being called the chief of the realistic 
school. Courbet had undoubted talent, and some of his figures are to 
be praised for strength and modeling, but his best works were his 
landscapes ; in seeing them one is sure that this painter had a senti- 
ment and a love for the beautiful in nature, and that he did himself 
violence when he affected the ugly only. If another course could 
have been given to his talent, he would have been a great artist ; as it 
is, he was a good one. One of his fine pictures represents " Deer in 
the Forest of Fontainebleau." His better pictures are much appre- 
ciated by connoisseurs, and command high prices, which will be in- 
creased by his death. One is forced to add, in giving an account of 
Courbet, that he was a Communist in 1871, and authorized the de- 
struction of the column Vendome. He was tried at Versailles, and 
sentenced to six months in prison, and a fine. He was first confined in 
St. Pierre at Versailles, then in Sainte-Pelagie, and, his health failing, 
he was placed in the care of Dr. Duval, who performed on him a 
serious operation. In May, 1872, the jury of admission, at the sug- 
gestion of Meissonier, decided that the works of Courbet could not be 
received at the Salon. Many violent articles in the Paris journals were 
occasioned by this decision. In 1870 he exhibited " The Stormy Sea" 
and "The Beach at Etretat after a Storm"; in 1869, "The Stag- Whoop, 

— an Episode of the Chase " and " The Siesta in the Haying-Season, 
Mountains, Douhs " ; in 1868, "The Charity of a Beggar" and " Deer 
driven to the Ecoutes, — Springtime " ; in 1866, "Woman with a Par- 
rot" and "Deer at the Brook of Plaisirs- Fontaine, Doubs." His 
"After Dinner at Ornans" (1849), "The Interment at Ornans" (1850), 
and the " Bathers " (1853) received much severe criticism. In 1855, 
being discontented with the hanging of his pictures, he made a sepa- 
rate exhibition of them. At Munich he had the honor of an entire 
Salon for himself. After his liberation from prison, Courbet lived in 
Switzerland, and in the summer of 1876 he exhibited his later works 
at Chaux de Fonds. At the Boston Art Museum there is a fine pic- 
ture by Courbet (loaned by Mr. H. Sayles), called " La Curee." The 
figure in the foreground is said to be a portrait of the artist. Mr. 
Thomas Wigglesworth has recently purchased a large landscape by 
this artist, in which are groups of peasant- women and cows. The 
landscape is very fine. " Rocks on the Coast," belonging to S. D. 
Warren, was exhibited at the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, in 1878. 

"Antagonistic in style to Corot, is Courbet, whose material force is overwhelming 
when he chooses. He is the strongest, the truest, and most satisfying of the realists, 

— a Robert Browning of the easel. There are no such local greens, grays, lights, and 
shadows as his ; no firmer sense of material forms and uses of things ; none more vigor- 
ous or more harmonious in his own interpretation of nature. He puts the spectator in 
absolute organic relationship to it. Courbet's qualities are great, like those of Walt 
Whitman, who is an American Courbet in verse; but the best qualities of both are 
obscured or affrontively obtruded by a sort of Titanesque realism, which affects the 


gross ami material, as it were, to emphasize their introspective view into the primary 

element8 Of nature and man. Each Bingfl the earth earthy, and with such heartiness 

and comprehension as to move our imaginations to a muscular grasp of her stoics of 
enjoyment. Courbet at times may be coarse, but his style, compared with the popular 
pretty, is as the uncut diamond beside the tinsel gem." — Jarvks, Art Thoughts. 

" It is. however, in the landscape that his entire skill shows itself. He is at ease only 
in open country ; he evades interiors, let it be because architecture seems to him an 
unreal thing, or rather because the infinite variety of inflections would shackle his free- 
dom and his brutality. When, in a gmre picture, lie wishes to employ the landscape 
as an accessory, the landscape takes the upper hand and becomes the principal thing. 
I will cite, for example, only the 'Demoiselles de village.' .... For the rest, M. Cour- 
bet pretends to satisfy all the exigencies of art without choosing from nature. He pro- 
claims the equality of all visible bodies ; the dead deer, the man who has killed it, the 
earth which bears it up, and the tree which shades it, have in his eyes the same inter- 
est ; he affects not to choose, but to paint all which he meets, without preferring one 
thing before another ; and as he has always at his disposal the same solid and succulent 
qualities as a painter, his studio resembles those restaurants where the masons find 
bouillon and beef at all hours. His theory may be thus given: all objects are equal 
before painting.'' — Kdmond About, Nos Artistes au Salon de 1857. 

Courdouan, Vincent-Joseph-Frangois. (Fr.) Born at Toulon, 
1816. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Guerin. Made 
his debut at the Salon of 1835. He then studied the sea and devoted 
himself to painting marine subjects. He traveled in Algeria, and in 
1848 was made Professor of Design at the Naval School of Toulon. 
He paints both in oil and water-colors. He exhibited at the Salon 
of 1877, " The Gulf of Ciotat " ; in 1876, " The Gorge of Malvoisin " ; 
in 1875, " Sunset after heavy Weather on the Coast of Provence" ; 
in 1874, two coast scenes and the " Environs of Hyeres" ; in 1878, 
" The Beach at Hyeres, — a Day of Pigeon-Shooting " and " Solitude, 
— Evening, near Hyeres." 

Courtat, Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals, 1873, '74, and 
'75. Pupil of CabaneL At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Hagar 
and Ishmael" ; in 1875, " Leda," now in the Luxembourg ; in 1874, 
" St. Sebastian " ; in 1873, " A Siesta " and a portrait ; and in 1878, 
" Springtime." 

Courtois, Gustave. (Fr.) Born at Pusey. Medal of third class 
in 1878. Pupil of Gerome. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited a 
" Portrait of Mme. de Rochetaillee " and " Tais, la courtisane, aux 
Enfers " ; in 1877, a portrait and " Narcissus " ; in 1876, " The Death 
of Archimedes' 1 and "Orpheus." 

Cousins, Samuel, R. A. (Brit.) Born, 1801. At the age of 
twelve he received a silver medal in Exeter, his native town, for 
drawings. In is 15 or 16 lie went to London, and became an ap- 
prentice of a well-known mezzotint engraver, remaining with him 
some Tears. Hi- engraving of "Lady Acland and her Family," after 
Lawrence, first bronght him into notice in 1825. Ten years later he 
Wlf elected Associate Engraver of the Royal Academy, and was made 
an Academician in 1855, the first engraver upon whom that honor was 
conferred. Among the better known of his plates may be mentioned 


" The Duke of Wellington " ; " Pius VII. " ; " Sir Robert Peel," after 
Lawrence ; " Bolton Abbey " ; " Midsummer Night's Dream " ; " The 
Return from Hawking " and a portrait of the Queen, after Landseer ; 
" The Infant Samuel," after Sant ; " The Mitherless Bairn," after 
Ford ; " The Royal Family," " The Sailor Prince," " Emperor and 
Empress of the French," after Winterhalter ; " Marie Antoinette in 
the Temple," after E. M. Ward. 

Couture, Thomas. (Fr.) Born at Senlis, 1815. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gros and Delaroche. He very early at- 
tracted attention and admiration. His " Troubadour," painted in 
1844, has been sold for 55,000 francs (Gsell sale). In 1847 he sent to 
the Salon his famous work, " The Romans of the Decadence," now at 
the Luxembourg. Among his other works are, " The Gypsy," " The 
Falconer," " The Return of the Troops from the Crimea," and "The 
Baptism of the Prince Imperial." Couture decorated the chapel of 
the Virgin at Saint-Eustache. In 1872 he exhibited "Damocles." 
At the Johnston sale "A Female Head " (19 by 16) sold for $ 1,000. 
At the Walters Gallery, Baltimore, is a work by this artist, of which 
the Every Saturday, February 23, 1878, says : — 

" A highly poetic little work by Couture is one of the gems of the collection. It pre- 
sents a graceful and dignified figure, whose face is sad and whose pose desponding sits, 
loaded with chains. Near him is a harp across which a laurel wreath is hanging. At 
his feet is a vase of coins overturned. On the wall to which he is chained is written, 
' Potior mihi periculosa libertas, quam secura et aurea servitus.' It has all of Couture's 
perfection of drawing and charm of color." 

At the Boston Art Museum there is a sketch by Couture of " Two 
Volunteers of the French Revolution." It is a fine work. It is fre- 
quently copied by the pupils of the school of this Museum, and is 
esteemed one of the gems of the collection, to which it was presented 
by several ladies. 

" Couture is the opposite of Flandrin ; a genuine offspring of French feeling, temper- 
ing, however, its sensual bias with the aesthetic requirements of his personal tastes, and 
making pictures from an intellectual point of view, vitalized by passions and sentiments 
akin to their themes. Especially is this true of his masterpiece, 'The Romans of the 
Decadence,' which best exhibits his quality of genius and highly trained skill. It is an 
allegory subdued by realistic treatment to the comprehension of every one. Ideal in 
conception, and avoiding the scenic display and trite conventionalism of the David 
school, it shows a jwssible classical debauch, without attaining to the local and historic 
verity of more recent treatment. Allegory predominates. Similar scenes must have 
marked the decline of Roman virtue, but this painting rises above the particular spec- 
tacle to the realization of the collapse of a mighty empire, and symbolizing the vices and 
crimes which ruined it. Couture's aesthetic perceptions were too nice to permit him to 
indulge in the common trait of making the nude simply unchaste. "His figures are 
voluptuous, but not lewd. Even in intoxication he preserves them from the loathsome 
by the grandeur of their passions, and those ancestral memories that withhold them from 
absolute bestiality. They are drunk to the reeling of reason ; eyes glisten with thicken- 
ing films and besotted desires ; speech staggers ; forms totter ; action is growing be- 
numbed by the fatal cup ; but the aristocratic mien of the masters of the earth never 
wholly leaves them. How can it be otherwise in the presence of those grave statues of 
their fathers that look down upon them like admonishing visitors of another world ? 


Compared with the lecherous orgies that French art gives of scenes of the Orleans 
regency and subsequent reign, it is a veritable debauch of gods, The technical treat- 
ment of this effective painting betrays the Influence of Veronese, though there is no 
servile following of any master. It is brilliant and luminous in color, but falls Into the 
not uncommon fault Of the BChoo] Of broken and BCattered lights, and a certain lierceness 
of effect, which conies of fiery blood and strong passions." — Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

/ Cox, David. (Brit.) (1783 - 18">9.) Began his career as a scene- 
painter in the Birmingham Theater. In 1803 he went to London, 
where he was employed for a short time in the same capacity at 
Astley's. Later he became a teacher of drawing in London, sketching 
in Wales during the summer months with his pupils. He lived near 
Hereford from 1815 to '27, when he removed to London. The last 
fifteen years of his life were spent in the vicinity of Birmingham. 
He was a landscape-painter of great power, and during his long career 
he painted many pictures which were and still are highly prized. 
Aiming them may he named, "On the Wye," "Welsh Funeral," 
"Harvest -Time in Wales," "Old Welsh Church at Bettws-y-coed," 
" Fern-Gatherers," " Weald of Kent," " Windsor Castle," " Hay-Time," 

" With equal gratitude I look to the drawings of David Cox, which, in spite of the loose 
and seeming careless execution, are not less serious in their meaning nor less important in 

their truth There is no other means by which his object can be obtained : the 

looseness, coolness, moisture of his herbage ; the rustling, crumpled freshness of his 
broad-leaved herbage; the play of pleasant light across his deep heathered moor or plash- 
ing sand; the melting of fragments of white mist into the deepening blue above; all this 
has not been fully recorded except by him, and what there is of accident in his mode of 
reaching it answers gracefully to the accidental part of Nature herself. "— Ruskin's 
Modern Painters. 

" Indeed, as far as he goes, Cox is one of the most natural of painters. His effects of 
rain, of storm, of sunshine, in fact, of any of the changing aspects of nature, are wonder- 
ful, but for the things that are seen under these varied effects he cared but little. In 
Bettws-y-coed to this day are shown with pride the sites of many of his noted landscapes, 
but it requires the eye of faith to see the resemblance. In fact, his art is somewhat in- 
complete." — London Examiner, December, 1S77. 

Cox, David, Jr. (Brit) Son of the preceding. A water-color 
artist, inheriting not a little of his father's ability. He has been for 
some years an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors. 
Among ln's earlier works maybe mentioned, " Near Bala," "Moon 
Risii w on the Menai," in 1872 ; " Loch Katrine" and " Ben 

Lomond," in 1-7:5 ; u Sunday Morning in Wales" and "Rain on the 
Berwyn,' 1 in 1875 ; " I.vndale," " The Path tip the Valley," and "On 
the Dee," in 1877 ; " A Hay-Field near Bromley " and " Penshnrst 
Park," in 1878. Bis "Donne Castle' 5 and "Mountain Solitude" 
were at Philadelphia in 1876. 

Craig, Isaac Eugene. (Am.) Born near Pittsburg, where he re- 
ceived hn first instruction in art. studying afterwards in Philadelphia. 
He went abroad in 1853 with the intention of devoting himself to the 
■I, but a few days spent in the Louvre changed his 
ideas, and he remained in the French capital for some time with Wil- 


liam Babcock, visiting also Germany and Italy, and returning to the 
United States in 1855. He painted "Saul and David," "Death the 
Rewarder," " Death the Avenger," followed by the " Emigrant's 
Grave," which were exhibited in Philadelphia and elsewhere, and were 
well received. In 1862 he went again to Europe, spending a year in 
Munich, and finally settling in Florence, where his studio now is (1878). 
Among his later works are, " The Daughter of Jairus," " The Brazen 
Serpent " (now in Philadelphia), " Capio Begging " and " Fete Cham- 
petre " (both for Miss Mayo of London), " Pastorel " (for Mrs. T. B. 
Lawrence), " Pygmalion " (owned in England), " Disillusion," " Shy- 
lock signing the Bond," " Peace," " The Easter Hymn," and a life- 
sized group, "Venus and Cupid " (not yet finished). He has painted 
also a few landscapes and views of Venice. His works have been 
rarely exhibited in public. The " Pygmalion " was sent to London 
and to Dublin. 

" Mr. Craig has been in Florence fifteen years, — a conscientious, faithful, and able artist, 
whose work will bear the most critical examination. He was at work on a sweet pic- 
ture when I called at his studio, a beautiful girl with a sunny face and golden ringlets, 
holding in her hand an emblem of ' Peace.' He has made a fine portrait of the late Joel 
T. Hart, the Kentucky sculptor, and some fine views of Venice, very characteristic and 
striking." — Tren^eus, in New York Observer, January 24, 1878. 

Craig, William. (Brit.- Am.) Born at Dublin, 1829. Drowned 
accidentally in Lake George, N. Y.. 1875. A water-color artist whose 
works were first exhibited at the Royal Gallery in Dublin in 1846, 
his pictures being popular in his own country. He settled in New 
York in 1863, and was one of the original members of the American 
Society of Water-Color Painters. In 1867 he exhibited " Mount 
Washington " and " A View of Coldspring " (belonging to R. P. 
Parrott) ; in 1868, "Ruins of Fort Ticonderoga " ; in 1869, "Upper 
Valley of Killarney, Ireland " and " The Valley of the Rocks, Pater- 
son, N. J." (belonging to Morgan Dix, D. D.) ; in 1870, " On the Hudson " ; 
in 1871, " Hudson River near West Point " ; in 1872, " O'Sullivan's 
Cascade, Killarney " and " Metzingeis Cascade, near Fishkill, N. Y." ; 
in 1875, "Falls on the Boquet River" and " Kilchum Castle, Scot- 

"Craig's early pictures were admirable specimens of the art, tender, yet brilliant in 
tone, and possessed of that peculiar transparency of coloring which is so noticeable in 
the works of the English school. Of late, however, he painted almost exclusively for 
auction-dealers, and his work appeared to lose in quality as it increased in quantity, 
which was unfortunate, as he was unquestionably a man of genius." — Art Journal, Oc- 
tober, 1875. 

Cranch, Christopher P., N. A. (Am.) Born at Alexandria, Va., 
1813. Graduated at the School of Divinity, Cambridge, Mass., in 
1835. He retired from the ministry in 1842, and became a landscape- 
painter. He spent several years in Paris and in Italy in the study 
and practice of his profession. Has resided in New York and on the 
banks of the Hudson, and at present is a resident of Cambridge, 


Mass. (1 S 7 S ). He ia well known as a graceful writer in prose and 
Terse, and has illustrated with his pencil fairy tales of his own com- 
position. He is an Associate Member of the American Society of 
Painters in Water-Colors. 

To the National Academy, of which he was made a full member 
in iy>4, he- is a frequent contributor, exhibiting in 1867, "Afternoon 
in October"; in 1868, "The Washington Oak, opposite Newburg, 
N. V."; in 1869, "Valde Moline, Amain, Italy" ; in 1870, "Venice," 
•• A Roman Citiz.en," " Neapolitan Fisherman," and a " Study in the 
Forest of Fontainebleau " ; 1871, "Venetian Fishing-Boats." 

" Cranch has, during his ten years of exile, executed many admirable landscapes ; 
those devoted to Swiss and Italian scenery have been justly admired for their grace, 

quiet truth, and ideal charm He has painted numerous views of Venice, several 

fruit-pieces and other compositions, with attractive little bits of local scenery." — Tuck- 
ermax's Book of the Artists. 

Cranch, John, A. N. A. (Am.) Brother of C. P. Cranch, N. A. 
Devotes himself to portrait-painting, and has lived for many years in 
Washington, D. C. His works of late have rarely been publicly ex- 
hibited. He is an Associate Member of the National Academy. 

Cranch, Caroline A. (Am.) Daughter and pupil of C. P. 
Cranch, studying also for some time in the schools of the Cooper Insti- 
tute, New York, and under William Hunt in Boston. At present 
(1878) a resident of Cambridge, Mass. She paints figure-pieces, and 
is a young artist of much promise, exhibiting annually at the Boston 
Art Club. 

Crane, Walter. (Brit.) Born at Liverpool, 1845. He received 
his first instructions in art from his father, Thomas Crane, a well- 
known portrait-painter of Chester, and member of the Liverpool Acad- 
emy. Later, he studied for three years under W. J. Linton. His 
professional life has been spent chiefly in London. In the autumn of 
1871 he went to Italy, remaining until the spring of 1873, and spend- 
ing his winters in Rome. In 1878 he was elected a member of the 
Committee of the Dudley Gallery. Among the more important of 
his pictures in oil are, "The Renaissance of Venus," at the Gros- 
venor Gallery of 1 s77, and " The Fate of Proserpine," at the Grosvenor 
Gallery of lS7s. In water-colors he has painted, " The Herald of 
Spring." Dudley Gallery, 1*73 ; "The Advent of Spring," never ex- 
hibited ; " Plato's Garden," Dudley Gallery, 1875 ; and " Winter and 
Spring." at the Dudley Gallery in 1^74 and the Grosvenor in 1877. 
To the Paris Expo-it ion of 1878 he sent " The Death of the Year " and 
"Almond-Trees/' in water-colors, and "The Renaissance of Venus," 
in oil. 

In America, wln-re hi- more elaborate paintings are not Been, he is 

known by the publication of hi- Beriea of children's hooks, with 

their very clever illustrations ; among others, "Cinderella," " Beaut v 

and the "Beast," " Goody Two-Shoes," " Baby's Opera," " Mrs. Mundi 


at Home," etc. These pictures are much used in the United States 
in house decoration, on fire-screens, chimney-pieces, etc. 

" Mr. Walter Crane is a painter of figures in landscape, whose work Ave have often no- 
ticed with pleasure for its fine feeling and imaginative charm His ' Herald of 

Spring ' is a pleasant, sami-classic dream of a Flora or Spring, in a robe of pale yellow 
and a scarf of pale rose, coming down an Italian street from the open country, with a 
basket of primroses in one hand and a spray of flowering thorn in the other." — Pull 
Mall Budget, March 8, 1873. 

" Mr. Walter Crane is one of the cleverest of the younger English artists, and he has 
put his talent to the best employment in inventing pictures for the old stories of 
Mother Goose, etc. These pictures are printed in colors, and as for the most part only 
pure tints are used the effect is delightfully bright and cheerful. Mr. Crane has a good 
eye for harmony, and, altogether, a parent might seek a long while before he would find 
a better educator for his child's sense of form and color than is supplied by these books. 
They are sure to be as much enjoyed by the grown folk as by the little ones, and Buck 
great favorites are they in England that the pictures have been used there as decorations 
for walls." — New York Tribune, December 28, 1875. 

Crauk, Gustave-Adolphe-D£sir& (Fr.) Born at Valenciennes, 
about 1825. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of l'Ecole des 
Beaux- Arts under Pradier. He gained the prix de Rome in 1851. He 
made his debut at the Salon of 1857 with a very remarkable bronze 
group of a "Bacchante and a Satyr." In 1861 he was commissioned 
to decorate the Mayoralty of the first arrondissement of Paris. In 
1877 he exhibited a marble statue of Marshal MacMahon and a bronze 
statue of Marshal Niel for the city of Muret, and a marble statue of 
Claude Bourgelat for the Veterinary School at Alfort ; in 1875, a mar- 
ble bust of General Changarnier, one of E. Gilbert, and one of M. P.; 
in 1874, a bust portrait of Marshal MacMahon, bronze bust of the 
Shah of Persia, a plaster statue of the Intendant of Etigny, and a 
marble bust of a lady ; in 1872, a bronze statue of J. P. Bachasson, 
Count of Montalivet, commissioned by the city of Valence, and a 
marble bust of General the Baron Benoult, etc. His "Victory crown- 
ing the French Standard," " Bacchus," and a bust of a child are in 
the Luxembourg. 

Crawford, Thomas. (Am.) Born in New York (1814- 1857). 
He manifested a taste for art at an early age, and went to Italy in 
1834, settling in Rome. He enjoyed the friendship and instruction 
of Thorwaldsen. In 1839 he designed his " Orpheus," which is now 
in the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. Among his works are, " Adam 
and Eve after the Expulsion " and a bust of Josiah Quincy, both in 
the Boston Athenasum ; statue of Beethoven, in the Boston Music 
Hall ; " Children of the Wood," belonging to Hamilton Fish ; " Danc- 
ing Jenny," " Genius of Mirth," " Indian Woman," " Pandora," " Cu- 
pid," "Peri," "Daughter of Herodias," "Hebe and Ganymede," 
presented to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts by C. C. Perkins, 
"Mercury and Psyche," "Truant Boys," etc. His "Flora" is in 
the Central Park, New York, where are also eighty-seven plaster casts 
of his works, presented to the Museum there by his widow. The most 


elaborate of his monumental works are in Richmond, Va., and Wash- 
ington, D. C. His statue of Washington was cast in bronze in 
Munich. He executed, also, many bas-reliefs of scriptural and alle- 
gorical subjects. Unquestionably the best known of his creations is 
the statue of "Liberty," surmounting the dome of the Capitol at 

"No American subject has been treated in marble with such profound local signifi- 
cance as the ' Indian Chief,' a statue by Crawford, now most appropriately occupying 

tlie Entrance Hall of the New York Historical Society ; and no more judicious compli- 
ment to the artist's fame can be imagined than the English sculptor Gibson's proposal 
at the meeting of artists at Rome, called to pay a last tribute to Crawford's memory, that 
this statue should be cast in bronze and set up as a permanent memorial of his national 
fame in one of the squares of the Eternal City. The attitude, air, and expression, the 
grand proportions, the aboriginal type of form and feature, the bowed head, the clenched 
hand, the stoical despair of this majestic figure, adequately and eloquently symbolize the 
destruction of a race, and mark the advent of civilization on this continent." — Tuck- 
erman's Book of the Artists. 

" Crawford was an artist gifted with a prolific invention ; indeed, his invention too 
often ran away with his judgment as a careful workman, that is, it induced him to 
undertake more than it was possible for him to execute in his best manner ; and his 
artistic education was much more complete than that of any previous American sculptor 
had been. He, however, attempted too much, and did too much, for the work to be 
thoroughly well done." — William J. Clarke, Jr., Grtat American Sculptors. 

Crawford, "William. (Brit.) Native of Ayr, Scotland. Died 
comparatively a young man in 1869. He was educated at the Trus- 
tees Academy in Edinburgh, teaching drawing in the same institution 
in later years. He studied for two years in Rome, and was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1860. He painted por- 
traits and genre pictures ; among the better known of the latter are, 
" More Free than Welcome," " Too Late," " The Wishing- Pool," " The 
Return from Maying," " The Highland Keeper's Daughter," and 
" Waiting for the Ferry." 

Creswick, Thomas, R. A. (Brit) Born in Sheffield (1811-1870). 
Studied drawing in Birmingham. Went to London when quite young, 
and first exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1828. Among his early 
works are, " The London Road a Hundred Years Ago,"-" A Rocky 
Stream," "Home by the Sands," and "A Squally Day." He was 
elected Associate of the Royal Academy in 1842, and Academician 
in 1851. In 1860 he exhibited "A Roughish Road"; 1861, "In 
the North Countrie " ; 1863, " Crossing the Stream " ; 1864, " On the 
Clyde " ; 1865, " The Village Smithy » ; 1866, " A Breezy Day on the 
English Coast," in which picture the figures were painted by R. Ans- 
delL In 1868 he sent " A Bend in the River" ; in 1869, "Sunshine 
and Showers," the figures by J. W. Bottomley. In 1870, after his 
death, two pictures were exhibited, " Mill near Whitby" and "After- 
noon." In the National Gallery, London, is his " Pathway to the 
Village Church," painted in 1839 ; and in the Sheepshanks Collection 
are his "Summer's Afternoon" and " Mountain Stream, Perthshire," 
painted in 1844. 


" I am very far from calling Creswick's good tree painting; it is false in color and defi- 
cient in mass and freedom, and has many other defects, but it is the work of a mau who 

has sought earnestly for truth Look at the intricacy and fullness of the dark oak 

foliage where it blends over the brook, see how you can go through it and into it, and 
come out behind it to the quiet bit of sky." — Ruskin's Modern Painters. 

" Creswick was seldom a powerful landscape-painter, but he was always charming, and 
this little group of trees and low irregular wall and little glimpse of smooth water [* A 

Roughish Road by the Lake-Side '] have a certain sweetness of their own Creswick 

etched very prettily, but his work was very distantly related to the greater art which has 
sometimes occupied our thoughts." — Hamerton's Etching and Etchers. 

Cretius, Constantine Johaim Franz. (Ger.) Born at Brieg, 
1814. Member and Professor of the Berlin Academy. Gold medal at 
Berlin. Studied at the Academy of Berlin, and under Wach ; gained 
a prize which entitled him to go to Rome. He traveled in the East. 
His subjects are historical, genre, and portraits. His works are well 
composed, his coloring is pleasing, his drawing good, and his popular- 
ity considerable. In the National Gallery at Berlin are, " The .Refresh- 
ing Draught " and " Cavaliers who have been taken Prisoners and 
brought before Cromwell." Among his works are, " A Theater Scene 
in the Time of Louis XIV." and an Italian genre picture. 

At the Berlin Exposition of 1876 he exhibited "The Wedding- 
Journey in Italy " and " A Pleasure-Trip in Switzerland." 

Crofts, Ernest, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born at Leeds, 1847. He was 
a pupil of A. B. Clay in London, later studying under Emil Hunten 
in Diisseldorf, where he has resided since 1870. He devotes himself 
to military subjects, sending to the Royal Academy in 1874, " A Re- 
treat » ; 1875, "Ligny " ; 1876, " The Morning of Waterloo " (belong- 
ing to Col. Bolton) ; 1877, " Cromwell at Marston Moor " (belonging 
to John Rhodes of Leeds) ; and in 1878, " Wellington's March from 
Quatre Bras to Waterloo," on the strength of which he was elected an 
Associate of the Royal Academy. " The Retreat" is now in the Town 
Gallery, Konigsberg, Prussia ; " Ligny " was at Philadelphia in 1876 ; 
" The Morning of Waterloo," at Paris in 1878. 

" 'The Retreat,' by E. Crofts, is a very well conceived and well painted picture of a 
terrified rush of artillery, mixed with cavalry and infantry, along a narrow raised road 
by the side of a swamp, into which some of the fugitives are being forced by the fright- 
ened team and riders." — London Times, May, 1874. 

" The most able military picture of the year is ' The Morning of the Battle of Water- 
loo,' by E. Crofts. The point of station is the center of the French position, at early 
morning of the memorable, decisive day, under a dull sky laden with rain, when Napo- 
leon, surrounded by his marshals, is making preparations for the final struggle In 

all respects this is a thoroughly well-considered, soundly painted picture."— Illustrated 
London News, May 13, 1876. 

" Since Miss Thompson's ' Roll-Call ' battle-pictures have been rather a feature of the 
Academy Exhibitions, but none of them can be said to possess the artistic qualities of 
Mr. Crofts' 'Wellington's March from Quatre Bras to Waterloo.' .... Highly dramatic 
and striking in effect, and free from the superabundance of sickening details usually in- 
troduced into similar subjects, there is still sufficient indication of the attendant cir- 
cumstances to carry the imagination of the spectator into the scene the painter has 
delineated. Some recognition is certainly due of the technical ability exhibited by the 


artist, who has painted evtry detail in tl>e remarkable picture with truthfulness and 
'' — London Athenaum, May 18, 

Cromek, Thomas Hartley. (Brit.) Son of Robert Hartley 
Cromek, a well-known engraver of the early part of this century. 
Thomas H. Cromek was born in London (1809-1873). He devoted 
himself to art at an early age, going to Italy when about twenty-one, 
and remaining in study and in the practice of his profession in Rome 
until 1S49, when he returned to London. In 1850 he became an 
date of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, contributing 
regularly to its annual exhibitions. His last works there were, 
'• Porta della Carta, Venice," and u Warwick Castle," in 1872. 

Cropsey, Jasper F., N. A. (Am.) Born at Staten Island, 1823. 
Wai in an architect's office for five years, when he turned his attention 
to the study of landscape-painting. In 1847 he went to Europe, 
spending three years in Italy. In 1851 he was made a full member 
of the New York Academy of Design. In 1857 he went again to 
Europe, living in London in the practice of his profession until 1863, 
sending to the Royal Academy there, in 1857, his " Backwoods of 
America "; and in other seasons, " Autumn on the Hudson," which was 
also at the International Exhibition of 1862; " Richmond Hill, — 
Midsummer" ; " Autumn in the White Mountains" ; " Corfe Castle, 
Dorset"; "Under the Cliff" ; "Sea-Coast," and "Roadside" (a 
- of views at Bonchurch, Isle of Wight). Among other Eng- 
lish works of his may be mentioned, " Stoke Pogis," " Warwick Cas- 
tle," " The Olden Time." and " Anne Hathaway's Cottage " (purchased 
by Edwin Booth). After his return to America he devoted himself 
particularly to the painting of autumn scenery, exhibiting at the Na- 
tional Academy, in 1868, "Mount Jefferson, New Hampshire " (be- 
longing to R. M. Olyphant, a picture which was at the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1867). In i«69 he sent to the National Academy, "A Coast 
Scene " ; in 1 870, " Greenwood Lake " and " The Narrows from 
Staten Island ' ; 1871, "A Lake Scene " (the property of Alexander 
Stuart) ; 1874, " On the Wawagonda " ; 1875, "Southern Italy" and 
" Sidney Plains " (painted for John N. Johnston) ; in 1876, " Autumn 
on the Ramapo" ; in 1877, " Lake George," " Greenwood Lake," and 
"The Temple of Pactum"; in 1878, " Cedar Lake, Wawayanda 

To the Exhibitions of the American Society of Painters in Water- 
which he was one of the original members, he sent in 1868, 
h, Isle of Wight " ; in 1869, " White Mountain Scenery " ; 
in 1877, " Lake - L878, "On the St. Lawrence River." 

His u Wawanda Hills in Autumn " belongs to Major Theodore 
Gibbs of New York. 

" The result is a fine picture 'Cropsey's ' Autumn on the Hudson ' ] full of p »iuts 
are new without being wholly foreign and strange to the Buopeu eye. It will take the 
ordinary obaerrer into another sphere and region, while its execution will bear any tech- 
nical criticism." — London. Times, 1S62. 


"We congratulate Mr. Cropsey on having produced a charming picture ['Richmond 
Hill '] of a very charming spot, the first view of which leaves with the impressionable 
observer a bright remembrance never to be destroyed." — London Builder, 1S62. 

" Mr. Cropsey contributed ' The Old Mill' and ' Italy,' two pictures very cleverly ren- 
dered, though with a peculiar manipulation characteristic of his style, which is often 
pleasing." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition o/1876. 

Cross, John. (Brit.) (1819 - 1861.) As a child he was taken 
by his family to St. Quentin, France, and received his first instruction 
in art in the School of Design there ; later, he became a pupil of 
Picot in Paris. In 1847 he obtained a prize from the British govern- 
ment for his " Richard at the Siege of Calais," which is in Westmin- 
ster Palace, and which was engraved at the expense of the Fine- Arts 
Commission. In 1850 he sent to the Royal Academy, " The Burial 
of the Sons of Edward IV. in the Tower" ; in 1853, " The Death of 
Thomas a Becket " ; and in 1858, his last work, " The Coronation of 
"William the Conqueror." Among his other pictures are, "Lucy 
Preston imploring the Pardon of her Father " ; " Edward the Con- 
fessor naming Harold as his Successor " ; and a " Storm Scene on the 
Cliffs," rejected by the Royal Academy in 1860. 

" Cross was one of the most promising of our historical painters, but his constitution 
proved too weak for the wear and tear of his arduous career."— Wornum's Ejjochs of 

Crowe, Eyre, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born at Chelsea, 1824. Studied 
under Paul Delaroche in Paris, and went with his master to Rome in 
1843, returned to London in 1844, and entered the schools of the 
Royal Academy the same year. His first picture, " Master Prynne 
searching the Pockets of Archbishop Laud in the Tower," was ex- 
hibited at the Royal Academy in 1846. Among his earlier works are, 
" The Roman Carnival," in 1848 ; " Holbein painting Edward VI.," 
in 1849. In 1859 he exhibited " Milton visiting Galileo in Prison "; 
in 1860, "Boswell's Introduction to the Club" and "Swift reading 
a Letter from Stella " ; in 1861, " A Virginia Slave-Sale " and " A 
Barber's Shop " (from sketches made in the United States, a few years 
before). In 1862 he sent to the Royal Academy, " De Foe in the 
Pillory"; in 1863, "Brick Court, Middle Temple, April, 1774," 
representing the burial of Goldsmith ; in 1864, " Luther posting his 
Theses on the Church-Door of Wittenberg" ; and in 1867, " Charles 
II. knighting the Loin of Beef." Many of these pictures, careful in 
treatment and popular in subject, have been engraved. He exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, in 1870, "The Vestal" ; in 1871, "Old Mor- 
tality" ; in 1872, " Out of School" ; in 1873, "Tethered" ; in 1875, 
"A Sheep-Shearing Match" ; in 1876 (when he was elected an Asso- 
ciate of the Royal Academy), " Darning Day, Red Maid's School, 
Bristol"; in 1877, "Sanctuary," "Silkworms" (Blue-Coat Boys), 
and "Prayer"; in 1878, "The School-Treat." His "Goldsmith's 
Mourners " and " After a Run " were at Philadelphia in 1876. " The 
French Savants in Egypt " was at Paris in 1878. 


"This artist has a dry and lard handling, and appears to take little pleasure in his 
color, although what he gives honestly attempts to render natural lighting, — a rarer 
quality than one might imagine among oil-painters, sorely tempted to get effects by in- 
genious devices which they know will often pass muster We would suggest that 

this picture, ' Pleaching of Whitfield' [R. A., 1S04] would engrave well, and be likely 
to succeed." — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

" There are few painters who more seriously endeavor to interpret their subjects than 
Mr. Crowe. He is not afraid of reality, and does not shrink from scenes that less robust 
minds would consider vulgar. His method of interpretation is studious and faithful, 
observant of truth without any temptation to display his mastery over facts by an 
emphasis of trivial incidents. His work lacks the highest inspiration which turns the 
forms of Nature into forms of grace and still keeps them true ; but his pictures are al- 
ways interesting from the amount of earnest work they contain." — Art Journal, 
August, 1S74. 

Crowninshield, Frederic. (Am.) A native of Boston. He did 
not turn his attention to art as a profession until 1867, when he went 
to London and studied water-color drawing there, under Rowbotham, 
devoting himself to landscape-painting in that medium and in oils. 
Later he went to Rome, where he became a pupil of Benouville. In 
1872 he entered l'l^cole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, and was for three 
months in the studio of Cabanel. About this time he took up 
figure-painting, which has since been his specialty. He has painted 
for some time under Couture at Villiers-le-Bel, spending his winters 
at Rome and Siena. He exhibited for the first time in public, at the 
Paris Salon in 1878, a portrait group of an allegorical character. 
Many of his water-colors are in private collections in Boston, where 
they are much admired. He has been appointed Instructor in the 
Art School connected with the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. 

" At Doll & Richards', in the small gallery, will be found an exhibition of water-colors 
by Mr. Frederic Crowninshield, who has recently returned from an extended tour in 
Europe. It is one of the most interesting little collections ever exhibited in Boston. 
He has presented a variety of subjects, all of which he has treated more or less broadly, 
but some more delicately than others. This collection shows that Mr. Crowninshield is 
an admirable artist, and one of whom we have a right to expect much in future." — 
Boston Daily Advertiser, November 12, 1878. 

Cruikshank, George. (Brit.) Born in London (1792-1878). 
•fan English can aturist. Upon his father's death, in order to 
support his family, he became his successor. He received no instruc- 
tion in art. His first work was a series of political caricatures, many 
of them relating to the trial of Queen Caroline, in 1820 and '21. His 
illustrations of Pierce Egan's " Life in London " and Grimm's "Fairy 
Tales," a few years later, first brought him decided popular recogni- 
tion. The amount of work of this kind which he lias done is enor- 
mons ; among the better known are Dickens' "Sketches by Boz" and 
" Oliver Twist,"** The Tower of London," "Jack Shepherd," "Wa- 
verley Novels," u British Novelist," " Life of Grimaldi," etc. In 1842 
he published the famous series of eight temperance prints, entitled 
the "Gin Bottle," quickly followed by the "Gin Trap," the "Gin 
jernaut," " Sunday in London," and others. 


He did not paint in oil until late in life, and has exhibited at the 
British Institute and the Royal Academy, at different seasons, " Teta- 
nia and Bottom," " Merry Wives of Windsor," " Cinderella/' " Tain 
O'Shanter," " The Fairy Ring," " Grimaldi Shaving," " The Worship 
of Bacchus," " Disturbing the Congregation " (belonging to the late * 
Prince Albert), and a few more. A collection of his works of every de- 
scription was on exhibition in London in 1876, from his drawing when 
a boy of eight years to his last production ; a remarkable display of 
the labors of one man, showing the wide range of his subjects and the 
versatility of his genius. His " Worship of Bacchus " is in the Na- 
tional Gallery, London. 

" Cruikshank's 'Noah Claypole,' in the illustrations to 'Oliver Twist,' in the inter- 
view with the Jew, is, however, still more characteristic. It is the intensest rendering 
of vulgarity, absolute and utter, with which I am acquainted Among the reck- 
less losses of the right service of intellectual power with which this century must be 
charged, very few are, to my mind, more to be regretted than that which is involved in 
its having turned to no higher purpose than the illustration of the career of ' Jack Shep- 
herd 'and of the 'Irish Rebellion,' the great graver (I use the word deliberately and 
with large meaning) and singular genius of Cruikshank." — Ruskin's Modem Painters. 

" ' I think,' said Mr. Dickens, ' the power of that closing scene [ " The Bottle " ] quite 
extraordinary. It haunts the remembrance like an awful reality. It is full of passion 
and terror, and I doubt very much whether any hand but his could so have rendered it.' " 
— Forster's Life of Dickens, Vol. II. p. 18. 

" In etching of this higher class, Cruikshank carries one great virtue of the art to per- 
fection, its simple frankness. He is so direct and unaffected that only those who know 
the difficulties of etching can appreciate the power that lies behind his unpretending 
skill. There is never in his most admirable plates the trace of a vain effort." — Hamer- 
ton's Etching and Etchers. 

" Cruikshank's deficient education in art, unremedied by his efforts far on in life, 
renders his pictures very defective. Particular faults attributed to him, even as a de- 
signer, are want of drawing of the human figure, which he is apt to treat with a carica- 
turist's free and easy, because limp limbs, and vapid, old-fashioned faces, and the ten- 
dency to exaggerate and burlesque, that constitute him a caricaturist rather than a 
humorist. But as a caricaturist he has many and great merits." — Mrs. Tytler's Modern 

" He has told a thousand truths in as many strange and fantastic ways ; he has given 
a thousand new and pleasant thoughts to millions of people ; he has never used his wit 
dishonestly ; he has never, in the exuberance of his frolicsome humor, caused a single 
painful or guilty blush ; how little do we think of the extraordinary power of this man, 
and how ungrateful we are to him ! . . . . Look at one of Mr. Cruikshank's works, and 
we pronounce him an excellent humorist. Look at all : his reputation is increased by 
a kind of geometrical progression, as a whole diamond is an hundred times more valu- 
able than the hundred splinters into which it might be broken would be. A fine, rough 
English diamond is this, about which we have been writing." — Thackeray, in Westmin- 
ster Review, June, 1840. 

Cugnot, Louis-L<k>n. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Duret and Diebolt. At the Salon of 
1878 he exhibited a plaster bust of C. Brunnon ; in 1876, a plaster 
bust of Dr. Maurice Dunand ; in 1875, a marble group, "The Cory- 
bante"; in 1874, a plaster model of a monument to be erected in 
Callao ; in 1878, a plaster group, " The Messenger of Love." 


Cummings, Thomas Seir, N. A. (Am.) He was born in the 
early part of the century, and was one of the founders of the National 
Academy in 1836, being actively connected with it until his retire- 
ment in L865. He was one of its early Vice-Presidents, its Treasurer 
from 1840 to '45, and the author of a valuable history of the Insti- 
tution. He was a miniature-painter of the first rank, working steadily 
at that branch of the profession until the introduction of photography. 
He numbered among his sitters many distinguished people. He has 
instructed several prominent American artists. 

Curnock, J. Jackson. (Brit.) Born at Bristol, 1839. Son of an 
artist, from whom he received his first instructions in art, studying 
also at the Bristol Academy. His professional life has been spent in 
various parts of Great Britain, his present home being in Bristol 
(1878). He has exhibited frequently at the Koyal Academy and in 
provincial galleries for some years. Among the better known of his 
works are, " Ellen's Isle, Loch Katrine," " Loch Cornish, Isle of 
Skye," "Autumn" ( R. A., 1873), "The Idwal Mountains" and 
•wdon" (R. A., 1877), "The Pool below the Bridge" (exhibited 
at Bristol in 1877), "Driving down the Sheep" (R. A., 1878), etc. 

" I Bud this to be the most refined landscape of all here [' The Lengwy at Capel Curig '], 
too subdued in its tone for my own pleasure, but skillful and affectionate in a high degree. 
.... A calm stream patiently studied. The distant woods and hills are all very tender 
and beautiful." — Ruskin's Notes of the Academy, 1S75. 

Currier, J. Frank. (Am.) He has studied in Munich. To the 
Society of American Artists in 1878 he sent "A Bohemian Beggar" 
and two landscapes. 

[No response to circular.] 

Curtis, Calvin. (Am.) Born at Stratford, Ct, 1822. He entered 
the schools of the National Academy in 1841, studying also under Hunt- 
ington. He painted portraits in New York for some years, settling in 
Bridgeport, Ct., about 1830, where he has since lived. Among his 
sitters have been Chief Justice Thomas B. Butler, Gen. W. N. Noble, 
William R. Seeley, Judge C. B. Beardsley, Gideon H. Hollister, Rev. 
Nathaniel H.-witt. D. D., and John Young of Utah. 

Curzon, Paul Alfred de. (Fr.) Born at Poitiers, 1820. Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Medal at Philadelphia. Pupil of 
Drolling and Cabat. Curzon sent a picture to the Salon of 1843 ; he 
then spent a year in Italy ; in 1*49 he took, at l'Ecole des Beaux- 
d prize for historical landscape, and through the influ- 
ence of If. Chenavaid lie was sent to Italy for two years. Before 
returning to France he went to Greece. At first he devoted himself 
to landscapes, and gained no marked reputation ; at length he changed 
tie- subjects of hi- pictures, and sent to the Salon of 1857, " Dante and 
Virgil on the Shores of Purgatory," " Blind Greeks," "Women of 
Piscinisco/' and '-An Albanian Woman." This was the year of his 
first success, and he received a second-class medal. In the Luxembourg 
8* l 


are his "Psyche" (1859), "Dominicans decorating their Chapel" 
(1867), and " A View at Ostia during the Rising of the Tiber " (1868). 
In 1877 he exhibited "Graziella" and "Ruins of Aqueducts on the 
Roman Campagna" ; in 1876, " Ruins of the Temple of Jupiter, near 
Athens " and a " View from the Summit of the Acropolis " ; in 1875, 
" A Triptych," being three scenes from the life of Ruth ; in 1874, 
" The First Portrait " (suggested by a passage in Pliny), " Serenade 
in the Abruzzis," " Souvenir of the Coast of Provence " ; etc. Curzon 
has also made sketches in lithography, water-colors, and pastels. At 
the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Near a Public Well, — Souvenir of 
Amalfi" and "The Ruins of the Acropolis, Athens, in 1852." 

" The • Women of Pisciniseo,' busy in weaving linen, make you enter one of those lit- 
tle corners of Italy, where the ancient life and the primitive simplicity of manners are 
preserved by a happy anachronism ; and as for the picture of Dante and Virgil, that, by 
my faith ! will transport you as far and as high as you can desire. A sweet veil covers 
this poetic composition, as fruitful in beautiful reveries as the Barque of M. Gleyre. 
The damned writhe a little confusedly their pitiful shadows. The two divine poets, 
the luminous and the terrible, the one who sings and the one who roars, stand on the 
shore in truly beautiful draperies, in which each fold announces a designer. " — Edmond 
About, Nos Artistes aw Salon de 1857. 

Dabour, John. (Am.) Born in Smyrna, Asia, 1837. He was a 
pupil of the Academy of Fine Arts of Paris, and studied for some time 
under Jeanron, formerly superintendent of the Art Museum of France. 
He has spent fifteen years of his professional life in the United States, 
painting portraits which are in various cities of the country, chiefly 
in Baltimore, his present home. Among the more prominent of his 
sitters have been Archbishop Spaulding of Baltimore, Archbishop 
Purcell of Cincinnati, Senator Cameron of Pennsylvania and his son, 
Senator Davis of Virginia, Governor Groome of Maryland, and many 

Daege, Eduard. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1805. Member of the 
Senate of the Academy of Berlin, also Professor and member of the 
same Academy, where he had formerly taken various prizes. Pupil 
of Niedlich and Wach. In 1832 he went to Italy. At the National 
Gallery, Berlin, are " The Old Sacristan " and " The Invention of 
Painting," by this artist. 

Dael, Jan Franz van. (Dutch.) Born at Antwerp (1764- 
1840). This artist received a gold medal from Louis XVIII. and the 
Cross of the Legion of Honor from Napoleon. He lived much in 
France, and painted fruits and flowers in the manner of Van Huysum 
and Van Spaendonck. Josephine and Marie Louise both honored 
him with their favor and patronage. 

In 1861, at a sale in Paris, a "Vase of Flowers" by Van Dael 
brought 5,300 francs. 

Dagnan, Isidore. (Fr.) Born at Marseilles (1794-1873). Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor. Painter of landscapes, whose subjects 
are principally taken from Italy, Switzerland, and the South of France. 


Among them are, M A Sea View at Marseilles" (18:33), purchased for 
the Luxembourg ; M View of Lake Ceneva," at the Grand Trianon ; 
u View at Lausanne " ; and a " View in Dauphiny," at the Palace of 
Fontainebleau. In 1870 he exhibited at the Salon, "Cross-Road from 
Batignv to Pierrefonds, Forest of Compiegne," and "Banks of the 
Sorgue at Vaucluse" ; in 1SG9, "The Old Trees of the Gorge-aux- 
Loups, Forest of Fontainebleau," and " The New Road of the Yallee 
de li Sole, Forest of Fontainebleau" ; in 1868, "Queen Blanche's Old 
Oak, Forest of Fontainebleau" and "A View on the Banks of the 
Aar, Canton of Berne " ; etc. 

Dagnan-Bouveret, Pascal- Adolphe-Jean. (Fr.) Born at Paris. 
Pupil of Gerdme. Medal of third class in 1878, when he exhibited 
" Manon Lescant" ; in 1877, " Orpheus and the Bacchantes" and an 
"Infant Bacchus." 

Dalou, Jules. (Fr.) Born in Paris, 1838. Medal, 1870. When 
quite young he attended l'Ecole Mutuelle, and at eleven years of age 
entered the school for drawing in the Rue de l'Ecole de Medecine, 
where Carpeaux was then a master. Under his instruction Dalou first 
modeled from the antique. Carpeaux soon took the boy into his 
own studio, and persuaded his parents to allow him to make sculpture 
his profession. At fourteen Dalou entered l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts, 
where he was very unhappy on account of the mode of study there 
enforced. "When about eighteen he lost the sympathy and direction 
of Carpeaux, who went to Rome. He then entered the atelier of 
Duret, where he was so miserable that he several times left it, 
but was persuaded by friends to return. At the same time, Dalou 
worked for bronze-makers, goldsmiths, etc., in order to earn some- 
thing, but. however good his work may have been, he gained no repu- 
tation from it, as his name never was attached to it. At length he 
found some employment in the decoration of houses, especially of that 
built by the Countess of Paiva, on the Champs Elysees. In 1867 he 
made his debut at the Salon, with a plaster statue called "The 
Bather." In 1870 he sent a plaster statue called "The Embroidery 
Girl," for which he received a medal. He was about to put this into 
marble when war broke out. Dalou remained at Paris in the ranks of 
til-- National Guard. lb- was reputed to have been connected with 
the Commune, and was exiled, since which time he has lived in Eng- 
land, where he ha- been well received and encouraged as an artist. 
In 1872 he sent to the Royal Academy a terra-cotta statuette, 
called - Palm Sunday," belonging to Mr. George Howard ; in 1873, 
'•A French Peasant-Woman " (statue in terra-cotta), belonging to sir 
Court- Lindsay. A marble group, " La Berceuse,'' u in the collection 
of the Marquis of Westminster. Dalou has also made statuettes of 
the Marchioness of Ormond, the Countess ( Irosvenor, Lady ( lementine 
Mitford, the lion. Mrs. Howard, and Miss Margaret de Rothschild. 
In 1^77 he sent to the Royal Academy a large terra-cotta group of " A 


Boulonnaise nursing her Infant " and a portrait bust of Mr. George 
Howard. At Philadelphia he exhibited "The Needlewoman," in 
bronze, and received a medal. 

" M. Dalou's style of art is as natural and life-like as that of Carpeaux, without that 
excessive vivacity of his master, which sometimes became a defect of taste and a 
scarcely pardonable license. It is a kind of sculpture which, without by any means dis- 
daining art, is in open rebellion against the pedantry of the schools, and refreshes itself 
by contact with the actual human world, portraying life as it really exists in very dif- 
ferent classes of society, provided only that the model is a suitable one for sculpture. 
The charm of M. Dalou's work is due to his sympathy with humanity, and a great 
natural taste and refinement, which enables him to represent a peasant-woman of 
Boulogne and the daughter of an English duke, so that each has her own kind of dig- 
nity."— The Portfolio, May, 1877. 

Dame", Ernest. {Fr.) Born at Saint-Florentin. Medal in 1875. 
Pupil of Duret and Lequesne, Guillaume and Cavelier. At the Salon 
of 1877 he exhibited a plaster group called " Fugit amor ! " the subject 
taken from a song by Victor Hugo ; in 1875, a plaster group, " Cepha- 
lus and Procris," and a portrait bust ; etc. 

" It is an exquisite thing, this group of M. Dame They are well grouped. She is 

charming, made to ravish one, graceful as a fairy of the Opera. He is like a Vestris. ..." 
— Mario Proth, Voyage an, Pays des Peintres, 1877. 

Dameron, Emile Charles. (Fr.) Born in Paris. Medal at Phil- 
adelphia, and one of the third class at the Salon of 1878. Pupil of 
Pelouse. At Philadelphia he exhibited " The Pyramids " and " The 
Oaks of Grand-Moulin." At the Paris Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
" Souvenir of Cernay-la-Ville, — Effect of Winter" ; in 1878, " On the 
Bank of the Aven, Finistere." 

Dana, "William P. W., N. A. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1833. His 
fondness for the sea and ships was manifested at an early age, and 
he made several voyages as a sailor before he decided to study art. 
In 1852 he went to Europe, and became a pupil of Picot and of 
Le Poitevin, and a student in l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, 
spending his summers in sketching-tours in Normandy and Brittany. 
He returned to America in 1862, painting in New York and Newport, 
R. I. In 1863 he was made a full member of the Academy of Design. 
He has been happy in his pictures of children, horses, and dogs, and 
has painted some successful portraits in later years, although his ear- 
lier works, following the natural taste of his youth for the sea, were 
marine views ; his first-exhibited picture being "A Wreck on Fire at 
Sea," painted in Paris. Among his works of this class are his " Chase 
of the Frigate Constitution" (belonging to Abbott Lawrence), "Cliffs 
at Sunset," " Waiting for the Fishing-Boats," " Low Tide at Yport," 
" Breakers Ahead ! " " Foggy Morning on the Coast of Normandy," 
etc. He has also painted " French Peasant-Girl " (presented to the 
Sanitary Fair in New York), " Maternal Care," " Heart's-Ease," "Eni- 
by's Admirals" (belonging to the National Academy), "Land of 
Nod," " English Greyhound," and " Moonrise after a Gale " (N. A., 
18G9). His " Gathering Seaweed " was at the Paris Salon of 1878. 


" P. ma is full of talent. He colors attractively, although not always harmoniously, as 
is shown by his most ambitious picture, ' Heart 's-K.ise,' which neither in taste nor treat- 
ment is equal to his less pretending works. The motives of his composition are among 
the most charming of genre painting." — Jarves, Art Lira. 

Danby, Francis, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in Ireland (1793-1861). 
Received his art education in Dublin. Went to Bristol, Eng., at 
the age of twenty, teaching drawing for some time, and painting his 
"Sunset at Sea after a Storm," which first brought him into notice as 
an artist. It was at the Royal Academy in 1824, and was purchased 
by Sir Thomas Lawrence. In 1825 he removed to London, and was 
elected Associate of the Royal Academy on the strength of his picture 
of the " Delivery of Israel out of Egypt," exhibited that year. In 
1830 he went to the Continent, remaining twelve years in Switzer- 
land. His " Fisherman's Home," painted in 1846 (in the Vernon 
Collection), is now in the National Gallery, London. Among his 
better known works are " Venus rising from the Sea " and " The 
Highland Chieftain's Burial." 

** Danby is most distinguished for his calm evening scenes at sea, generally sunsets, 
under various aspects, frequently combined with some poetical subject, incident, or 
sentiment, and nearly always conspicuous for their brilliant coloring." — Wornum's 
Epochs of Pa i n t i n g. 

Danby, James. (Brit.) Son of Francis Danby, A. R. A. He 
died in 1875. He devoted himself to marine painting with consid- 
erable success, and exhibited for many years at the Royal Academy 
and elsewhere in London and the Provinces. Among his works are, 
"A View on the Thames" (1860); "Wreck on Exmouth Bar" 
(1861) ; " Mount Orgueil, Jersey " (1866) ; " North Shields, — Sun- 
rise " (1869) ; and " The Conflict" (1874). 

Danby, Thomas. (Brit.) Son of Francis Danby, A. R. A., and 
younger brother of James Danby. He is a landscape-painter, resi- 
dent in London. He painted for many years in oil, exhibiting at the 
Royal Academy and the British Institution. Later, becoming a mem- 
ber of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors, he has more particularly 
devoted himself to works in that medium, exhibiting in different 
seasons, " On the River Wye," " A Mountain Stream in North 
Wales," " Merionethshire," "The Lake of Bala," "The Castle by 
the Sea," " Snowden," « The Wilds of Wales," " A Spring Morn- 
ing," etc. 

Danforth, M. L (Am.) Born at Hartford, Ct. In 1818 he be- 
came a pupil of the Graphic Company, an association for the 
purpose of engraving bank-note plates. In 1821 he went to New 
Haven, and soon executed his plate after Raphael Morghen's engrav- 
ing of the " Paree somnum rumpere," which was creditably done. 
In 1826 he studied at the Academy of Design in New York, and 
went in the following year to London, where he studied some time 
longer. After his return he became one of the bank-note engravers 
of New York. His " Sentry-Box," after C. R. Le>lie, u a fine line 


engraving. Among his other plates are Washington Irving, after Les- 
lie ; Sir Walter Scott, after the same ; and Don Quixote. 

Daniel, Henri Joseph, called " Du Commune du Locle." (Fr.) 
Born at Nantes (1804 - 1875). Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil 
of Bosio and Cortot. Among the works of this sculptor are, " Count 
Simeon" (1842), purchased for the Chamber of Peers ; " Raimbaud 
III., Count of Orange," a colossal statue, in the square of the city of 
Orange ; several busts commanded for the Gallery at Versailles ; 
" Music," at the Louvre ; and an ornamental fountain for the city of 

Dannat, William. (Am.) Born in New York, 1853. Going 
abroad for the purpose of study at an early age, he was educated in 
art at the Royal Academy of Munich, spending the better part of his 
professional life in Munich and Florence. He passed the winter of 
1877 and '78 in New York, contributing to the first exhibition of the 
Society of American Artists, two heads of Bavarian peasants. At 
present he is in Spain, studying the masters of that country. Among 
the portraits by Dannat is one of Vicar-General Thomas Preston, in 
the possession of Mrs. Walter S. Starr. 

Dantan, Antoine Laurent. (Fr.) Born at St. Cloud, 1798. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Bosio and l'j£cole des 
Beaux- Arts, where he took the grand prize in 1828, the subject being 
the " Death of Hercules." In 1869 he exhibited at the Salon, "The 
Happy Age," a statue in marble, and a portrait bust in plaster ; in 
1868, "The Drunkenness of Silenus," bas-relief in marble. Among 
his portrait busts are those of Rachel, Madame Delaroche, and M. 
Boguet, and of a number of historical persons for the Gallery at Ver- 
sailles. Among his figures are, " The Neapolitan Girl playing the 
Tambourine," a " Young Bather playing with his Dog," and an " Ital- 
ian Vintager." 

Dantan, Jean-Pierre, called the "young Dantan." (Fr.) Brother of 
the preceding. Born at Paris (1800 - 1869). Chevalier of the Legion 
of Honor. Pupil of Bosio. After his studies he visited Italy and 
made a bust of Pope Pius VIII. On his return to France he occupied 
himself with a satirical sort of sculpture which gave him a place quite 
alone among French artists. He was very quick to see and clever at 
rendering the grotesque side of persons and things. He has made 
travesty portraits of many prominent men, among whom are Vernet, 
Paganini, Rubini, Frederic-Lemaitre, etc. Malibran sat to him. He 
visited England, and there made portraits of Wellington, Brougham, 
Samuel Rothschild, Count d'Orsay, and Talleyrand, which are among 
his best. His more serious works are the statue of " Boeldieu at 
Rouen," the busts of Grisi, Verdi, Thalberg, Cherubini, Marshal Can- 
robert, C. Pleyel, Rossini, Velpeau, Philibert Delorme (for the court of 
the Louvre), Nelaton, Aubert, Rossini, and many others. He died sud- 
denly at Baden, and left a large fortune. 


Dargent, Yan. (Fr.) Born at Saint Servais. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor, 1877. Landscape-painter. At the Salon of 1870 he 
exhibited "The Banks of the Scorf-an-Sac'h (Finistere) " and "A 
Cliff at Morgat (Finistere)" ; in 1875, two landscapes and "Ecstatic 

Conversation of Saint Corentin and Saint Primel" ; etc. 

Darley, Felix O. C, N. A. (Am.) Born in Philadelphia, 1822. 
Early displayed a taste for art, but had no regular art education. 
Alter leaving school he followed mercantile pursuits in his native 
city, executing wood-cuts for a Philadelphia pictorial journal during 
his leisure hours. He was engaged by the American Art Union about 
1 B6( » to engrave (his now so well known) outline illustrations of living's 
Works, which brought him at once into notice as a clever and original 
draughtsman. He has furnished illustrations for some of the finest 
and most valuable editions of the standard English and American 
authors, Cooper, Dickens, Hawthorne, etc., while among his larger and 
more pretentious works are, "Washington's Entry into New York," 
"The First Blow for Liberty," "Foraging in Virginia," "Giving 
Comfort to the Enemy," " Emigrants attacked by Indians " (painted 
for and belonging to Prince Napoleon), " Scene in the Streets of Kome " 
(in a private collection in Boston). Many of the original drawings 
for the Dickens illustrations belong to Mr. Houghton, of the publishing- 
house for which they were drawn. Mr. Darley was elected full mem- 
ber of the Academy of Design in 1852 ; he is a member of the Artists' 
Fund Society, and was one of the early members of the American So- 
ciety of Painters in Water-Colors. His work, however, is almost exclu- 
sively in black and white, and his reputation was fully established in 
his own country before he visited others. During his European travels 
his pencil lias never been idle, and he has brought home with him 
many valuable sketches of character, as well as of picturesque scenery 
and architecture. He is an annual exhibitor at the Academy. Among 
his later works are, " Puritans surprised by Indians," " The School- 
Boy," "The March to the Sea," "The Sheepfold " (belonging to the 
National Academy), " Feeding the Pets," "Mount Desert," and " A 
Cold Snack." His " Cavalry Charge at Fredericksburg, Va." (belong- 
ing to W. T. Blodgett) was at the Paris Exposition of 1867. His 
•et Scene, Rome," in water-color, was at the Philadelphia Exhi- 
bition of 1876. 

"Darley is a proline artist in designs of the homely, pathetic, ami humorous, — 
strongly individualistic, in the American sense, but with a heavy, monotonous stroke of 
pencil and commonness of human type which giT6 to his composition! an almost uni- 
form sameness of style and character. Nevertheless, he has great facility and vigor, a 
knowledge of drawing, mtenseneet of execution, skill and capacity of realistic illustra- 
tion, wliich stamp him ai a remarkable man." — Jarves, Art Id'". 

"The peculiar skill and readineat of Darley's pencil has unavoidably enlisted it in 
numerous casual enterprises, from a vignette on bank-notes to a political caricature for 
a comic paper* T Iranghtsman among us to prompt and inventive .... 

Darky has made a study of American subjects, and linds therein a remarkable range, 


from the beautiful to the grotesque, as is manifest when his drawings are compared. 
It is rare for the same hand to deal so aptly with the graceful and the pensive, so vig- 
orously with the characteristic, and so broadly with the humorous, and exhibit an equal 
facility and felicity in true literal transcript and in fanciful conception." — Tucker- 
man's Book of the Artists. 

" Darley's ' Illustrations of Margaret ' have been pronounced, by competent foreign 
critics, as the best outline, for expression, grace, and significance, since those of 
Eetzch." — Dr. Francis, in Old New York. 

Darrah, Mrs. S. T. (Am.) A native of Pennsylvania. Her pro- 
fessional life has been spent in Boston. She paints landscapes and 
marine views, and her works are highly regarded. " Rocks at Man- 
chester, Mass.," a very good specimen, belongs to Mrs. E. D. Kimball 
of Salem. Her " Gathering Kelp " was at the Boston Mechanics' Fair 
in 1878. 

[No response to circular.] 

Dauban, Jules-Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1822. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Director of the School of Fine Arts at 
Angers. Pupil of Auguste Debay. Made his debut at the Salon of 
1861. His "Reception of a Stranger by the Trappists" (1864) is at 
the Luxembourg. " The Trappists giving the Kiss of Peace before 
Communion " is at the Museum of Angers. " The Resurrection of 
Lazarus " is at the church of Saint-Bernard at Paris. ** The Educa- 
tion of the Virgin " and " Two Stations of the Cross " are at the Hos- 
pice Sainte-Marie, Angers. Dauban has executed many decorative 
works in churches and other public places, as well as in private 

Daubigny, Charles Francois. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1817 - 1878). 
Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Delaroche. This painter 
spent three years in Italy, and has sent his pictures to nearly every 
Salon since 1838. Among his numerous works may be mentioned, 
" The Banks of the River Oulins," " The Seine at Charenton," "The 
Island of Bezons," and " The Seine at Bezons," all purchased by the Min- 
istry of the Interior. " The Harvest " (1852) was placed in the Tuile- 
ries ; "A View on the Banks of the Seine" (1852) is at the Museum of 
Nantes; "The Pool of Gylien " (1853) was purchased by the Em- 
peror for the Palace of St. Cloud. At the Louvre, in the apartment of 
the Ministers of State, are two panels, stags and herons ; on the stair- 
case of the same apartment are " The Pavilion of Flora " and " The 
Palace and Gardens of the Tuileries." In the Luxembourg are " A 
View in the Valley of Optevoz" (1855) and "Springtime" (1857). 
At the Johnston sale, "A Landscape, — Evening" (18 by 32) sold for 
$ 1,450. < Two works by this artist are in the collection of Mrs. H. E. 
Maynard of Boston. In 1877 he exhibited "The Rising of the 
Moon" and a "View at Dieppe"; in 1876, "An Orchard"; in 
1874, "The Fields in June" and "The House of Mother Bazot at 
Valmondois." He has also executed more than one hundred etchings, 
some of which are excellent. In 1863, "La Calcographie " of the 


Louvre purchased a plate of his, "A Wooded Landscape," after 
Euysdael, for £ 120. 

•■ Daubigny pire, for a certain massiveness of handling and justness in rendering the 
values, stands alone." — S. G. W. Benjamin, Contemporary Art in France. 

" It is truly a pity that M. Daubigny, this landscape-painter, with a sentiment so true, 
just, and natural, contents himself with a tirst impression, and neglects, at this point, 
the details. His pictures are no more than sketches, and sketches little advanced. He 
does not want time, because he has exhibited not less than five canvases of considerable 
importance ; it is then to a system that one should attribute this careless manner, which 
we believe dangerous for the future of the painter if he does not quickly abandon it. 
.... We exact not the fibers of a leaf on the third plane, but still it is necessary that 
trees should fasten themselves in the soil by roots, that their branches should insert 
themselves in the trunk, and that they trace on the sky or the horizon a distinct sil- 
houette, above all, when they occupy the first plane. Trees are neither feathers nor 
smoke. The ground covered with grass has a solid surface, and does not resemble full- 
er's earth kneaded with minced wool. Each object delineates itself by an apparent or 
real contour, but the landscapes of M. Daubigny offer little except spots of color placed 
in juxtaposition. It needs, however, but a few days' labor to make excellent, pictures 
of these insufficient preparations." — Th£ophile Gautier, Abecedaire du Salon de 1861. 

" The art of this illustrious master consists in choosing well a bit of country and 
painting it as it is ; enclosing in its frame all the simple and naive poetry which 
it contains. No effects of studied light, no artificial and complicated composition, 
nothing which allures the eyes, surprises the mind, and crushes the littleness of 
man. No, it is the real hospitable and familiar country, without display or disguise, in 
which one finds himself so well off, and in which one is wrong not to live longer when 
he is there, to which Daubiany transports me without jolting each time that I stop be- 
fore one of his pictures. How willingly would we sojourn in that one, beside that 
fresh water, where the cows take their evening bath ! Night falls, the thrushes send 

forth their last cry, the nightingale begins to sing but pardon, I diverge." — 

Edmond About, Salon de 1864. 

Daubigny, Karl Pierre, son of the preceding, has received two 
medals at Paris and one at Philadelphia, where he exhibited " The 
Valley of Pourville, Normandy." 

Dauzats, Adrien. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux (1808-1868). Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor. Member of the jury for the admission 
of works at the London Exhibition, 1861. Studied with Gue, and 
devoted himself especially to water-colors and lithographs. Baron 
Taylor employed him in publishing his " Voyages pittoresques et 
romantiques dans l'ancienne France." He afterward traveled in 
France, Spain, Algiers, Egypt, and the northern countries of Europe. 
Hi- pictures are genre, and views of interiors, such as " Interior of a 
[tie at Cairo," "The Cathedral of Toledo," " The Spanish Gyp- 
sies," " A Fountain at Cairo," etc. His lithographs illustrative of 
his travels are very much esteemed. 

"To learned precision of drawing, to severe and free arrangement of composition, to 
irreproachable taste in decoration, he has added of his own will, and without awaiting 
the suggestion from critics, all that we admire in the finest colorists. lie treat! land- 
scapes as a master, his talent revels in full air, around the fountain of Cairo, u well 
as in the interiors of cathedrals. The little figures with which he people* his pictures 
have a correctness of movement and a local physiognomy which recall the best studies 
of Decamps. I shall never forget this child, clothed in green, who bears a basil] ; it is 
the Orient incarnated in a gamin." — Edmond About, Salon of 1864. 


David d' Angers, Pierre-Jean. (Fr.) Born at Angers (1789- 
1856). This celebrated sculptor was of a poor family, and after 
many difficulties reached Paris. At length he took the grand prix de 
Rome and went to Italy. The story of his life is interesting, but too 
long to be given here. As a sculptor he became famous, and his 
works are in many places. He executed forty-six grand statues, 
twenty-five smaller ones, more than fifty bas-reliefs, and over five hun- 
dred medallions, some of which are very large. The Museum of 
Angers possesses a collection of his models and many of his works. 
His bust of Lafayette is at Washington. 

Davioud, Gabriel-Jean-Antoine. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1823). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. This architect has been em- 
ployed in many works in Paris, which afford pleasure to all who 
go there. Among these are the kiosks, pavilions, and many of the 
attractive features of the Bois-de-Boulogne. With M. Bailly he con- 
structed the Pre-Catelan. Davioud also restored the mill of Long- 
champ. He decorated the most important squares of Paris, and con- 
structed the Fountain of Saint Michel. He has also been employed 
as the architect of many private buildings, remarkable for the ele- 
gance and distinction of their ornamentation. 

Davis, Henry W. B., A. K. A (Brit.) Born, 1833. He was edu- 
cated at the schools of the Royal Academy, gaining two medals in 
1854. In 1861 he sent to the Royal Academy his "Rough Pastur- 
age." For some years he lived at Boulogne, sending to the Royal 
Academy in 1862, " Midsummer," a view near Boulogne ; in 1803, 
"On the French Coast" ; in 1865, " The Strayed Herd" ; in 1866 
(when his studio was in London), "Spring Plowing"; in 1868, 
"An April Afternoon"; in 1869, "A Squall from the Sea, Picardy"; 
in 1870, "Dewy Eve" ; in 1871, " Moonrise" ; in 1872, "A Panic"; 
in 1873 (when he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy), 
" A Summer Afternoon " ; in 1874, " The End of the Day " ; in 1876, 
11 A Spring Morning" ; in 1877, " After Sundown " ; in 1878, " Mid- 
day Shelter"; several of which have been engraved. In 1872 he 
designed, in bronze, " A Trotting Bull," which was exhibited at the 
Royal Academy, and received a medal at the Exposition in Vienna in 
1873. His " Contentment " and " Approach of Night " were at the 
Paris Exposition of 1878. 

"This painter [H. W. B. Davis], whose work by its subject and treatment attests 
foreign influence, has given remarkable proof of the prudent progress which is com- 
moner in French than in English art. Having painted small-sized scenes for several 
years with great care and delicacy, he now gives the fruit of his study in a well-con- 
sidered and successful picture, ' The Strayed Herd,' on the fullest landscape scale." — 
Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

Deane, William Wood. (Brit.) (1825-1873.) Entered the 
schools of the Royal Academy in 1844, remaining some years and 
gaining a silver medal ; during the same period he w r as a pupil of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects, which branch of the profes- 


sion he Followed for some time, abandoning it entirely for water-color 
pointing and becoming an Associate Member of the Water-Color So- 
ciety. His pictures are chiefly architectural in subject and taken 
from continental edifices ; they arc carefully and faithfully executed; 
"The sketches from the hand of W. W. Dcano, many of them unfinished, have a 

eharm of Individual sympathy which no mere tuition, however careful, can supply 

In ■ sketch of a ' Bridge of Venice ' we see how delightfully the varying hues of hazy 
water are allowed to direct the whole scheme of color, rinding their way by some 
reflected process into the tones of the marble of the bridge itself and of the houses be- 
hind." — Art Journal, January, 1S74. 

Deas, Charles. (Am.) Born, 1818. Manifested a marked taste 
for art as a youth, studying under John Sanderson in Philadelphia, 
and in the schools of the National Academy, New York. In 1840 he 
visited the then far West, making many valuable sketches of Indian life 
and character. The later years of his life were clouded by mental 
derangement, and he died to art and the world many years before his 
actual death. He was a man of genius and of great promise. Among 
the more marked of his works, many of which are familiar in Amer- 
ica by engraving, are, "The Turkey-Shoot," "Long Jake," "The 
Wounded Pawnee," " Hunting on the Prairie," and "The Last Shot." 

Debay, Jean-Baptiste-Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Malines (1779- 
1864). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of the Academie 
des Beaux- Arts and of Chaudet. At Nantes he executed works for 
the Hotel de Ville and the Library. Among his works are an eques- 
trian statue of Louis XIV., for the city of Montpellier ; " Pericles," 
in the garden of the Tuileries ; " Charles Martel," at the Museum of 
Versailles; "Colbert," at the palace of the Luxembourg; " Saint 
Sebastian" at the church of Saint-Merri ; "Saint Matthew," at the 
Cathedral of Arras ; and some busts of celebrated men for the galleries 
of Versailles, as well as various other public monuments. 

Debay, Auguste Hyacinthe. (Fr.) Born at Nantes (1804- 
). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Painter and sculptor. 
This arti>t sent sculptures to the Salon from very early years, and in 
1824 he took the grand prize at l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts. While in 
Italy and after his return to France in 1830, until the time of his 
death, he sent many works to the Salon. Among his pictures are, 
" The Field of the Cloth of Gold" for the Museum of Versailles ; and 
"The Battle of Dreux " for the Museum of that city. Among his 
sculptures are the Mausoleums of the Archbishop Afire and the 
Countess of Damas, and the statue of Perrault, for the new Louvre. 
In 1843 he executed the twenty-four old men for the cupola of the 
church of St. Peter at Chaillot ; in 1801, the fronton of the Fountain 
of Saint Michel, ami many other important works. 

Decaisne, Henry. (Belgian.) Born at Brussels (1799-1852). 
Pupil of David Girodet and Gros. He drew well, and wa 
colorist Among his works may be mentioned, "The Death of Louis 
XIII.," "Belgium distributing Crowns to her Illustrious Sons" (at 


Brussels), "Henrietta of England received by Anne of Austria" 
(placed in the Gallery of the Trianon), " A Guardian Angel watching 
the Cradle of an Infant" (purchased for the Luxembourg). Decaisne 
also executed some decorative work. " Christ with the Little Chil- 
dren," in the church of St. Denis-du-Saint-Sacrament at Paris, was 
painted by him. 

, Decamps, Alexandre Gabriel. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1803-1860). 
Pupil of Pujol. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Painter of landscapes, 
animals, and genre subjects. When a child he was sent by his father 
to a lonely place in Picardy, where he was shut off from all compan- 
ionship but that of peasants ; spoke a patois, hunted bird's-nests, and 
roamed the woods and fields for three years. The effects of this ex- 
perience clung to him through life ; he loved rough and illiterate 
people, to the detriment of culture and refinement. He disliked study, 
and unfortunately for him some of his early works found a market 
with such readiness as to lead him to feel further application unne- 
cessary. He regretted this later, and says himself, " I was received in 
the atelier of M. Abel de Pujol. I worked willingly at the beginning. 
Unfortunately my master, who was kind and indulgent, and absorbed 
in his own labors, was little qualified to make me understand the 
utility and importance of studies which to me seemed little less than 
monotonous. I took a dislike to the work and quitted the atelier. I 
tried at home some little pictures, they were bought, and my education 
as a painter was missed." In spite of all this he was in some regards 
a great artist, though saddened by his ignorance of academic art, and 
his incapacity to do all that he wished to do. He was thrown from 
his horse and killed while hunting in the forest of Fontainebleau. M. 
Chesneau, in the " Chefs d'Ecole," says of Decamps : — 

"When we descend deeply into this individuality, which avoided alike tenderness, 
servility, and arrogance, we find, veiled by the usages of the world, a soul profoundly sad. 
Decamps paid by the trouble of his artistic conscience the want of moral energy which 
made him leave off study too early. Cruel chastisement for an hour of weakness at the 
decisive time ! he lived with the crushing certainty that he had not expressed what was 
in him ; he died with the conviction of having left his work undone." 

Coming, as Decamps did, into the age of " classicism," he may be 
said to have originated a manner of painting of which there are good 
examples in the Louvre. The works of Decamps are so numerous 
that no satisfactory list can be given here. Paul Mantz calls the Salon 
of 1839 " one of the happiest dates of his life." " The Punishment 
of the Hooks," " Executioners at the Door of a Prison," and " Children 
playing with Turtles " were exhibited that year. His representations 
of Oriental life were characterized by striking lights and effective con- 
tours. At the Johnston sale, New" York, 1876, "The Suicide" (15 
by 21) sold for $2,900, and "The Turkish Patrol, Smyrna," one of 
his best-known works (29 by 36), brought $ 8,350. A repetition of 
the last was sold in Paris in 1861 for 25,000 francs. At the Lehon 
sale, Paris, 1861, "Going out from School, — Turkish" (water-color) 


sold for 34,000 francs ; it was signed and dated 1841. After the death 
of Decamps there was a sale of the unfinished works in his stndio. 
The most complete of these, " The Good Samaritan " (93 by 74 centi- 
meters) sold for 23,600 francs ; "During the Harvest" (1 15 by 165 
centimeters), for 22,000 francs. At the Sale Albert, in 1861, "The 
Ass and the Wise Dogs," sold by the artist for about 4,000 francs, was 
resold for 27,000 francs ! Among his best pictures are, " The Siege of 
Clermont" (1842), "The Heron," and "The Desert" (1849). 

" The distinctive qualities of Decamps may be very briefly enumerated. He had deep 
pathos and poetry, and was profoundly moved by a certain kind of roughness and wild- 
ness in nature and in men ; he was a powerful and masterly colorist, and his painting 
is, in its way, as excellent as it is original His composition is often abrupt and oven 
awkward, but the awkwardness is always essential to the expression, and has an important 
bearing upon his meaning. He had an intense feeling for landscape, but his knowledge 
of it is not to be estimated by his imaginary compositions, which are often empty and 
bad, if considered with reference to nature, though never without artistic significance. 
He never drew accurately, but his drawing has higher merits than accuracy, — it is pas- 
sionate and full of life. He made valuable experiments in technical matters, which, 
although producing at first much vain imitation in others, have left results in many 
respects beneficial ; and he awakened a new interest in picturesque men and things. 
His enjoyment of country life was without affectation. He had real genius, and saw 
nature for himself, — painting, however, not so much the facts, as his impression of the 
facts. Even his imitative faculty, which often showed itself in passages of astonishing 
force, always depended far more on his powerful interpretation than on copyism. He 
was as great as Troyon, and quite incomparably greater than most of his other contempo- 
raries." — Hamerton, Contemporary French Painters. 

De Cock, Xavier. (Belgian.) Born at Ghent. Medal at Paris, 
1857. At the Salon of 1876 he exhibited " A Forest " and " Cows" ; 
in 1875, "A Brook" and the same subjects as above ; in 1874, still 
other "Cows," "A Forest," and "Harvesters"; in 1873, " Herd of 
Cows" and " Sheep, Autumn" ; and in 1872, "Effect of Autumn" 
and "Cows and Goats." At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited "A Flock 
of Sheep, in Autumn." At the exposition of the same year was seen 
his " Cows arriving at the Pasture." 

" The qualities of brio and brilliancy which Xavier de Cock seeks first of all, are un- 
happily obtained at the expense of harmony, and his intense greens are sometimes out 
of tune. Without doubt, the verdure of moist pastures lights up and is brilliant under 
the action of the sun, but there are also some shaded parts ; and failing to give a suffi- 
cient importance to the half-tints, the artist produces a sharpness by his sudden tran- 
sition from the intense black of the shade to the living green of the light. In his ' For- 
ests' De Cock seems to neglect the drawing systematically; he constructs his trees 
with a carelessness which astonishes us, since he has often painted the interior of a 
wood in a manner which leaves nothing to desire in this direction. He has evidently 
done this with an intuition, and thinks in dissimulating the forms to give more charm 
to the vibrating appearance of the foliage. We believe that he has chosen a wrong 
method, or that, at the least, he exaggerates his principle." — Rene Menard, L'Art, 

De Cock, Ce*sar. (Belgian.) Born at Ghent. Medals at Paris, 
L867 and '60. Painter of landscapes. At the Salon of 1877 he ex- 
hibited " A Little Wood, at Yille d'Avray " and " The Banks of 


the Epte" ; in 1872, "Springtime in the Wood" and "A River 
through a Wood"; in 1869, "The End of a Day in the Wood at 
Longueville, Normandy " and " The Morning in the Wood, Sevres." 
At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " The End of Day in the Wood " 
and " A Little River at Pont-1'Eveque," besides some sketches. Mr. 
T. G. Appleton sent to the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, 1878, " A Land- 
scape " by this artist. 

" Caesar de Cock is a truly original painter. While most painters prefer the warm and 
ripe colors of autumn, Caesar de Cock has a sort of juvenile passion for the dpres saveurs 
and the exquisite freshness of the springtime. He loves the depths of the woods, the 
verdant thickets, in the month of May, the copses which put forth in the month of 
April. He renders with extreme skill the downy softness of the young shoots, the un- 
decided form of the bushes only half clothed with their new leaves, the multitude of 
young stalks which encumber the coppices, the shadowed parts through which one can 
sometimes get glimj^ses of light, — all this without confusion, without minuteness, — 
with the precision of an eye accustomed to see all the details without losing the effect 
of the whole, and with all the ease of a young and bold brush which nothing embar- 
rasses. De Cock is not an imitator, he is an original painter, for whom one may predict 
a brilliant future." — Ernest Duvergier de Hauranne, Revue des Deux Mondes, June, 

De Coninck, Pierre. (Fr.) Born at Meteren. Medals 1866, '68, 
and '73. Pupil of Cogniet. In 1877 he sent to the Salon, " Moccoli, — 
the End of the Carnival at Rome " and " A Studious Little Girl " ; in 
1876, "Portrait of a Trappist " and "A Little Charmer" ; in 1875, 
" Pastorella," " Ave Maria," and " The Friend of the Little Birds." 
At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited some portraits of children and 
" Cornelia." 

Decorchemont, Emile. (Fr.) Born at Saint-Pierre-d'Autils. 
Pupil of A. Millet and A. Dumont. Medal of the third class in 
1878, when he exhibited a statue, plaster, " Orestes pursued by the 
Furies" ; in 1877, " A Young Martyr" (plaster statue). 

Dedreux, Alfred. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1812 - 1860). Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Cogniet. A genre painter. 
His portraits were also well considered. He painted a few historical 
subjects, such as " The Martyrdom of Saint Hippolytus," " The Bat- 
tle of Bauge," etc. Several of his works are at the Leipsic Museum. 
At the Lehon sale, Paris, 1861, the "Falcon-Hunt" and the "De- 
parture for the Chase" brought 3,500 francs each, and the "Fox- 
Ilunt," 7,000 francs. 

Defaux, Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Bercy. Medals in 1874 and 
'75. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "From Honfleur to Pennede- 
pie " and " Sabliere, in the Forest of Fontainebleau " ; in 1876, " The 
Plateau of Belle-Croix, Forest of Fontainebleau " and " The Banks of 
the Loing, — a Snowy Day" ; in 1878, "A Spring Morning at Cer- 
nay " and "A View behind the Mill Godard, at Cernay." 

Defregger, Franz. (Ger.) Born at Stronach, 1835. Member of the 
Munich Academy. Great gold medal at Munich, and great and small 
gold medals at Berlin. Genre painter. Early in life he carved in 


I then studied sculpture under Professor Stoltz, who saw that 
the young artist ought to be a painter. Accordingly he went to 
Munich, and Btudied two years, then to Paris for two more years, 
hi 1866 he entered Piloty's studio. His subjects are principally from 
every -day life in the Tyrol. He has great technical skill, humor, and 
the power of giving reality to whatever he represents. He has painted 
a series of pictures illustrative of the Tyrolese struggle for freedom, 
one of which, called " Tyrolese Landstunn returning from the War of 
1809,** is in the National Gallery at Berlin. Among his works are 
the " Speckbacher," " The Prize Horse" (one of his fine pictures, and 
owned in New York), " Saying Grace," and " The Wrestlers." 

" One who observes his pictures does not easily forget the powerful impression which 
they make. He does not attempt to give an effect of great passion or uncontrollable 
enthusiasm to the weather-beaten faces which he depicts ; he gives, instead, a cold, hard 
energy.'' — R. D. t Zeitschrift fiir bildende Kuiist, 1S75. 

" Defregger has justly earned a foremost position for compositions taken from peasant 
life. Truth to nature, admirable color, texture, and character all seem to be in equal pro- 
portions. He selects many of his subjects from the picturesque life of the Tyrol, and 
each one of his paintings is inspired by a distinct individuality of its own. We are not 
constantly confronted by the same faces doing service in different pictures, a weakness 
too common with some artists, but every composition seems a new conception ; De- 
fregger finds the phases of human nature so infinitely various that he rarely repeats 
himself. He seems also to have a keen insight into the character of animals, and the 
action and expression of his dogs and horses appear almost human." — S. G. W. Benja- 
min - , Contemporary Art in Etirope. 

Degeorge, Charles-Jean-Marie. (Fr.) Born at Lyons. Prix de 
. 1866. Medals in 1872 and '75. Pupil of Duret, H. Flan- 
drin, and JoufTroy. At Paris, in 1877, he exhibited a portrait bust in 
bronze ; in 1876, two portrait busts, one being that of H. Regnault ; 
in 1876, a marble statue, " The Young Aristotle" ; and in 1874, mar- 
ble bust of Stanislaus Julien. 

Deger, Ernest. (Gcr.) Born at Bockenheim, 1809. Member of 
the Academies of Munich and Berlin, and Professor at the School of 
Fine Arts at Munich. Pupil at the Academy of Ditsseldorf, under 
Schadow. TLis artist is one of the company who, with Overbeck at 
their head, were called " Nazarites." When the Count of Furstem- 
berg-Stammheim made a vow to build the church of St. Apollinaris 
at Remagen, on the Rhine, he employed Deger ; some of whose most 
important works are in that church. The Emperor of Germany com- 
missioned him to decorate the chapel of the chateau of Stolzenfels. 
Deger has lent a few works to the Paris Salons. In the Leipsic 
Museum ifl a colored sketch of his picture of the "Fall of Man/' at 

De Haas, William Frederick. (Dutch-Am.) Born at Rotter- 
dam. 1830. Brother of M. F. II. De Haas. Belongs to an artistic 
family, and began at an early age to sketch from nature. Was ;t 
student of the Academy of Fine Art-, Rotterdam, and pupil of Bos- 
boom at the Hague. Left Holland in 1854, and settled in New 


York, giving his entire attention to the painting of coast scenery. 
His " Scene on the Coast of Maine " belongs to Mrs. Edward 0. Bird 
of New York ; his " Old Orchard Beach " to Major Theodore Y. Gibbs. 
He exhibited at the National Academy, New York, in 1867, " Sunrise 
on the Susquehanna" ; in 1874, "Fishing-Boats off Mt. Desert" and 
" Boon Island, Coast of Maine " ; in 1875, " Midsummer Noon, Bid- 
deford Beach, Coast of Maine " ; in 1876, " Lower Harbor of Halifax, 
N. S.," and "Evening at Halifax" ; in 1877, " Narragansett Pier." 

De Haas, M. F. H., N. A. (Dutch-Am.) Born at Rotterdam, 
1832. Pupil of the Academy of Fine Arts of his native city. In 
1851 he went to London, where he remained a year, painting in water- 
color. Later he sketched on the English and Dutch coasts, and 
studied under Louis Meyer at The Hague for two years. In 1857 he 
received the appointment of Artist to the Dutch Navy. In 1859 he 
settled in New York, was elected Associate of the National Academy 
in 1863, and Academician in 1867, and was one of the original mem- 
bers of the American Society of Painters in Water-Colors in 1866. 

In 1867 he sent to the National Academy his " Farragut's Fleet 
passing the Forts below New Orleans" ; in 1868, " Off the Coast of 
France " ; in 1869, " The Yacht Dauntless off Dover, England " 
(painted for James Gordon Bennett, Jr.) ; in 1870, " Deserting the 
Burning Ship " ; in 1871, " Sunset at Sea " ; in 1874, " The Breaking 
up of a Storm at Star Island " ; in 1875, " The Beach at West Hamp- 
ton " and " Storm on the Coast " (belonging to J. G. Brown) ; in 
1876, "Early Morning off the Coast" and "White Island Light- 
House" ; in 1877, "Drifted Ashore in a Fog" ; in 1878, "Beach at 
Granville, Coast of France " and " Fishing-Smacks in the English 
Channel." He was commended by the judges at the Centennial in 
1876. Among his other well-known works are, " Long Island Sound by 
Moonlight," " Passing Shower," " Near Newport," " The Shipwreck " 
(in the Belmont Gallery), and "A Marine View, Scarborough" 
(in the John Taylor Johnston Collection). His " Moonrise and Sun- 
set " belongs to E. D. Morgan ; " Dundle Cove, Isle of Wight," to 
H. P. Cooper ; and " Sunset at Cape Ann," to H. P. Kidder of Bos- 
ton. His " Rapids above Niagara " was at the Paris Exposition of 

" In the treatment of moonlight scenes at sea De Haas has but few equals His 

manner of handling is broad and vigorous. He confines his attention mostly to the 
painting of large pictures, and in these the bold and dashing vigor of his pencil has full 
scope His pencil is equally facile whether portraying a storm on the coast, moon- 
light effect at sea, or the brilliancy of the sunset hour." — Art Journal, October, 1875. 

" Mr. De Haas exhibited ' Moonrise and Sunset ' and 'A Brig hove-to for a Pilot,' both 
marked by a strong German manner, brilliant in effect and vigorous in treatment, though 
somewhat formal." — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centermial Exhibition 

" 'The Sunset at Cape Ann,' by M. F. H. De Haas, has been mentioned in our col- 
umns, and has already been seen by many of our citizens. It is a picture that is much 
admired, but it does not escape criticism. The effect of introducing the 'praise- 


meeting ' is, at least, questionable, — we think it is a fault. The large group of crowded 
figures on the summit of the rock, illumined by the red light of the setting sun, dis- 
tracts the attention, and by so much detracts from the unity and power of the specta- 
tor's impression. The glorious clouds, the splendor on the sea, and the steadfast, 
water-worn rocks are enough, and all that properly belong to the picture. The ' praise- 
meeting ' may, for aught the picture itself tells, be a picnic-party. This is a picture of 
a sunset, of which the ' praise-meeting ' is an adventitious and illegitimate feature. 
For the rest, it is grand, beautiful, and true, and may be looked at for a long time with- 
out satiety of interest." — Boston Advertiser. 

De Haas, J. H. L. {Belgian.') Of Brussels. Chevalier of the 
Order of Leopold. At the Latham sale, New York, 1878, "The 
Coming Storm, —Dutch Cattle " (37 by 62) sold for $ 2,725. At the 
British Institution, in 1873, he exhibited two pictures. One, repre- 
senting two cows, was very naturally, though somewhat sketchily, 
painted. The other was called " The Approaching Storm." At Phila- 
delphia, in 1876, was seen his " Cattle in the Meadows of Holland." 

'• [Thirteenth Exhibition of the New British Institution.] On entering, we find the 
place of honor at the left end of the gallery nobly filled by J. H. L. De Haas, one of the 
greatest of living animal-painters. A group of well-fed cattle, splendidly drawn and 
modeled, is resting, at summer-noon, under the watchful eye of a peasant-girl, on 
pastures which run down to the 'Sea-coast of Picardy.' The fidelity with which the 
breed of cattle is represented, the local truthfulness of the scene, and the solidity with 
which the whole is painted, must call forth the admiration of everyone.'' — London 
Art Journal, January, 1876. 

" 'International Exhibition, Conduit street] De Haas, whose cattle-pieces are so justly 
admired, is seen in considerable force. De Haas, who, in the landscape portion of his 
pictures, often seeks the aid of Verheyden, may be compared with the German Schleich, 
who combines with his mastery over cattle a pleasing facility in landscape. His ' Au- 
tumn,' with cattle standing in the water and rain-clouds overhead, is, in this respect, a 
fair example of his power." — London Art Journal, July, 1S76. 

Dehodencq, Alfred. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Cogniet. In 1877 he exhibited, at the 
Paris Salon, " The Story-Teller of Morocco, — Souvenir of Tangiers " ; 
in 1876, "The Raising of the Daughter of Jairus " ; in 1875, "The 
Reader " and portraits ; in 1874, " Dance of Negroes at Tangiers," 
"Arab Children playing with a Turtle," and "A Jewish Bride at 
Tangiers" ; in 1873, "Othello" and portraits ; in 1870, "A Jewish 
Fete at Tangiers " and a portrait. His " Course de taureaux en Es- 
pagne" (1850) is in the Luxembourg. At the Salon of 1878 he ex- 
hibited "Bacchus." 

Dehodencq, Edmond. (Fr.) Born at Cadiz of French parents. 
Pupil of his father. He has exhibited several works at the Paris 

Dejonghe, John Baptist. (Flemish.) Born at Courtrai (1788- 
1844). This artist was successful as a landscape-painter, and received 
medals at expositions in Paris, Lyons, Brussels, Amsterdam, The 
Hague, and Vienna. He was at the head of a school at Brussels. 

De Jonghe, Gustave. (Belgian.) Born at Courtrai, 1828. Gold 
medal at Antwerp, 1862. Medal at Paris, 1863. Pupil at the Acad- 


emy of Brussels under Navez. His parents died when he was young, 
and the Corporation of Courtrai granted him a small pension to aid 
him in pursuing his studies. Louis Gallait was his friend, and as- 
sisted him with advice and suggestions which helped to form his 
style. He essayed portraits, historical and sacred subjects, but later 
adopted genre scenes, upon which his fame rests. Among his works 
are, " Notre Dame de Bon Secours," " The Orphans and their God- 
mother," " The Twins," " Devotion " (1864), purchased by the Prin- 
cess Mathilde, and " Peep Bo ! " At the Royal Academy, London, in 
1875, he exhibited " The Birthday Wishes." 

De Kay, Helena (Mrs. R. Watson Gilder). (Am.) Living 
and painting in New York, she has exhibited at the National Acad- 
emy, since 1874, flower-pieces and decorative panels ; in 1878, she 
sent " The Young Mother." The only woman who is a member of 
the Society of American Artists, she contributed to its first exhibi- 
tion, in 1878, "The Last Arrow" (a figure-piece), also a picture of 
still-life and a portrait. 

Delaborde, Viscount Henri. (Fr.) Born at Rennes, 1811. 
Member of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Per- 
petual Secretary of the Academy of Fine Arts. Pupil of Delaroche. 
Among his pictures are, " The Confessions of St. Augustine" (1853), 
" The Death of St. Monica " (1838), etc. Nearly all are of religious 
subjects, a few being historical, such as " The Taking of Damietta." 

Delaborde is also a literary man, and has written several books 
upon the Fine Arts. 

Delacroix, Ferdinand-Victor-Eugene. (Fr.) Born at Charen- 
ton (1798-1863). Member of the Institute. Commander of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of Pierre Guerin, whose manner he aban- 
doned to become a " romanticist." His first picture, exhibited at the 
Salon, was that of "Dante and Virgil," in 1822. It was followed by 
"The Massacre of Scio " (1824), "The Death of the Doge Marino 
Faliero," " Greece on the Ruins of Missolonghi," and " Christ in the 
Garden of Olives" (1827). " The Death of Sardanapalus " is a very 
famous picture. Any proper list of his works would demand more 
space than can here be given. They embrace all sorts of subjects. 
At times he was obliged to execute small pictures for his support. He 
also did large decorative works, which are seen in the churches and 
galleries of France. His illustrations of "Faust" were approved by 
Goethe himself. He traveled in Spain, Algiers, and Morocco, and 
thus represented Eastern scenes in a manner unusual in his day. The 
prices of his pictures have become enormously large. His " Marino 
Faliero" was first sold for ,£400, and in late years brought ,£4,000. 
His "Amende Honorable " was sold to the Duke of Orleans for £60, 
and of late years £2,400 has been offered for it without being ac- 
cepted. In Paris, in 1874, his "Bride of Abydos" brought £1,282 ; 
"A Lion devouring a Rabbit," £ 1,408. At the Laurent-Richard 


sale, Puri>. 1873, " Medea " sold for £ 2,360. " The Convulsionnaires 
of Tangiera " represents lunatics who are more extreme even than the 
Dervishes in their behavior. It was sold in 1863 to the Marquis du 
Lau for 20,000 francs ; at the Fould sale it brought £1,940. At the 
Oppenlu-im sale, Talis, 1877, the Duke d'Aumale paid 70,500 francs for 
" The Two Foseari," by Delacroix. This artist has been called " the 
Victor Hugo of painting." At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, a 
sketch for his large picture of "Dante and Virgil" (13 by 19) sold 
for 5 75a 

" The most striking characteristic of the works of Delacroix is the force of the im- 
agination. His most moving dramas have not poetic truth alone ; they are evocations 
fixed on canvas. The painter makes nearly all his works without models. When he 
begins to tax his memory, it is only at rare moments that he hesitates. From positive 
forms and real expressions he takes only those most sympathetic with his own temper- 
ament, or his preconceived ideas ; he folds them according to his dreams, to his inven- 
tions, and treats them as slaves. Men, auimals, rocks, trees, seas, and clouds are, to 
his eyes, only the different words of the grand language of Creation ; and he opens the 
dictionary no oftener than a poet who is sure of himself will consult the Academy. 
For him all composition is the combination of exterior elements which he has seen, and 
which he colors with his own passions ; he lights his pictures with the lights of his 
soul .... That which makes Delacroix the greatest artist of the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and perhaps the last of the grand family, is that he unites all the faculties of the 
painter, the poet, and the historian by an innate power and a profound knowledge. He 
sows, with an abundance which astonishes the dramatist, the psychologist, and the 
Christian, human passions on his canvas and in the soul of the beholder like pernicious 
seeds. He recalls Rembrandt by the expression of his faces and the fascination of the 
effects of light, Veronese by the spirit, the charm, and the fineness of the color, Rubens 
by the splendor of the decorations and the bluster of the handling, and Raphael him- 
self by the harmonious and skillfully designed arrangement of the personages, Michael 
Angelo by the grandiose, and Ribera by the terrible. He seduces and carries off, turn by 
turn, the high intelligences and venturesome temperaments, by nobleness, audacity, 
pride, love of the beautiful and the heroic, by ruse, force, and infernal machinations. But 
he is, above all, the man of our time ; full of moral maladies, of betrayed hopes, of 
doubts, of torments, of sarcasms, of augers, and of tears ; the blindness of ignorance, 
the intrigues and clamors of envy, have not arrested him for an instant in his valiant 
and glorious course, and will never prevail against him with posterity." — Living Artists, 
Theophile Silvestre 

"Delacroix is a great colorist in point of original force, though not the most perfect 
in practice. It comes of his blood. He thinks, speaks, invents, in color. Subjects are 
chosen to admit of its prodigal use. He discharges it like a burst of fireworks. His 
pictures overpower by their fury of brush. For it he often neglects design. With the 
zeal of a revolutionist he bears the spectator away, or dashes him aside like an impetu- 
ous torrent He treats color as Buonarotti did design. No pupil can follow him. 
There is little beauty in it, less grace, no tenderness, and no faith ; but everywhere 
is seen a creative, untiring intellect, surging and foaming in a colored sea of passion. 
Delacroix delights in the dark side of life. Famine, imprisonment, martyrdom, tlie 
desolations of war, massacres, cruelties, orgies, tragedy; Hamlet. Macbeth, Othello; 
madness, melancholy, and crime, —these are the themes that inspire his brush. To 
Dante's ' Inferno ' he turns for choicest topics. Tasso's insanity, Byron's ravings, the 
society of madmen, or madness turned inward to gnaw upon itself, the latent ferocity of 
wild beasts, alike charm him. - s head in the Luxembourg ; a mere si 

tion in form and color, yet exhibiting this pitiless, blood-dreaming animal in its molt 
sinister aspect Look at his ' Massacre of Scio,' for a revolting accumulation of the 


horrors of war ; nothing pathetic, nothing exalted as patriotism, or sublime in resigna- 
tion, but a reveling in the atrocious, cruel, and ensanguined, without any palliation by 
way of idealism in design. Instead, every possible heightening of physical horror, with 
crude, coarse, contrasted, loaded colors, and scattered lights, shocking and confusing 

the senses Mythology, instead of beautiful fable, affords him a copious supply 

of monsters, and slaughter of every variety His peculiar powers culminate in 

the ' Apollo triumphing over Python,' which occupies the post of honor in the ceiling of 
the Apollo Gallery of the Louvre. Here he absolutely creates a light glowing with the 
tire of the combat. He is borne away by the intensity of his conceptions, he looms up 
as a great dramatic genius of unbalanced powers ; the focus of the strongest and deepest 
qualities of the national proclivities in art. Like all great artists, he loves space. But 
he also has the ability to put greatness into small compass. When called on to deco- 
rate St. Sulpice or the chapel of St. Denis du Sacrament in the Marais, the calmer re- 
quirements of religious art failed to temper his impetuous palette. The Virgin is frantic 

with earthly woe. Mary Magdalene gives herself up to equally tragic sorrow 

Delacroix was an enigma to his countrymen at large, for, although genuinely French 
in temperament and thought, his range of imagination was above theirs. He had no 
sympathy whatever with the worship of the ' pretty.' The large and terrible pleased 
him most. If his genius had been qualified by grace, could he have attained harmony 
in coloring, and unity of graduated lights focused to the emphatic point, and given more 
heed to aesthetic principles in composition, — he might have rivaled Paul Veronese, 
whom he so admired as to assert that to him he owed everything. As it is, he cannot 
be called the equal of the brilliant Venetian. Although color was a vital force in him, 
and also creative design, neither was under perfect control. Draperies are often sketchy, 
leathery-like, and ill-adjusted, encumbering and obscuring rather than suggesting form 
and life. His great triumphs are in wall decoration, whether in fresco or oil. But his 
tints are often dry, crude, dead, lack transparency, and do not harmoniously blend. 
Flesh-hues, in his easel work, are apt to be cold and clayey. Lights, too, are confused 
and scattered. There is also frequent want of unity of tone. His feeling for color is 
based on passion more than sentiment; splendid, but coarse. Still everything he 
touches bears a master's solid impress." — Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

Delacroix, Henri Eugene. (Fr.) Born at Solesmes, near Cam- 
brai. Pupil of Cabanel. At the Paris Salon of 1870 lie exhibited 
" The Death of Jacob " and the " Two Foscari." He was then com- 
missioned to paint a " Way of the Cross " for the church at Solesmes. 
At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "Prometheus" ; in 1876, "The 
Eebellious Angels," purchased by the State; in 1875, "Dante and 
Virgil," now in the Museum of Cambrai ; and in 1878, " Christ in 
the Tomb." 

Delaplanche, Eugene. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1836. Several 
medals. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Medal of honor in 
1878. This sculptor was a pupil of Duret, and took the grand prix 
de Rome in 1864. His first two statues are in the Museum of Mar- 
seilles, " A Child on a Turtle " and " A Pecoravo.'*' At the Luxem- 
bourg is his " Eve after the Fall " and " The Message of Love " (statues 
in marble). Among his other works are, " St. Agnes " (marble statue, 
purchased by the Ministry of the Fine Arts), " Music " (statue in 
silvered bronze), " Maternal Education" (group in marble), and "La 
Vierge au lys " (statue in marble). Delaplanche has also executed, 
in public monuments in Paris, a fronton at the Tuileries ; at the 
church of St. Eustache, a statue of St. Agnes, in stone ; at the 


church of St. Joseph, three statues in stone, representing the Virgin, 

the Infant Jesus, and St. Joseph; abas-relief of " Meditation" in a 
pavilion of the Tuileries ; two decorative figures in the avant foyer 
of the New Opera-House, Paris ; "Africa," at the Palace of the Troca- 

dero ; etc. At Boulogne-sur-Mer are also several monumental sculp- 
tures by Delaplanche. Besides the works mentioned he has made 
many portrait busts and ideal works of less importance. His " Music," 
when exhibited at the Salon of 1877, attracted much attention. It 
was praised by Mario Proth in his "Voyage au Pays des Peintres," 
and by Oh. Timbal in the " Gazette des Beaux-Arts," June, 1877, who 
. " It certainly remains one of the most perfect productions of art 
of our time.'' Delaplanche has recently modeled in relief the dec- 
orations of some exquisite vases of the Haviland faience. (The 
makers of this faience received from the jury of the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1878 a gold medal and the Cross of the Legion of Honor.) 
Some of the vases by Delaplanche which were exhibited at Philadel- 
phia in 1876 were cliefs-oVazuvre, and quite sufficient to make a reputa- 
tion for an artist not already distinguished. Each piece of faience 
modeled by this sculptor bears his name, and his designs are never 

/> Delaroche, Hippolyte, called " Paul." (Fr.) Born at Paris (1797 - 
1856). Member of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. 
Professor of Painting at l'licole des Beaux- Arts after 1833. Pupil of 
Baron Gros. He made his debut at the Salon of 1819, with "Naph- 
tali in the Desert." The largest work of this famous painter is the 
" Hemicycle," in the theater of the Palace of the Beaux- Arts, Paris. 
It contains seventy-five life-size figures, and employed him three years. 
"We cannot here give any adequate account of his life and works, of 
which so much has been written ; we can only suggest what will 
assist one to enjoy his pictures, and give a few prices of his works in 
these days. At the San Donato sale his " Lady Jane Grey " sold for 
110,000 francs. At the Norzy sale, Paris. 1860, "Jesus in the Gar- 
den of Olives " sold for 8,000 francs. At a London sale in 1874, a 
Portrait of Napoleon I., from the collection of Napoleon III., 
brought £ 430. At the Delessert sale, 1869, " St. Cecilia " sold for 
.£840. At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, the " Nymph at the 
Fountain " (8 by 10), from the Pourtales sale, brought $ 1,050, and a 
study for the portrait of Philibert Delorme, architect, for the " Hemi- 
cycle "' (<i by ~> , S 400. At the Walters Gallery, Baltimore, is a large 
and interesting work by Delaroche ; it is his finished study, from 
which he and his scholars painted the "Hemicycle" ; also, a picture 
executed in part by Delaroche and completed by Jalabert. 

"As a painter, technically considered, Delaroche was very careful and very skillful. 
Before painting a picture he made studies of the composition and of all the parts, and 
often also wax models of the groups. He was slow and conscientious in work, and 
liked to work alone; he did not care for society, and, though not an unhappy man, was 
decidedly a melancholy one. He seems to have posseesed talent and courage rather than 


genius ; his works, however, are popular, and deservedly. Delaroche is one of the best 
artists who, in these days, have come down to the popular understanding. His execu- 
tion has never any of the wonderful subtlety or short-hand, none of the suggestion of 
really great work, which is readable only by the few ; but then it also avoids most of the 
faults which often attend a popular manner. It is simple and clear, not very artistic, 
and certainly not at all poetical, though there is poetry, or a feeling for poetry, which is 
not quite the same thing, in Delaroche's choice and treatment of subjects. For instance, 
in his ' Napoleon crossing the Alps,' the artist shows that he understands the poetry 
of the simple fact, and Napoleon pensive on his mule, which another hand is lead- 
ing, affects us more than David's general on his imaginary charger. Delaroche was 
not a creative poet, but, like some other elevated minds, had a sense of the poetical 
element in reality. When he abandons reality it is to his disadvantage. I have not 
seen his ' Hemicycle ' for some years, but remember being impressed rather with the 
trained steadiness of the execution than any vitality in the idea. A picture where men 
of different epochs are represented together must always seem incongruous, and the 
same objection applies to the Homeric ceiling of Ingres." —Philip Gilbert Hamer- 
ton, Painting in France. 

"Delaroche is another exceptional artist, noteworthy for his poetical conception of 
historical themes, his elevated religious spirit, and his chaste manner. He is an acade- 
mician, with a mind enlarged by study, and governed by purer taste than that about 

him He composed well, even eloquently ; drew poems, elaborated academic work, 

but with less of that consciousness of hard toil which is apparent with Ingres ; had a 
noble sense of the human figure, an elevated appreciation of the true purposes of art : 
was tranquil and dignified, and would have been a great painter had his talents for col- 
oring been equal to his other merits. In this respect he fails. His color is heavy, posi- 
tive, and speechless. It even tells against the intellectual motives of his pictures. Like 
most moderns, he appears best in engraving. The chiefs of the old masters lose by it. 
.... The conscientious career of Delaroche is an instructive example in his school. His 
temperament being melancholy, the subjects chosen by him were generally of that 
stamp. There was in him no spontaneity of execution, but rather slow, toilsome com- 
position ; a continual struggle towards an ideal which, as in everything human, kept 
ever the same distance from the painter's easel. Each acquisition lifted the artist's 
standard a step higher. An eclectic student, laboring to arouse emotion by dramatic 
incidents taken quite as often from foreign history as his own, mostly pathetic and 
with a profound moral, having a sympathy with suffering, viewing facts in their poetical 
aspect, Delaroche is a man of striking talents and fine sensibilities, but not a genius 
in its large meaning. His intellectual faculties were so well balanced that he could 
have won distinction in any other career." — Jarves, Art Thoiights. 

Delaunay, Jules Elie. (Fr.) Born at Nantes. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Pupil of H. Flandrin and Laniothe. At the Salon 
of 1877 he exhibited two portraits ; in 1876, "Ixion cast into Hades " 
and a portrait ; in 1875 and 74, portraits. The " Communion of the 
Apostles" (1865) is in the Luxembourg ; also " The Pest at Home " 
(1869), « The Death of Nissus " (1870), and " Diana " (1872). 

Delobbe, Francois-Alfred. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Medals in 
1874 and '75. Pupil of Lucas and Bouguereau. At the Salon of 
1877 he exhibited " Springtime " and a portrait ; in 1876, " The Vir- 
gin and Child " and a portrait ; in 1875, "Pyramus and Thisbe," " A 
Daughter of the Fields," and a portrait ; in 1874, "Country Music," 
" The Return from the Fields, at Saint-Bi iac," and " Marie Jeannic, 
— Souvenir of Finistcre " ; and in 1878, " Lobster-Fishing " and 
" The Last Arrow." 


Delort, Charles-Edouard. (Fr.) Born at N lines. Medal in 
L875. Pupil of Gleyre ami Gerome, His picture which gained the 
medal was the " Embarkation of Manon Lescaut." His picture in 
1876 was, " Alter the Breakfast, — a Wedding at Fontainebleau." At 
the Walters Gallery, Baltimore, is his "Carnival at Antwerp." 

Demi, Emilio. (Ital.) Born in Leghorn (1798). Among the 
best works of this famous sculptor are the statue of " Galileo in- 
structing his Pupils," in the University of Pisa ; "A Mother teaching 
her Children," in the sacristy of the church of Soccorso in Leghorn ; 
a statue of Dante in the Accademia Labronica, and a second statue of 
the same poet in the Loggia of the Uffizi. 

Dengler, Frank. (Am.) Born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 1853. Going 
abroad at an early age for the purpose of study, he entered the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts in Munich under Professor Knabl, and received, in 
1874, the large silver medal of that institution for his group repre- 
senting the " Sleeping Beauty," which was exhibited the same year in 
Cincinnati, and in Boston in 1875. Returning to America, he settled 
in Boston, was elected a member of the Boston Art Club, and was, 
for a short period, instructor in modeling in the School of the Art 
Museum, a position which he was forced to resign in 1877 by reason 
of ill-health. He went therefrom to Cincinnati and to Covington, 
Ky., where he still remains, unable to resume his labors. His group, 
" Azzo and Imelda," from Mrs. Hemans' poem, was on exhibition in 
Cincinnati in 1877. Among his portrait busts are those of William 
M. Chase, Currier, and other American artists of the Munich school. 
He has also executed ideal busts and statuettes, terra-cotta vases, etc. 
He designed an ideal head of " America," a " Wounded Duelist " and 
a sketch for the Sumner statue, which came too late for competition. 

" Dengler's work is distinguished for combining a remarkable truthfulness of minutiae 

and detail with a bold and fearless freedom and breadth of handling His ideal 

figures, his vase decorations, and modeling show also a warm poetic love of beauty of 
form in rest and motion." —Boston Transcript, September 22, 1877. 

Denneulin, Jules. (Fr.) Born at Lille. Medal in 1875. Pupil 
of Colas. In 1877 he exhibited "A Wedding-Dinner"; in 1876, 
"Repose of Hunters n ; in 1875, " Triste recette ! " 

Deschamps, Louis. (Fr.) Born at Montelimar. Medal in 1877 
for " The Poor Little Girl " and a portrait of General Charetou, Sen- 
ator. Deschamps is a pupil of Cabanel. In 1878 he exhibited a por- 
trait, " The Little Winnower defending his Grain." 

Desgoffe, Blaise- Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Two Salon 
in dais. Pupil of Flandrin. This painter represents still-life, and 
reproduces works of art in a surprising manner. His representations 
of metals of different sorts is remarkable, and was especially well 
shown in his picture at the Salon of 1877, which represented " The 
Helmet and the Shield of Gold of Charles IX., the Spur of Charle- 
magne, a Carbine of the Fifteenth Century, a Missal and a Gate 


of the Gallery of Apollo at the Louvre." At the Luxembourg is 
"A Vase of Amethyst, Sixteenth Century" (1859); "A Vase of 
Rock Crystal, Sixteenth Century, a Purse of Henry II., and an Enamel 
of Jean Limousin" (1863) ; etc. In 1876 he exhibited at the Salon 
" Tea in the Room of an Artist " and " An Old Pear- Tree " ; in 1874, 
" An Engraved Rock Crystal (Sixteenth Century), Agates, and En- 
amels, Poignard of Philippe II., Collar of Louis XIII.," etc., be- 
longing to Miss Wolfe, also " Porcelains of Saxony, and other Por- 
celains, a Chalice, a Smyrna Carpet " (objects in the collection 
of the Count Welles de La Valette, to whom the picture belonged), 
and " A Frieze of Sculptured Wood, a Head of Bronze," etc. Among 
his other works are, " Fruits and Jewels " (1868), " Flowers and Fruits 
at the Foot of a Venetian Glass " (1866), etc. Many of his pictures 
represent objects of art in the Louvre, and are very beautiful. At the 
Johnston sale, 1876, " Objects of Art " (33 by 24) sold for $1,300. At 
the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, is his " Souvenirs of the Sixteenth 
and Seventeenth Centuries " (1874). One of his works, representing a 
Moorish Interior, is in the Walters Gallery, Baltimore. At the Salon 
of 1878 he exhibited " A Vase, Mirror, Book, and Flowers." 

" Desgoffe, the painter of still-life, for thorough imitation of jewels, tapestries, objects of 
art, and precious things in general, — he never wastes time on vulgar things, — excels even 
Dutchmen. Perfect in design, truthful iu color, finished to microscopic exactness of 
detail, he leaves the spectator nothing to desire in these respects. But it is unsatisfactory 
painting. The impression is of intense labor and Chinese profitless endurance at imita- 
tion. There is no vital sense of the things given. They are flat, hard, polished, dumb 
counterfeits. Philippe Rousseau, in the same line, with a freer brush restores the con- 
sciousness of the things themselves to us, which is a more genuine triumph." — Jarves, 
Art Thoughts. 

" One of Flandrin's pupils, Blaise Desgoffe, has this claim to attention, that he is the 
most skillful imitator of near objects now alive in the world. Of course such art as his 
does not admit of invention ; and the highest artistic qualities, except the sense of 
color, are almost uncalled for here ; but there is a notable difference between Desgoffe's 
choice of subject and that of vulgar painters of still-life. Instead of imitating two- 
penny beer-bottles, he copies fine vases of crystal and rare old enamels ; instead of 
representing kitchen utensils, he reproduces the most precious ivories and agates in the 
Louvre. His art is therefore noble in its way, being the best use of a sort of talent 
hitherto often thrown away upon work unworthy of it. Desgoffe's pictures are precious 
copies of precious things. As to their finish, it goes even beyond our most perfect pre- 
Raphaelite work. As in all first-rate painting, there is no parade of detail, and a care- 
less spectator might easily pass these pictures without suspecting that there was any 
extraordinary amount of it in them ; but, after studying them for half an hour, one's 
astonishment grows and grows. Every vein in every agate is studied to the finest of its 
curves, every surface imitated to the most accurate expression of the exact degree of 
its convexity; every reflection painted in its full detail. Take a single instance; the 
principal object in one of Ins pictures is a splendid vase of rock-crystal, of the four- 
teenth century. On several of its facets is the reflection of an unseen window. Land- 
seer would have represented those with spots of pure white ; Millais with spots of pale 
gray, with a touch of white for the highest light, the largest of them shaped to a rough 
expression of tlie window reflected, and others without form. But Desgoffe paints every 
one of them thoroughly ; the panes of glass in the window being quite perfectly reflected 
in the curving surface of the crystal over and over again, with all the modifications 


resulting from change of place. There is not the slightest attempt in any part of these 
works to substitute clever manipulations for fair study and imitation Even Hol- 
land herself never produced so marvelous an imitator." — Philip Gilbert Hamerton, 
Painting in France. 

Desgoffe, Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1805. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Ingres. Made his debut at the Salon 
of \>34. From 1847 to '52 he was in Italy. At the Luxembourg ia 
his "Madness of Orestes" (1857). His pictures are mostly land- 
scapes, and many of them represent the scenery of Italy. He has 
also painted some religious subjects, such as " Saint Margaret," for 
the church of St. Peter at Dijon ; and "Jesus healing the Blind," 
church of Saint Nicolas du Chardonnet. The city of Paris com- 
missioned him to decorate the baptismal chapel of the last-named 
church, and that of the church of Saint Pierre du Gros-Caillou, also 
several works for the Gallery of Landscapes of the Hotel de Ville, and 
for the vestibule of the Library of Saint Genevieve. Among his 
other pictures are, " The Forest of Fleury," " The Environs of Na- 
ples," " The Roman Campagna," etc. 

Desnoyers, Auguste-Gaspard-Louis-Boucher. (Fr.) Born at 
Paris (1779-1857). This eminent engraver was elected a member 
of the Institute in 1816 ; was appointed First Engraver to the King 
in 1825 ; was made a Baron in 1828, and Chevalier of the Legion of 
Honor in 1835. His plates are very numerous. Many of them were 
after the works of Raphael, Da Vinci, and other Italian masters. 

Desprez, Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1799 -about 1870). Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Bosio. He obtained the 
grand prize in 1826. Among the works which he sent to Paris, while 
still a student at Rome, are the elegant bas-relief on the monument 
raised to Poussin, which represents the Shepherds of Arcadia, and the 
statue of " Innocence," which was purchased by Louis Philippe, and 
destroyed in H48. In 1834 he executed a statue of "Force," and 
one of General Foy in 1837 (for the Chamber of Deputies) ; in 
1^37. also, a colossal ''Saint Matthew," for the church of the Made- 
leine ; in 1845, " Diana at the Bath," cast in bronze, for the Champs 
ftysees, and other works of the same sort, too many to name here. 
prez has rarely exhibited at the Salons. He has made many por- 
trait busts, among them those of Puget, Brascassat, etc. Some of his 
works arc at Versailles and others at the Louvre. At the Paris Salon 
of 1872 he exhibited a statue, in marble, of " Enticement" ; in 1870, 
a bust, in marble, of tin- painter Brascaasat, for the city of Bordeaux. 
^ Detaille, Jean-Baptiste-Edouard. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1848. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Afeissonier. At the 
n of 1868 Detaille exhibited the " Halt of Infantry," which was 
much praised ; Edmond About called it "a jewel" in an article in 
■ dei Dens Blondes"; in 1869, the "Repose during the 
Drill, Camp St. Maur" won him a decided reputation, and he imme- 


diately received more orders than he could execute, and found a ready 
sale for every sketch which he chose to offer. In 1870 he sent to the 
Salon " An Engagement between the Cossacks and the Guards of 
Honor, 1814," which was not as much admired as the " Souvenir 
of Camp St. Maur" had been. During the Franco-German war 
Detaille was a secretary to General Appert, and did good service in 
making plans of the environs of Paris, of the positions of the enemy, 
and other topographical work ; at the same time he did not forget his 
sketching. In 1872 he had a picture which it would have been better 
not to exhibit at the Salon, but which won him a medal ; it was 
called f» The Conquerors," and represented some four-wheeled carts, 
drawn by lean horses, piled up with furniture of all sorts, pictures, 
clocks, etc., which had been taken from houses near Paris ; these vehi- 
cles were attended by soldiers and German-Jews, one of whom is car- 
rying a picture and explaining its value to a soldier. This work is 
well known by photographs. It is a winter scene, and the ground is 
covered with snow, while in the distance are seen the towers of Notre- 
Dame and Saint-Sulpice, and the dome of the Invalides. In 1873 
Detaille exhibited " The Retreat," and received his decoration ; in 
1874, " The Charge of the Ninth Regiment of Cuirassiers in the Vil- 
lage of Morsbronn, August 6, 1870, Day of Reichshoffen " ; in 1875, 
" The Passing Regiment, Paris, December, 1874" (afterwards exhibited 
in Brussels, and purchased for the Corcoran Gallery at Washington) ; 
in 1876, "A Reconnoiter " ; in 1877, "Salute to the Wounded," a 
famous work (belonging to Mr. Hawk of New York), a water- 
color called the " Souvenir of the Camp of Villeneuve-l'Etang " (be- 
longing to M. Wilson), and " A Hussar," also in water-color. " French 
Cuirassiers bringing in Bavarian Prisoners " (water- colors) is at the 
Corcoran Gallery. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Bonaparte in 
Egypt." " French Cavalry- Man " belongs to Jeremiah Milbank of 
New York. 

" But Edouard Detaille, a pupil of Meissonier, seems to be the coming military artist 
of France. ' Le Regiment qui passe' is quite a remarkable production; while the 
painting for the Salon of 1876, ' En Reconnaissance,' merits all the attention it has re- 
ceived. Artistic composition, correct color, and nervous treatment are combined with 
thorough perception of the war spirit and knowledge of military details." — S. G. W. 
Benjamin, Contemporary Art in Europe. 

"This work, ' En Retraite,' exhibited five years after the first picture of M. Detaille 
appeared at the Salon, makes all the praises which have been given to this young artist 
appear reasonable. The hopes which his first pictures excited have been fnlly realized. 
He has been able to resist the temptations which success engenders ; he has continued 
to work after nature, to study the rules of composition, and to strengthen himself in 

drawing Detaille has not yet said his last word, moreover ; lie is so young, he is 

so studious, that one is warranted to hope that his talent, which revealed itself so early, 
which affirmed itself at the age when one ordinarily is still in the atelier, will develop 
itself in the way which will be best for him and will not delay its action." — George3 
Duplessis, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, May, 1874. 

" Detaille is the Desgoffe of military painting. He recalls to us that famous general 
of a former time who said, on the evening of a campaign, ' We are ready, quite ready ; 


we miss not a gaiter button.' The soldiers of Detaille are of this sort. Their equipment 
is complete, the cuirasses are well polished, and the horses conscientiously curried. 
Not a grain of dust ! The hairs are laid according to ride, and the packages all in order. 
The sergeant of the week finds nothing to criticise in this correct arrangement. The 
mud Itself takes meritorious care to speckle regularly the legs of the boots and the bot- 
toms of the pantaloons, which are fringed in the march with the greatest regularity. 
Not a gaiter button is missing, but the soldier is wanting in character, in movement, 
and in life. Although they seem to come from the oven of the enameler, the pretty 
soldiers of Detaille have never seen the fire." — Henry Houssaye, Revue des Deux Mondes, 
June, 1S77. 

Deventer, J. F. van. (Dutch.) Of The Hague. Medal at Phila- 
delphia, where he exhibited a " Holland Landscape," which was spe- 
cially commended by Mr. Weir in his report. 

Deveria, Eugene-Francois-Marie-Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Paris 
(1S08- 1868). Chevalier o'f the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Girodet. 
He made his debut at the Salon of 1824. Among his works are, 
" The Birth of Henry IV.," purchased for the Luxembourg ; " The 
Battle of Marseilles," at Versailles ; " The Death of Jane Seymour " ; 
" Halt of Spanish Merchants " ; " Reception of Columbus by Fer- 
dinand and Isabella " ; etc. Deveria painted many portraits ; those of 
Marshals Brissac and Crevecocur are at Versailles. At the new Louvre 
he decorated a ceiling, subject, " Puget and Louis XV." He was also 
charged with the decoration of the chapel of Sainte Genevieve, at 
the church of Xotre-Dame-de-Lorette. 

Devigne, Pierre. (Belgian.) (1814-1877.) Professor at the 
Academy, and at the Industrial School of Ghent. His statue of 
Jacob van Artevelde erected at Ghent made him a name in all 

Devigne, Paul. (Belgian.) Born at Ghent. Son of the preced- 
ing. Medals at Paris and Brussels. He exhibited at the Salon of 
1-77 two portrait busts, one in marble, the other in plaster ; in 1876, 
" Poverella," statue, plaster, and a bronze bust of a " Maiden of Pom- 
peii "; and in 1875, " Domenica," a statue, plaster, and "Volumnia," a 
bust in terra-cotta. 

Dewing, T. W. (Am.) Born in Boston. Pupil of Lefebvre and 
Boulanger in Paris, where he worked for some time. To the first ex- 
hibition of the Society of American Artists, in 1878, he sent " A Musi- 
cian." At present his studio is in Boston, and many of his pictures, 
chiefly fiL'ure-pieces, are owned in that city. 

"Mr. T. W. Dewin^'s ' The South Wind ' is a very beautiful allegorical conception, 
and is intended f<>r ititerior decoration. A lovely female figure floating at will through 
the air stops to pluck the ]>etals from the yellow blossom of the mullein and scatter 
them over her shoulder. The figure is beautifully poised, and charms by its superior 
grace and loveliness. The pose is easy and natural, and expresses the action most admi- 
rably. For the dray>ery of the lower part of the figure, the artist has selected a delicate 
gray, and for the bust a white. The background is lmI l-U-af. The conception is origi- 
nal and the execution very fortunate. The poise of the figure, the modeling and flesh- 
color, the drapery undulating in natural folds, all tell of a careful brush, with real genius 
and a refiued imagination to direct it."— Boston Daily Advertiser, November 12, 1878. 


Dexter, Henry. (Am.) Born in the State of New York. He 
was taken to Connecticut at an early age, brought np on a farm, re- 
ceived a district-school education, and spent five years in the shop of 
a blacksmith. During this period the artistic taste and instincts 
were gradually developed, and he painted and studied in secret and 
without a master. When a young man he went to Boston, modeling 
in clay for some time, and determined to become a sculptor. His first 
work in marble was a bust of Mayor Eliot of Boston, for which he is 
said to have received $ 250. This was followed by busts of other dis- 
tinguished men, Secretary Chase, Governor Banks, and governors of 
other States of the Union, which were on exhibition in Boston in 
1860, attracting some attention. Among his ideal works may be men- 
tioned, " The Backwoodsman " (in the Boston Athenaeum), " The 
Young Naturalist," " The First Lesson," etc. 

Diaz de la Pena, Narcisse - Virgile. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux 
(1807 - 1876). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. The parents of 
this painter were driven out of Spain on account of political troubles, 
and at ten years of age he was left an orphan, in a land where he had 
no relatives. He was sheltered by a Protestant clergyman who lived 
at Bellevue, for his mother had gone to Paris, where she had given 
lessons in Italian and Spanish. Not long after his mother's death he 
was bitten on the leg by an insect ; at first nothing was thought of it, 
but at last so bad a sore was made that he was taken to a hospital 
where his leg was amputated. When fifteen he was apprenticed as a 
shop-boy to a manufacturer of porcelain ; after a time he made at- 
tempts at imitating what he saw around him, and his master, noticing 
his efforts, promoted him to his atelier ; here he made the acquaintance 
of Dupre, Cabat, and Raffet. Soon he felt the slavery of his position 
insupportable, and dreamed longingly of a time when he could follow 
his bent, and paint as he wished. He quarreled with his master, and 
left him. Then began a life of absolute poverty, but, gathering a chance 
existence, he worked away, and at length carried to Desforges, a picture- 
seller, " The Descent of the Gypsies." It remained so long without a 
purchaser that Desforges (to whom Diaz was in debt for his materials to 
paint the picture) ordered him to take it away. Just when all seemed 
lost, M. Paul Perrier saw the picture, and gave Diaz 1,500 francs in place 
of the 500 which he had asked for it. This picture has always been con- 
sidered a chef-cl'ceuvre, and is now owned by Mme. Ernest Andre. For 
some time after this Diaz essayed genre subjects, but with no great suc- 
cess ; his pictures were received at the Salons, but with indifference, 
and it was not until he made landscape his chief motive that the public 
found out his merits. He received his first medal in 1844, thirteen 
years after his debut at the Salon. Diaz was not correct in drawing, and 
has been severely criticised on this account. He, on his part, boldly 
ridiculed the realists, and those who insisted on form. If Diaz painted 
flowers, it might be impossible to say to what botanical family they 


belonged, l>ut the tone of color and the charm he gave them seemed 
an excuse for their existing just as he made them. Towards the end 
of his life he painted and sold too many pictures ; he seemed wild to 
be always selling ; for this he has been excused by his friends, who say 
that in this way lie avenged himself for the poverty he had formerly 
Buffered. In L861 he exhibited "A Bather " and " Love Disarmed" ; 
again in 1865 he exhibited several works, among which was one called 
" The Last Tears," which was much criticised for its color ; after this 
he went to the Orient and next sent to the Salon of 1859, " Galatea," 
" The Education of Love," "Venus and Adonis," "Love Punished," 
etc. At the Johnston sale " The Forest of Fontainebleau " (23 by 29) 
sold for S 2,650, — same subject (26 by 35), at the Latham sale, New 
York, 1878, for S 3.200. At the Strousberg sale, Paris, 1874, "A 
Storm " sold for £ 360 ; " A Holy Family," £ 388; "Abandoned," £208. 
At the Laurent-Richard sale, Paris, 1873, " In the Forest of Fontaine- 
bleau," £ \J)-2<. At the Oppenheim sale, Paris, 1877, " A Road in 
the Forest " sold for 14,300 francs. Diaz painted but few figure pictures, 
and they are therefore much prized. Mr. Walters of Baltimore has a 
" Venus and Cupid." In 1845 he sent to the Salon three portraits, 
and in 1848, with other works, " A Pack of Hounds in the Forest of 
Fontainebleau." At the exhibition of the Wilson Gallery in Brussels 
in 1873 there was seen a fine figure picture by Diaz, called "The 
Smyrniotes," being a young woman and two children, walking in a 
garden ; it was painted in 1871. "The Bathers" and "The Dogs" 
are in the collection of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston. 

" . . . . The versatile, unequal, impetuous Diaz, a brilliant colorist by blood, so 
much so as to obscure design, but charming in his genre landscape motives, in which he 
introduces little children, lovely women, or classical nymphs, amorini, or whatever best 
affords him scope for his rich flesh-tints, in contrast with magnificently colored draper- 
ies on the deep 'greens and browns of vegetation. His fancy is peculiarly delicate and 
playful, not serious, which is a defect, because the want of earnestness of purpose seems 
to have prevented him from realizing complete returns of his uncommon promise." — 
Jarves, Art Thought* 

" Diaz was neither a great man nor a great painter ; he was a great artist. Let us 
discard the word genius ; it would be malevolent to pronounce it. since it cannot apply 
here. Diaz has only loved Nature ; he identified himself with her ; he adored her too 
much not to make her true, and therefore beautiful. He appeared at an epoch when 
some radiant stars shone in the artistic sky ; their radiance diminished not his bright- 
ness. He knew how to make himself a place apart, and that place he will keep with 
posterity. He has attached Ids name to one aspect of nature. When October comes, 
go to the heights of the Valley of the Salle, or in the thickets of Bas-Breau, wander 
in the midst of this superb and lusty vegetation, under the trees, species of immense 
bouquets glittering with a thousand colors, where play al] shades, the dark green, the 
brown, the golden yellow, the bright scarlet ; ami, seeing this magnificent twinkling of 
autumn tints, you will surprise yourself in saying, ' Behold a Diaz : ' "— Roger Ballu, 
Gazette des Beaux- Arts, March, 1877. 

Dicksee, Thomas F. (Brit.) Born in London, 1819. Displayed 
a taste for art at an early age, painting satisfactory portraits of his 
family and friends as a youth. In 1838 he entered the studio of 


H. P. Briggs, Royal Academy, and soon settled in London, as a por- 
trait-painter. He has, however, executed many ideal figures drawn 
from the works of Shakspere and kindred sources. Among these 
may be mentioned, " Anne Page " (in the British Institute, 1862), 
"Ophelia," " Juliet," " Cleopatra," "Joan of Arc," " Little Red Riding- 
Hood," " Young Pretender," " Joy," " Little Florist," and " Dressed 
for the Ball." In 1875 he sent to the Royal Academy, " Othello 
and Desdemona" ; in 1877, " Cordelia" ; in 1878, " Madeline." 

Dicksee, Frank, his son, medalist in 1875 of the Royal Academy 
Training-School, is a young artist of promise. He sent to the Royal 
Academy, in 1876, " Elijah confronting Ahab " and " Jezebel in Na- 
both's Vineyard " ; in 1877, " Harmony." 

Diday, Francis. (Swiss.) Born at Geneva, 1812. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. He studied in Paris and traveled in Italy. 
His pictures are chiefly views in his native country. His " Glacier 
of Rosenthal " is at the Museum of Lausanne ; " The Oak and the 
Reed " is at the Museum of Geneva. 

Di^bolt, Georges. (Fr.) Born at Dijon (1816-1862). Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Ramey and Dumont. He took 
the grand yrix de Rome in sculpture in 1841. Before this time he 
had executed some creditable works. " Sappho on the Rock of Leu- 
cate " was the first work which he sent to the Salon of 1848, and it 
was purchased for the Museum of Dijon. His " Meditation " (1852) 
was purchased for the Museum of Carcassone. Diebolt executed a 
figure of D'Alembert for the Hotel de Ville at Paris ; the bronze bas- 
reliefs for the equestrian statue of Napoleon by De Nieuwerkerke ; 
the decoration of the Pavilion de Rohan at the new Louvre ; the four 
ovals of the Pavilion Turgot ; the two Renommc'es of the facade of 
the Palace of the Champs Elysees ; "A Zouave in Campaign Dress" 
and " A Grenadier of the Line " at the bridge of Alma ; and the figure 
of " Navigation " at the bridge of the Invalides. At the time of his 
death he was about completing a group, " Hero and Leander," which 
was exhibited at the Salon of 1863. The colossal figure of "France, 
the Remunerator," placed at the Rond Point of the Champs rtlysees, 
on the occasion of the distribution of prizes gained at the Exposition 
at London in 1851, is considered the chef-d'oeuvre of this sculptor. 
His portrait busts are excellent, but not as numerous as might be 

Dieffenbach, Anton Heinrich. (Ger.) Born at Wiesbaden, 
1831. Medal at Wiesbaden. Studied sculpture under Pradier at 
Paris. At Diisseldorf, in 1855, devoted himself to painting, and 
studied under R. Jordan. Has spent much time in Paris and Switz- 
erland, and finally settled in Berlin. He draws his subjects from 
peasant life, and many of his works have gained much popularity 
through reproductions by lithographs, etc. In the National Gallery 
at Berlin is one called " Tit-Bit," or a peasant-woman kneading dough. 



In 1869 he exhibited at the Paris Salon, " Les freres de hut" 
("Foster Brothers") and " Une partie de Schlitte, Alsace" ; in 1868, 
"The Recreation" ; in 1867, "An Unfortunate Meeting" and " The 
Betrothal " ; etc 

Dielman, Frederick. (Am.) Born in Hanover, Germany, 1848, 
and taken early in his childhood to Baltimore. He spent six years as 
a topographer in the United States Engineer Department in Virginia. 
His art education was received in the various schools of the Royal 
Academy, Munich, more particularly under Diez, gaining a medal in 
the life class. His studio at present (1878) is in New York. He was 
one of the original members of the Society of American Artists. His 
works so far are chiefly studies, his most important picture being 
"The Patrician Lady" (N. A., 1877), belonging to I. T. Williams of 
the National Chemical Bank. 

" Mr. Dielnian's little picture, called ' Patrician Lady, — Sixteenth Century ' (10 by 16 
inches in dimension), is his only contribution to the Exhibition, and it argues well for 
somebody's taste that It is already sold. It is a single figure, full-length, painted with 
all the minuteness of detail and technical skill which are now so attractive, but not 
painted for them alone. On the contrary, they fall into the proper subordination as 
soon as we look upon the calm, proud loveliness of the woman's face. The latter is the 
light and glory of the picture. The artist, moreover, shows a rare reticence in the exer- 
cise of his technical skill. A single feather of the peacock-fan, painted with exquisite 
delicacy, is touched by the light ; the others gradually lose themselves in the shadow. 
In this, and other slight characteristics, the true artist is revealed, — the master, not the 
slave, of form, color, and textural effect." — Bayakd Taylor, in New York Tribune, 
April 7, 1S77. 

Dien, Claude-Marie-Francois. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1789- 

1865). Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. In 1809 he took the 

first prize in copperplate engraving, and went to Rome. His works 

are largely after the French masters. Among them are plates of 

Dt Cecilia," after J. Romain (purchased by the Societe des Amis 

Arte); "Taseo," after Robert Fleury (acquired by the same 

int Scholastics appearing to Saint Benoit," after Le- 

sueur, commanded by Napoleon III.; "Portrait of Count Nieuwer- 

kerke," after Ingres ; " The Sibyls," after Raphael ; etc. 

Dietz, Feodor. (Get.) Born at Nenstetten (1813- 1870). Mem- 
ber of Munich Academy. Professor at Carlsruhe. Court painter at 
Baden. Historical painter. Studied in Carlsruhe ; went to Munich 
in 1831, where he worked in the Konigsbau, then to Paris, where he 
studied under Alaux. He took an active part in the campaign of 
3 in Schleswig. During the wars of 1866 and '70 he was very 
efficient in the Sanitary Aid Corps, and died while on his way home 
from Fiance. Dr. Max Jordan says, "In his inclination toward the 
extremely pathetic he often reaches the theatrical. His color lacks 
the charm it should have, but his compositions are always clear, and 
the representations fresh and vivid." At the National Gallery at 
Berlin is his " Bliicher's March on Paris." Among his works are, 


" Flight of an American Family across the Susquehanna," " Bliicher's 
Passage over the Rhine at Caub," " Bliicher after the Battle of La 
Rothiere, on his March to Paris," and "The Crown Prince Louis of 
Bavaria at the Battle of Arcis," etc. 

Diez, Wilhelm. (Ger.) Professor at Munich Academy. Diez has 
established a new school in Munich, and his followers are very enthusi- 
astic in their devotion to him, and as yet it is scarcely possible to say 
much of the results of his teaching. He owes his professorship to the 
friendship and influence of Piloty, who early discovered his rare talent. 

The principal characteristics of the pictures of Diez are fine draw- 
ing and good color. He is a fine instructor, having the power of im- 
parting his knowledge. At Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited " Robbers of 
the Fifteenth Century." At the Paris Salon of 1878 he exhibited "A 
Chevalier of the Middle Ages " and " His Excellence en voyage." 

Dillens, Henri. (Belgian.) Born at Ghent, 1812. Pupil of Canini. 
This artist has exhibited numerous works in the Belgian Expositions. 
Among them are, " Charles V. and the Swineherd " and " Charles V. 
at Antwerp " (considered his best works), " Russian Baptism," " In- 
terior of a Cabaret," " Laura and Petrarch," " A Carnival Scene," etc. 

Dillens, Adolphe. (Belgian.) Born at Ghent (1821-1877). 
Chevalier of the Order of Leopold. Member of the Royal Academy 
at Amsterdam. Brother and pupil of the preceding. His pictures of 
" The Five Senses " and " Sunday in Flanders " took the medaille de 
vermeil at Brussels in 1848. In 1850 he exhibited at Bruges a picture 
of " Peruzzi forced to paint a Portrait of the Constable de Bourbon, 
who had been slain in the Attack on Rome, 1527." This took a 
medal also, and is now in the Gallery of Bruges. He next painted 
several pictures of the life in that part of Flanders called Zealand. 
He became known there as " the painter from Brussels," and though 
at first treated cavalierly, he at last became the friend of the people. 
At Brussels in 1854 he exhibited "Courtship in Zealand," "Taking 
Toll," and a " Fair at West Kapelle," which took a gold medal, and 
was purchased by the King of Belgium. Another representation of 
" Taking Toll " was purchased by Napoleon III. A third representa- 
tion of the same subject was bought by the Emperor of Brazil. Among 
his other works are, " The Gossip at the Window," " Skating in the 
Ring," "A Zealand Wedding," etc. 

Dillon, Frank. (Brit.) Born in London, 1823. He studied art in 
the Royal Academy, and under James Holland, spending his profes- 
sional life in London, with the exception of a protracted visit to the 
East. He has exhibited frequently for some years at the Society of 
British Artists and the Royal Academy, among the better known of his 
works being, " Evening on the Tagus," " The Colossal Pair, Thebes," 
"The Pyramids at Sunrise," "Emigrants on the Nile," "The Nile 
near the First Cataract," "The Sands of Egypt," "A Japanese Interior," 
etc. He painted four Egyptian pictures for the Khedive of Egypt. 


His " Courtyard of the House of the Sheikh Said at Cairo " was at 
the Paris Exposition of 1878. In 1877 he exhibited in London a 
series of drawings in water-color, illustrating the customs, manners, 
and scenery of Japan. 

" Among the artists who profess Oriental scenery, there are none who distinguish 
themselves more than Mr. F. Dillon. ' The Tombs of the Menilook Sultans of Egypt' 
[R. A., 1S73] has been repeatedly painted, but never with better effect than here." — 
Art Journal, June, 1S73. 

Dix, Charles Temple. (Am.) Born, 1840. Died in Home, 
Italy, 1873. He graduated at Union College in 1858, and turned his 
attention to art at an early age. He had made marked progress in 
his studies, but entered the army at the outbreak of the Civil War, 
serving with distinction on the staff of his father, John A. Dix, and 
as an officer of the regular troops. He adopted art as his profession 
on the return of peace, settling in Rome. He was looked upon as an 
artist of much promise. Among the better known of his works was 
his " Sunset at Capri." He rarely exhibited in public. At the Na- 
tional Academy in 1871 he had a "Coast Scene," and at the Royal 
Academy, London, a few years previous, a view of " Sark Channel 
Inlands," the subject of high praise in the London journals. 

Dobson, Wiliiam C. T., R. A. (Brit.) Born at Hamburg, 1817. 
Taken by his parents to London when about ten years of age. 
Studied from the antique in the British Museum, and entered the 
schools of the Royal Academy in 1836. Was a pupil and friend of 
Eastlake, and Head Master of the Schools of Design at Birmingham 
from 1843 to '45, when he went to the Continent for the purpose of 
study, remaining in Italy and Germany for some years. His pictures 
are generally of scriptural subjects, and many of them have been en- 
graved. He exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 1853, " Tobias and 
the Angel" ; in 1855, "The Charity of Dorcas" (purchased by the 
Queen) ; in 1860, " Train up a Child in the Way he should go " ; in 
1866, "The Child Jesus in the Temple"; in 1869, "A Picture- 
Book" ; in 1870, " Nunc dimittis" ; in 1872, "A Crown to her Hus- 
band" ; in 1873, " Paul at Philippi " (deposited in the Academy on 
his election as an Academician); in 1874, "Father's Welcome 
Home " ; in 1875, " Children's Children are the Crown of Old Men " ; 
in 1876, "Rebecca"; in 1877, " Waiting " ; in 1878, " Mother and 
Child " and " At the Masquerade." He is a member of the Society 
of Painters in Water-Colors, contributing several works in that me- 
dium to the Paria Exposition of 1878. 

"Mr. Dobson seems to nave shown some advance this year [1864] towards a larger 
style. While prettiness holds, as it always will hold, its place in art, we can hardly ask 
for prettier faces and attitudes than his two fair damsels with their flowers and their 
books ['Girls with Kerns ' and ' Morning,' R. A., 18G4]. The former is almost as bright 
as the child with the story-book, which did Mr. Dobson credit in the International Ex- 
hibition. " — Palorave's Essays on Art. 

"The'Camelia,' by W. C. T. Dobson [Water-Color Exhibition, 1873], has very much 
of the round German character, but it is a really charming head, luminous In color, 



and most agreeable in expression. ' Sappho,' by the same hand, is also a fascinating 
study, brilliant and graceful. '' — Art Journal, June, 1873. 

Docharty, James. {Brit) Born in Glasgow (1829- 1878). He 
began life as a designer of patterns in his native city, studying that 
profession for some time in France. About 1862 he turned his atten- 
tion to landscapes, painting with marked success. His studio was in 
Glasgow, and he exhibited frequently at the Royal Academy and the 
Royal Scottish Academy. He visited Egypt shortly before his death. 
He was elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1877. 
Among his works are, " A Good Fishing-Day," " Loch Lomond," " A 
Moorland Scene," " Old Bridge on the Moor," " The Trosachs," and 
" A Mountain Shower " (the last three at the Royal Scottish Acad- 
emy) in 1878. 

" 'The Fishing Village ' and ' The Cuchullin Hills ' [1874] leave nothing to desire ; for 
James Docharty lays his hand, not metaphorically, like Byron, but materially, upon 
Nature's elements, and shows us many secrets of her witchery." — Art Journal, March, 

Dolph, J. H., A. N. A. (Am) Born at Fort Ann, N. Y., 1835. 
His professional life has been passed in New York City, with the ex- 
ception of a few years spent abroad. He studied under Louis Van 
Kuy ck at Antwerp. He was made an Associate of the National Academy 
in 1877, and a member of the Society of American Artists at its organ- 
ization, in 1878, contributing to its first exhibition " Morning Toilet." 
His works have been regularly exhibited at the National Academy 
for some seasons. In 1869 he sent " Knickerbocker Farm-Yard" ; in 
1870, "The Season of Plenty" and '" The Country Blacksmith"; 
in 1873, "The Horse-Doctor" ; in 1874, "The Pasture" ; in 1875, 
" A Gray Day on the Coast " ; in 1876, "From the Horse-Market " ; 
in 1877, " The Antechamber" ; in 1878, " The Rehearsal." 

His " Parson's Visit " is in the collection of Rufus Hatch ; his 
" Beggar " in that of James Gordon Bennett. " The Antiquarian " 
belongs to Judge Henry Hilton. 

Domingo, J. (Span.) Pupil of the elder Meissonier, whose style 
he follows. Fortuny admired the works of this painter, and gave him 
encouragement to attempt the struggle for the fame which he now has. 
At the Glasgow Fine Art Loan Exhibition of 1878 was exhibited his 
" Card-Players," belonging to J. Napier. " Interior of aji inn, — two 
men at a table play cards while they smoke and drink. To the left, 
a waiter stands watching the game, —he holds a white jug. In the 
foreground a big dun dog stands across the picture." One of his 
more important works is called " Halt ! " It is about 24 by 18 inches 
in size, and has recently (1878) been sold to the Viscount D'Opia by a 
Paris picture-dealer for 80,000 francs. It is thus described in the Art 
Journal, September, 1878: "A halt of cavaliers before a red-tiled 
auberge, within the roughly curtained entrance of which some boors 
are seen drinking at a table. Beyond a wall which partly bounds the 


picture on the left, is seen a willow-shaded river, and in the foreground 
a pool and some fowls. The manner in which the cavalier's dog eyes 
askance, with an accompanying snarl, the dog belonging to the peas- 
ant, is almost audibly represented, and the spirit as well as some of the 
details are suggestive of Wouvermans and Teniers at their best, only 
we have here a breadth and delicacy unknown to these great artists." 
To the Centennial Exhibition he sent " The Antiquarian " and " The 
Return from Pasture,"' which at present (1878) is in the collection of 
the Palette Club, New York. 

Donald, John Milne. (Brit.) (1819-1866.) Born at Nairn, 
Scotland. He began the study of art at an early age in Glasgow, 
going to Paris in 1840 and spending some time in the galleries there. 
He painted in London for four years, two of his pictures being pur- 
chased by the poet Rogers. The balance of his professional life was 
spent in Scotland. He exhibited frequently at the Royal Scottish 
Academy, and was very successful in his representation of Scot- 
tish Highland scenery. Three of his works, " A Highland Stream," 
" Bowling Bay," and " Loch Goil " were at the Glasgow Fine Art 
Loan Exhibition in 1878. 

Doo, George Thomas, R. A. (Brit) Born, 1800. Line-en- 
graver. His "Duke of York," after Sir Thomas Lawrence, engraved 
in 1824, was his first important work. In 1825 he went to Paris, 
studying under Suisse. In 1836 he was appointed Historical En- 
graver to William IV., and in 1842 received a similar appointment 
from Queen Victoria. In 1856 he was elected Associate Engraver of 
the Royal Academy and Academician the following year. In 1861 
he was elected President of the Artists' Annuity Fund, and is a 
member and honorary member of many foreign societies. Among 
the better known of his plates are, " The Infant Christ," after Raphael ; 
" Ecce Homo," after Correggio ; " Knox preaching before the Lords of 
the Covenant," after WOkie; * The Combat," after Etty ; "The Pil- 
grim- in Sight of the Holy City," after Eastlake ; and many more. He 
was placed upon the list of Honorary Retired Academicians in 1867. 

Doolittle, Edwin Stafford. (Am.) Born at Albany, N. Y., 1843. 
He studied painting under John A. Hows in 1865, and under William 
Hart for a lew months in 1866. The following year he opened his first 
studio in New York, where he remained but a short time before going 
to Europe in 1868. He passed some time in Rome, but an attack of 
fever and loss of health forced him to return to America. In 1869 
In.- painted his " Shadow of a Great Rock in a Weary Land," of which 
he has made several copies. In the summer of 1*72 he studied under 
Jasper F. Cropsey at Warwick, X. Y. Doolittle has painted land- 
scapes and marine subjects, and among his chief works are, "Sunset 
on an Adirondack Swamp," ''Chimney Rock, North Carolina," 
"Gray's Peak, Colorado," "A Pool in the Warwick Woodlands/ 1 
" Ruins of the Claudian Aqueduct on the Roman Campagna," " On 


the Giuadecca Canal, Venice," " The Arch of Titus," " Autumn in the 
Catskill Clove," " The Axenstrasse, Lake Lucerne," " The Old Toll- 
Gate," etc. Failing health has of late prevented this artist from the 
active practice of his profession. The last picture upon which he has 
been engaged is " Sunset on Schroon Lake." 

Mr. Doolittle has also executed illuminations, has designed book- 
covers, and has been somewhat employed in the decoration of churches. 
To the Centennial Exhibition at Philadelphia he sent illuminations 
of " The Soliloquy of Friar Pacificus " from Longfellow's " Golden 
Legend " (which was afterwards presented to the poet), and of " A 
Prayer to the Virgin," now in the Convent of the Sacred Heart in 
Savannah, Ga. 

The designs for the covers of " Heaven in Song," " The Shadow of 
a Great Rock," etc., are by him. He has also written " Grace Church 
Chimes " and other occasional poems. 

Dore, Paul Gustave. (Fr.) Born at Strasbourg (1832). Chev- 
alier of the Legion of Honor. He went to Paris in 1845, and finished 
his studies at the Lycee Charlemagne ; and in 1848 was employed 
with M. Bertall on the "Journal pour rire." In 1848 he also sent 
some pen-drawings to the Salon, and continued to exhibit each year ; 
in 1857 he received honorable mention. His works are so numerous 
that it is quite impossible to give any account of them here. Besides 
his larger works, the number of his sketches and fantastic drawings 
is immense. He has made a multitude of illustrations for journals, 
etc. His plates for the works of Rabelais, the Legend of the Wan- 
dering Jew, " Les Contes drolatiques " of Balzac, the Essays of Mon- 
taigne, the Voyage in the Pyrenees by Taine, Don Quixote, the 
Bible, the Inferno of Dante, the Fables of Fontaine, Poems of Ten- 
nyson, etc., have made him a world-wide fame : they are held in 
every possible grade of estimation ; sometimes praised ad nauseam, 
and again dispraised in the same ratio. Dore has also painted pic- 
tures and made statues. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited pictures 
of " Jesus Condemned " and " Daybreak in the Alps " ; an etching after 
his picture of the " Neophyte " and a plaster cast of "Love and Fate" ; 
in 1876, a painting of " Christ entering Jerusalem"; in 1875, "Dante 
and Virgil visiting the Seventh Circle," " The House of Caiphas," 
and "The Vagabonds" ; in 1874, "The Christian Martyrs" and two 
landscapes; in 1873, "The Darkness" (St. Luke xxiii. 44) and a 
view in the Alps ; in 1872, " L' Alsace ! " and "The Murder of the 
Innocents " ; in 1870, " Charity " and a landscape ; etc. " The Angel 
with Tobias " is in the Luxembourg. At the Johnston sale, a tinted 
drawing by Dore, " The Retreat from Moscow " (27 by 37) sold for 

" To what dost thou not drive mortals, fames sacra fames ? M. Dord is not content to 
be a designer only, or, indeed, a painter only. He has also wished to execute a work in 
sculpture, and truly for a debutant he has not much miscarried. 'Love and Fate' 


shows some good parts, almost enough studied, in which the facility of the celebrated 
improvisatore is found again with more exactness, sculpture oblige. The whole presents 
itself with the modesty of a first essay, and a secret hope of being accepted as some- 
thing finished ; bat there is wanting, I know not what, without which the most beau- 
tiful sketch returns to the studio and calls for the chisel anew. Let us say, however, 
the ligure of ' Love,' indifferent and cruel, is well conceived ; the hands of Fate are 
galbees with a cleverness quite Florentine. Evidently M. Dore must be ranked with 
those children, well endowed, but sometimes spoiled by their gifts, who almost succeed 
in all that they undertake. Already crowned with so many laurels, why rests he not 
satisfied, and why should those of other men keep him from sleep?" — Ch. Timbal, 
Gazette des Beaux- Arts, June, 1S77. 

" Gustave Dore is a man of most extraordinary endowment ; no artist except Dietrich 
ever had stronger assimilative power, and besides his immense borrowings from others, 
he has a great fund of purely original resource. His productiveness has been, as we all 
know, unexampled and prodigious ; his fecundity, in the sense of giving forth fresh 
ideas, has of course been considerably less so. The same artistic conception is often re- 
peated by him twenty or thirty times under different forms and with different names ; 
and when the critics found this out they set up a cry that Dore was not really pro- 
ductive, though he seemed so, and a reaction set in against him He has injured 

himself by working too much in order to make a fortune, and some thousands of his 
later designs contain little that is new to us Now, Dore has always had an am- 
bition to be a painter, and has rented for years two large studios in Paris, which are 
crowded with canvases ; and although his work in oil has never been much liked by the 
public, he has found in the doing of it a refreshment after his exhausting labors as a 
designer on wood. If he could succeed as a painter, it would renovate and save him. 
.... The best pictures of Dore that I have seen are the ' Famille du Saltimbanque,' 
and ' Le Neophyte.' This last picture was exhibited in the Salon of 1868, and repre- 
sented a young monk seated among his brethren, and visibly new to his position. The 
conception of the subject was strikingly vivid, and the execution vigorous and frank. 
Many of this artist's landscapes are finely conceived, but these are never executed with 
sufficient delicacy to be satisfactory." — Hamerton, Painting in France. 

" With us Dore is better known as a designer on wood, an illustrator with an imagi- 
nation grotesque and prolific beyond all precedent. But of late years he has given his 
attention to painting, and more recently to sculpture, and from time to time exhibits 
large landseaj>es, or figure-subjects of life size. To criticise these paintings, to dissect 
them until nothing is left, to show that the drawing is often defective, the coloring 
often unnatural, would be an easy task. But it is not so easy to explain away the pro- 
found impression they produce, or the conviction they give us that here is a mind stand- 
ing alone in Paris, — a mind Teutonic rather than French in its character, looking not 
so much on the surface of things as at what is hidden underneath, studying the moral 

of life ; a French Albert DUrer, to whom existence is less a comedy than a tragedy 

Dore is the only man in Paris who selects subjects with a moral, as do the English and 

German artists What could be more like a satire of Juvenal, written with a 

pen dipped in gall, than in Paris, where the fallen woman has been occasionally admitted 
to the l>est circles on a footing with virtue (as. for example, at the receptions of M. 
Arsene Houssaye. attended by the princes of the blood ; the heroine, too, of the most 
prominent literary productions in France ; anything but a poor, forlorn, desolate thing 
of shame, whose end no one should think of but with profound pity and sorrow, — what 
could be more tremendous in its irony than here, in Paris, to paint a woman of that 
class, with sunken cheeks and forsaken, dying on a cold winter night on a stone bench, 
under the stars so far away and dim, with her chubby infant vainly seeking milk at her 
breast, and to call her ' La Pecheresse'? No wonder Charivari suggests that M. Dore 
is rather lugubrious in his choice of subjects. Very impressive, also, are such wonder- 
ful compositions as his ' Martyrs in the Coliseum,' 'The Dream of Pilate's Wife,' .... 
The imagination displayed, the massing of chiaroscuro, the rush and movement of 


grouping vast multitudes, and the moral impressiveness of the ideas conveyed are cer- 
tainly indicative of immense reserve power. But the drawing is often defective ; very 
naturally there is, with enormous variety, much mannerism ; and it must be admitted 
that these paintings would, with two or three exceptions, appear quite as effective in 
black and white. His 'Neophyte,' for example, executed in monochrome, does not 
seem to require the aid of color to make it what it is, — one of the most tremendous in- 
vectives against the conventual system which has been seen since the days of Savona- 
rola." — S. G. W. Benjamin, Contemporary Art in Europe. 

" It is hazardous to undertake to analyze the gifts of a man who, at only thirty-two 
years of age, has made nearly fifty thousand designs and won universal fame ; who is 
cosmopolitan in his choice of subjects, as familiar with the great writers of England, 
Germany, Italy, and Spain, as with his own, and finally laid the whole Orient under 

contribution by illustrating anew for the nineteenth century the Bible If the 

predominant trait of Delacroix was physical force, that of Dore is fiendish horror. That 
which devils most enjoy he most heartily depicts. Added to this is a fecundity of in- 
vention, and a darksome flow of creative invention which places him the foremost of 
his kind. Even Dante, reared in mediajval notions of theology and politics, finds some 
springs of tenderness, and always of faith, in his soul ; but Dore, in translating his 
' Inferno ' into pictorial French, discards all humanity, and presents the horrors of the 
Dantesque imagery in forms more appalling than the original. The advanced theories 
of peace and good-will to men of our century make no impression on him. Before his 
advent we had no entirely adequate conception of diabolism. Other interpreters of 
Dante, Orgagna and Michael Angelo, for instance, had given us glimpses of its features 
in a grand way, but it has been reserved to Dore to let us into its utter horror. He 
finds in it a satisfaction akin in depth to the intensity of ecstasy which prompted the 
celestial visions of Fra Angelico. It is no coldly studied design, but a spontaneous 
outflow, like seething lava. Alike remarkable is the increasing activity of his phantom 
creations. They are supernaturally endowed with vitality. He transforms all nature 
into demoniacal forces in keeping with weird scenery invoked by his imagination. In 
the ' Wandering Jew,' untrameled by the necessity of illustrating the ideas of another, 
he gives his own freer play. The powers of darkness are let loose. Heaven itself 
catches the vindictive spirit of Hell. This is art undergoing the delirium tremens, with 
ravings as blasphemous as they are foul and hideous. This may seem harsh judgment, 
but an art that distorts and misrepresents the divine attributes, engendering hate or 
fear in place of love and charity, is not to be dealt gingerly with. A sensitive imagina- 
tion cannot look it over without risk of nightmare Dore's intellect is too deep for 

light sins. With him there is no innuendo, dainty disguise, or tempting display, but 
plain, outspoken passion and lust, and indifference to virtue. The four hundred and 
twenty-five cuts of the ' Contes Drolatiques ' form a unique monument to his debauch- 
ery of design ; a consuming fire to the weak in morals, a wonderful master- work of in- 
vention to the well-trained brain which can appreciate its wit and satire without being 
contaminated by its smut ; and an object of disgust to the one-sided pious mind. Dore 
seems to have faith of no kind. His mental vision explores behind the material veil of 
creation as freely as his natural eye sees the moving panorama around it. But the 
world seen and unseen is to him simply a field from which to cull motives for his ex- 
traordinary powers. He belongs to no fixed time. The mediaeval spirit of the grotesque 
is as fresh within him as the sense of modern caricature. The supernatural element 
annihilates time, making him as much at home in the scenes of Oriental life, as recorded 
in the Bible, as if he had passed them in actual review. But there is no religious senti- 
ment in it. Its force is expended on the graphic-realistic or the imaginative-creative 
of the supernal cast. A fine example of the latter is the seven-headed beast of the 

Apocalypse rising out of the sea Fra Angelico could not paint a devil ; Dore 

cannot draw a saint. His illustrations of the Bible are a record of his strongest and 
weakest qualities. He is not many-sided. But in his own wide field, including the 
darker aspect of creation, natural and supernal, and up to a certain point in the pictu- 


resqne aud sublime in realistic action, he is supreme. The most and almost the sole 
humane sympathy he exhibits is a certain liking for children, but this only in their 

dubious sjMirts Dore makes love, pity, charity, and faith absurd. Under his 

influence one feels that honest emotions or any trait of common humanity, much less 
piety, are evidence of weakness or nonsense. The world being an infernal bubble, let 
us laugh or sneer; the end will take care of itself. If this is unjust towards Dore, be 
has made it the frequent language of his art. As a landscapist Dore shows qualities 
which place him above all others of the school .... They are ideal compositions 
interi>enetrated with the gloom and mystery of a nature torn by her own wrath, and 
terrified by her own mystic solitude ; in general dissociated from man, or, when asso- 
ciated with him, akin to his fellest passions, untamed and savage as he was before 
civilization began. They realize our conception of primal creation. There is no carica- 
ture in them, but a vast creative or disturbing sense, which makes and destroys with 
equal facility. Dore grasps the formative idea, and shapes his creations to express the 
animating feeling. It is organic spirit even more than nature that we see in his designs. 

He thus insists upon the highest triumphs of art Dore's art is great Is it 

good ? It need not be Christian in a nice sense to be this, but it must be natural, truth- 
ful, and humane. It should have also the instinct of the beautiful. Dore's art has 
almost none of these qualities. Much of it is heartless, sensual, and perverse. It re- 
fuses to elevate, or instruct, or even amuse, except the mind, like the art, be prone to 
obscene, cruel, or mocking levity ; preferring to excite emotions which have in them 
little that is pleasurable or improving. The general tendency is to deepen and 
strengthen those proclivities of the French school which most require pruning and 
reforming. If the Devil has ever created such an office as Designer-in-chief to Hell, it 
is now filled by Dore." — Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

Doublemard, Amed^e Donatien. (Fr.) Born at Beaurain. 
Prix (b Rome in 1S55. Medal, 1863. Pupil of Duret. At Philadelphia 
he exhibited "The Education of Bacchus," in bronze, and " Scapin/' 
after Moliere, and received a medal. 

Doughty, Thomas. (Am.) Born in Philadelphia (1793- 1856). 
Spent his youth in mercantile pursuits, painting in his leisure mo- 
ments without a master, gradually developing a decided talent for art, 
which he finally adopted as a profession, about 1820. He worked in 
London and Paris as well as in the United States, and his landscapes 
during his life were very popular and are still prized. His "View on 
the Hudson," a small canvas, was sold at the Johnston sale in 1876. 
Among his other and better-known works are, "A View near Paris," 
ware Water-( Jap," "Scene on the Susquehanna," " Peep at the 
Catskills/'-'Old Mill," etc. 

" For some years the demand for and the reputation of Doughty's pictures indicated a 
high rank and an effective style. He was one of the earliest American artists to make 
evident the charm of what is called the ' silvery tone,' and to reproduce with genuine 
grace and emphasis autumnal effects." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Douglas, 'William Fettes. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh, 1823. 
IT" received hi- art education, which was of a very desultory character, 
in his native city, and began to exhibit at the Royal Scottish Academy in 
chiefly portraits He was elected an Associate of thai institution 
in 1851, and Academician three yean later. Among hi- early works 
are, "The Astrologer," "The Fiddler's f Jomfort,'' "The Intercepted 
Dispatch," "The Widow 9 ! Mite," "The Knife-Grinder" (1850); " The 


Auld Scotch Wife" (1851); "Dean Swift and the Errand-Boy ," in 
1854 ; "Among the Brambles," in 1855 ; " Messenger of Evil Tidings," 
in 1857 ; " St. Dunstan and the Devil," in 1858 ; " The Errand of 
Mercy," and others. In 1862 he sent to the Royal Scottish Academy his 
" Dante arranging his Friends in the Inferno," a picture which attracted 
much attention. He sent to the Royal Academy, London, the same 
year, "Criticism"; in 1867, "The Conspirators"; in 1868, "Waiting for 
a Last Interview." Among his later works are, " The Suicide's Pool," 
"China Mania," "The Iron Chest," "Scene from the Antiquary," etc. 
He is Principal Curator and Keeper of the National Gallery of Scotland. 
Douglas, Edwin. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh, 1848. He received 
his art education in the school of the Royal Scottish Academy ; resid- 
ing in his native city until 1872, since which time he has painted in 
London and Surrey. He first exhibited at the Royal Scottish Acad- 
emy, in 1865, "A Yeoman's Charger," followed in other years by " The 
Deer- Path," " Ready to Start," " Willie and his Pets," " The Show- 
man's Girl," " The Doctor's Pony," " The 12th of August," etc. To 
the Royal Academy, London, he sent in 1869, "The Watch-Tower"; 
in 1872, "The Bather's Attendant," engraved by James Scott, and 
" Highland Hearth," engraved by R. B. Parkes. Among his later 
pictures are, " Crossing the Loch," " Hailing the Ferry," " October 
Shooting," " The Maiden all Forlorn," " Milkmaids and Marguerites " 
(R. A., 1878), and "A Family from Jersey" (R. S. A., 1878). 

" The place left vacant by Sir Edwin Landseer is in a measure filled by Edwin Douglas. 
It would be too much to say that he does what his great predecessor did, or that he will 
ever do as much, although he is young and is certain to progress In more than one in- 
stance a picture from his pencil has been taken to be a production of Landseer, and not 
to the reproach of the greatest master of our time." — Art Journal, November, 1S71. 

" Landseer himself had never a finer sense of texture than we have here [' Milking-Time 
in Jersey '], and had he found such a subject to paint he could scarcely have rendered it 
with greater suavity." — Art Journal, July, 1877. 

Doyle, Richard. (Brit.) Born in London, 1826. Son of John 
Doyle, a well-known caricaturist, from whom he inherited his talents 
as a draughtsman and a satirist. He was one of the early contrib- 
utors to Punch in 1841, resigning his position on the staff of that 
journal in 1850. He has since designed the illustrations for many 
well-known English magazines and books, notably, " The Newcomes " 
for Thackeray ; Leigh Hunt's " Pot of Honey," Ruskin's " King of 
the Golden Rule," "Jack the Giant- Killer," and others. In 1854 
he published, " The Continental Tour of Brown, Jones, and Robin- 
son " ; in 1869, " The Fairy Land" ; etc. He is a contributor to the 
exhibitions of the Grosvenor Gallery. 

" It was the practice, during the first years of Punch's existence, to commence a new 
Wrapper with cadi succeeding volume, until Richard Doyle appeared upon the scene, 
and it was thought that the grotesque yet graceful combination which he supplied was 
far too good to be thrown aside at the expiration of six months. The proprietors 
of the work, therefore, very wisely caused Mr. Doyle's frontispiece to be stereotyped, 
and it now remains, with certain modifications, the permanent tableau on the outer 
covering of Punch."— Rodder's Memoirs of my Time. 


Drake, Friedrich Johann Heinrich. (Ger.) Born at Pyrmont, 
1805. Member of the Academies of St. Petersburg, Antwerp, St. 
Luke at Rome, and the Institute of France. Member of the Senate 
of the Academy of Berlin. Professor of Sculpture in the same Acad- 
emy. Chevalier of the Bed Eagle and of the Legion of Honor. 
After considerable preliminary study and some practice of sculpture 
he became the pupil of Ranch at Berlin. His early works established 
his reputation, and it is only necessary to know the honors he has re- 
ceived, and to read a list of his works, to understand in what estima- 
tion he is held. Among the latter are, "A Madonna and Child," 
purchased by the Empress of Russia ; "A Dying Soldier to whom 
Victory shows a Crown," " The Eight Provinces of Prussia " (mas- 
terly works, executed in 1844), for one of the salons of the chateau 
of Berlin ; eight groups, which decorate the bridge of the same 
chateau ; and a second " Warrior crowned by Victory," which is a 
chef-d'oeuvre of Prussian sculpture. But Drake is even more celebrated 
for his portrait busts and statues than for his imaginary subjects ; in 
view of these he has been called " the David d' Angers of Prussia." 
There are scarcely any notable men of his country whom he has not 
reproduced by his art. He has made statuettes of Schinkel, the two 
Humboldts, Rauch, of whom he has also made a colossal statue for 
the vestibule of the Museum of Berlin ; a colossal statue of Justus 
Mceser, for the square of the Cathedral at Osnabriick ; a colossal 
bust of the naturalist Oken, for Jena ; and one statue of " Frederick 
William III." for the city of Stettin, and another for the Menagerie 
of the city of Berlin. In 1867 Drake sent to Paris a bronze statue of 
the " King of Prussia," for which he received a medal of honor. At 
the National Gallery of Berlin is his " Vine-Dresser " and a bust of 
" Friedrich von Raumer." In the " Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst " 
of 1869, Bruno Meyer describes his Schinkel Monument at Berlin, and 
speaks of it in terms of high praise. 

Dreber, Heinrich. (Ger.) Born at Dresden (1822-1875). Mem- 
ber of the Academy of St. Luke at Rome. Great gold medal at 
Dresden. Landscape-painter. Studied in the Academy of his native 
city, and also under Ludwig Richter. Went for a time to Munich, 
and then, as a pensioner of the Dresden Academy, to Rome, where he 
spent most of his life. In the National Gallery at Berlin are his 
"Landscape with Diana Hunting" and "Autumn Morning in the 
Sabine Mountains." 

Droz, Jules-Antoine. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1807- about 1871). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Son of a distinguished engraver. 
Pupil of Cartellier and Regnault. Among the most remarkable 
works of this sculptor are, " The Genius of Evil," at the chateau of 
Compiegne ; " The Angel of Martyrdom," at the church of Saint- 
Sulpice ; busts of Camoens and Don Enrico, at the Royal Palace of 
Lisbon; allegorical representations, in marble, of "Summer" and 


"Winter," at the Salon of Horticulture of the Luxembourg; a part 
of the decorations of the facades of the new Louvre ; etc. 

Drummond, James. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh (1816-1877). 
He spent the greater part of his professional life in his native city. 
He devoted himself to paintings of a historical and antiquarian char- 
acter. He did not exhibit until 1835. He was elected an Associate 
of the Koyal Scottish Academy in 1846, and Academician in 1852. 
He was Librarian to the Academy, and for some years Curator to the 
National Gallery of Scotland. 

His " Porteus Mob," " Return of Mary Queen of Scots to Edinburgh 
from Carbery Hill in 1567," " Old Mint, Edinburgh," " Castle E.oad, 
Edinburgh," " Queen Mary's Bath, Holyrood," and others, are in the 
Scottish National Gallery. 

"There is always aspiration in the productions of James Drummond, and, considering 
the difficulty of bringing historical events to a powerful transcript, we are pleased, on 
the whole, with ; The Royal Prisoners ' [R. S. A. , 1S74]. The massive, projecting archi- 
tecture he is so fond of introducing endangers, at times, the importance of the figures, 
but, despite this, these Cavaliers and Roundheads are well grouped, vai-iety of attitude 
is skillfully studied, while costume, armor, and facial expression are capitally wrought." 
— Art Journal, April, 1874. 

Drury, J. H. (Am.) Born at Georgetown, D. C, 1816. A fol- 
lower of the French school and pupil of Thomas Couture of Paris. 
He is a member of the Chicago Academy of Design, and has spent 
the better part of his professional life in that city. 

Duban, Jacques-Felix. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1797 -about 1871). 
Member of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of 
Debret and l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts. Took the grand prize in 1823. 
In 1834 Duban was charged with the completion of the Palais des 
Beaux-Arts, left unfinished by Debret, for which he made an entirely 
new plan. In 1845 he executed the very important work of the 
restoration of the chateau of Blois, and, later, that of Dampierre, be- 
longing to the Duke de Luynes. After the revolution of February, 
Duban became Architect of the Louvre, and superintended the works 
on a large portion of the galleries, and many other parts, both ex- 
terior and interior. The details of the interior ornamentation he 
studied carefully and prepared them himself. In 1854 he resigned 
his title of Architect of the Louvre. He sent many designs to the 
Salons. Twelve of those from the chateau of Blois obtained a 
medal of honor at the Exposition of 1865. 

Dubois, Paul. (Fr.) Born at Nogent-sur-Seine, 1829. Member 
of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. One of the jury 
of admission for the section of Sculpture at the Exposition of 1878. 
This celebrated sculptor studied law in early life, but was constrained 
by his artistic tastes to devote himself to sculpture. Toussaint was 
his master in Paris. He went to Italy, and passed several years. 
He executed at Florence in 1860 the model for the " Saint- Jean, a 
Child," which was finished at Home, exhibited at the Salon of 1863 


and is now at the Luxembourg, together with " A Florentine Singer 
of the Fifteenth Century." This last is in silvered bronze ; it has 
been reproduced in bronze and plaster in a smaller size, and has been 
very popular. This artist has also studied painting, and has executed 
fine portraits and beautiful copies after the pictures of the masters. 
Dubois has been a very irregular contributor to the Salon exhibi- 
tions. In 1877 he sent two portrait busts and two painted portraits ; 
in 1876, a painted portrait of his children, and another of a lady, and 
two statues in plaster of " Charity" and " Military Carnage," intended 
for the monument to General La Moriciere, to be erected at Nantes ; 
in 1875, a " Portrait of a Lady " (painted) and three portrait busts in 
plaster; in 1874, statue of "Narcissus," in marble; in 1873, two 
painted portraits and a statue in plaster of " Eve." Among his other 
works are, " Narcissus at the Bath " (1867). A group of the " Virgin 
and Infant Jesus," etc. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited portraits 
in painting and in sculpture. 

" ' My Children,' by Paul Dubois, is one of the best-conceived portraits which can be 
met. Composed with extreme simplicity, designed with perfect elegance and truth, 
painted in a sober and serious gamut of color, which distracts not the attention, and 
concentrates the effect on the faces, this picture makes itself to be remarked among 
others by its frankness of aspect, its sincerity and depth of expression. It is thus a 
portrait should be conceived ; it is neither an official page nor a composition of state. 
Is it not the merit of this painting, by a sculptor, that is a striking refutation of the 
error of certain persons who accord an exaggerated importance to the trade, who see in 
a work of art only the execution, and who seem to believe that this perfection is the 
only infallible sign of the talent of the artist? In examining this canvas, so simply 
treated, one feels that the value of a work depends on another cause besides the skill of 
its process. He is not an artist who represents his model irreproachably ; but he is 
truly an artist who knows how to see, to comprehend, to feel. This truth admitted, 
there is nothing which should astonish us in the superior quality of the painting of Paul 
Dubois. An artist of this worth puts into the form of art which he chooses to employ 
for the expression of his thought the superiority of his aesthetic sentiment and the height 
of his conception of the beautiful. And when the expression is alive, when the thought 
is clear and strong, how the handicraft becomes unimportant, how the execution, of 
which others struggle to pursue the refinements, is quickly his, and how it obeys the 
hand guided by a true inspiration ! One may apply to art the precept of Boileau, — 
' Ce qui se conceit bien s'enonce clairement, 
Et les mots pour le dire arrivent aisement.' 
Paul Dubois has a profound science of form, and of nature. In whatever manner he 
wishes to reproduce his model, the docile process lends itself to his undertaking, and 
without false cleverness, simply, naively, honestly, serves his interpretation." — A. Bon- 
NiK, Salon of 1S76, L'Art. 

Dubois, Charles E. (Am.) Born in New York. Pupil of Gleyre 
and Fiancaifl in Paris. He has also painted in Venice and Rome. 
At the Paris Salon of 1873 he exhibited "Cottages of the Seeland " 
and " The Village of Auvernier, Lake Neuchatel" ; in 1876," Moulin, 
de Dordricht (Pays-Bas)*; in 1878, " A Morning on the Prairie," 
etc. To the Philadelphia Exposition he contributed " Willows at 
East Hampton" and " Palisades, Hudson River" ; to the Paris Expo- 


sition, 1878, " Morning in Venice," " Autumn," and "A View on the 
Hudson." His " Evening at East Hampton " was at the Exhibition 
of the Society of American Artists, New York, 1878. 

Dubray, Gabriel- Vital. (Fr.) Born at Paris about 1818. Offi- 
cer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Ramey. Made his debut at 
the Salon of 1840. This sculptor usually treats genre subjects or those 
of monumental sculpture. At the Salon of 1876 he exhibited a bronze 
statue of a " Mourning Angel " for a monument to be erected at Canton 
in memory of the soldiers who died during the expedition to China ; 
in 1872, a group in plaster, " The Poor Blindman," and a portrait 
bust in marble ; in 1870, a portrait bust in marble of " Madame D." ; 
in 1869, " Joseph Bonaparte " ; in 1868, " OEdipus and the Sphinx" ; 

He executed several statues for the new Louvre ; " The History of 
Joan of Arc " (in ten bas-reliefs), for the base of the monument erected 
to that heroine at Orleans ; " Saint Benoit," at the church of Saint 
Etienne-du-Mont ; etc. 

Dubray, Charlotte Gabrielle. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Daughter of 
the preceding, and pupil of her father. She has exhibited her works at 
several Salons ; at that of 1877, "The Coquette" (a bust, terra-cotta) 
and a portrait of Mr. Birbeck (bust, bronze) ; in 1876, " The Daughter 
of Jephthah weeping on the Mountain " (statue, plaster) and " A Nea- 
politan" (a study, bust, in bronze) ; in 1875, " The Study of a Head," 
Florence, sixteenth century (bust, silvered bronze) ; in 1874, " A 
Fellah Girl of Cairo " (bust, marble), etc. 

Dubray, Eugenie Giovanna. (Fr.) Born at Florence, a sister 
of the preceding, and also a pupil of her father. She has also ex- 
hibited her works at several Salons. 

Dubufe, Claude-Marie. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1793-1864). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of David. This artist in 
the early part of his career represented heroic, classical, and religious 
subjects. His "Apollo and Cypanissa " was purchased for the Lux- 
embourg. For the Chamber of the Council of State he painted rep- 
resentations of Egypt, Greece, Italy, and France. Later, he devoted 
himself to portraiture, and attained a triumph, especially with ladies. 
It was soon the highest fashion to go to Dubufe for a picture, and he 
received as sitters many eminent persons, both men and women. He 
exhibited also a few subject-pictures, such as "The Republic" (1849) 
and the "Birth of Venus" (1859). Among his more popular genre 
subjects are " The Nest," " The Household," " The Slave-Merchant," 
and " The Abandoned." Among his portraits are those of the Queen 
of the Belgians, the Duchess of Istria, the Countess Lehon, General 
Atthalin, and Miss Vernon. 

Dubufe, Edouard. (Fr.) Born at Paris about 1818. Officer of 
the Legion of Honor. This painter studied under his father, Claude- 
Marie Dubufe, and Paul Delaroche, and made his debut at the Salon 


of 1839. For several years he painted religious and sentimental sub- 
jects, but at length devoted himself to portrait-painting, in which 
Bpecialty he has become famous. He has received as sitters many 
distinguished persons, among whom we may mention the Empress 
Eugenie, Rosa Bonheur, the Princess Mathilde, M. Robert Fleury, 
Count Nieuwerkerke, etc. In 1877 he exhibited the portraits of M. 
Emile Angier, of the French Academy, and M. Harpignies ; in 1876, 
portrait of Philippe Rousseau ; in 1875, three portraits ; in 1873, por- 
trait of Alexander Dumas the younger ; etc. 

" The critic vis-a-vis with M. Dubufe finds himself in a difficult position. The por- 
traits of ladies which he exhibits please the public, little anxious for severe qualities 
and for grand art They are charming in effect, with an exquisite coquetry ; fresh, 
white, rosy, satin-like, and against the hangings of scarlet damask, in their magnificent 
frames d rocailles and d volutes, they ought to produce an effect as agreeable as an enor- 
mous bouquet of flowers bordered with a cornet du Japon. All that glistens, twinkles, 
dazzles so pleasingly, with an eclat so new, so appropriate, so intact ! One truly seems 
savage and grumbling when one demands, under these skins of cold cream, paint, and 
rice-powder, some muscles, nerves, and even, horrible thing, a brace of bone. ' Fie ! the 
frightful thing, that anatomy ! ' they murmur, changing their gracious smile for a deli- 
cious pout, these mouths of rose, of raspberry, or of cherry. What then ! cheek-bones 
in our peach-like cheeks, bones and cartilages in our little delicate noses ! Are we 
skeletons or skinned carcasses ? This flattery, necessary perhaps, sometimes leads the 
painter of high life into too visible falsehoods. "We understand very well that one may 

set off the truth a little. Nothing is more legitimate If we say these things of M. 

E. Dubufe, it is because he has real talent and would have no need of so many concessions 
in order to please. His color is bright, clear, harmonious ; his dresses are rich, elegant, 
coquettish ; his brush obeys his hand freely. Let him have less fear of Nature ; she will 
give him good counsels." — Th£ophile Gautier, Abecedaire du Salon de 1861. 

Dubufe, Guillaume. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of his father 
and of Mazerolle. In 1877 he exhibited the " Death of Adonis" and 
a " Study," and received a third-class medal. He had also a medal 
of second class in 1878, when he exhibited " Saint Cecilia " and 

Due, Joseph Louis. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1802. Member of 
the Institute. Commander of the Legion of Honor. He received 
the grand prize of 100,000 francs, given by Napoleon III. in 1869. 
Due studied under Chatellon, and took the grand prize at l'Ecole des 
Beaux-Arts in 1825. He was architect of the Monument de Juillet 
of the Palais du Justice, and with Vaudoyer he constructed the Ca- 
thedral of Marseilles. The facade of the Court of Cassation, which 
he superintended in 1868, has brought him much reputation. 

Ducker, Eugene. (Buttian.) Born at Orensburg, 1841. Mem- 
ber of the Academies of St. Petersburg and Stockholm. Member of 
the Royal Society of Water-Color Artists at Brussels. Member and 
Professor at the Academy of Diisseldorf. Medals at Vienna, Munich, 
and London. Pupil of the Academy at St. Petersburg, where he re- 
ceived two silver and two gold medals and the six years' stipend for 
traveling studies. A painter of coast-scenes and landscapes. At 


Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited " Shore of the Baltic Sea," " A Sea- 
Shore," and " A Pasture " ; in 1868, " A Marsh or Fen " (storm), now 
belonging to the Emperor of Russia. At Moscow is his picture of 
the " Ausgetrocknetes Flussbett." A large decorative work executed 
in 1873 is owned by the Grand Duke Wladimir Aleksandrowitsch. 
His works are seen in the museums and public galleries of Russia., 
Germany, and England, also in many private galleries. 

" Diicker, who is also a painter of coast and landscape, is an artist whose tone and 
touch and resemblance to nature in his canvases place, him among the foremost paint- 
ers of the age in that line." — S. G. W. Benjamin, Contemporary Art hi Europe. 

Duffield, William. (Brit.) (1816 - 1863). Early showed a de- 
cided talent for art, studying under George Doo and George Lance, 
and in the Royal Academy in London. Later he was a pupil of 
Wappers in Antwerp. His specialty was dead game of all descrip- 
tions, and his works are highly prized. 

Duffield, Mrs. William, wife of the foregoing, has been for some 
years one of the lady members of the Institute of Painters in Water- 
Colors, exhibiting, in 1872, " Province Roses " and " Primroses " ; in 
1873, "Study of a White Rose " ; in 1876, "A Group of Flowers" ; 
etc. She sent a flower-piece to the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

Duggan, Peter Paul. (Am.) Native of Ireland. Died in Paris, 
1861. He came to America at an early age, devoting himself as an 
artist to drawing in crayon, painting only occasionally in oil. His 
portraits were delicate and truthful. He was Professor of Drawing 
in the New York Free Academy, but was compelled to resign his 
position and abandon work, by reason of his delicate health, some 
years before he died. 

Dumas, Michel. (Fr.) Born at Lyons. Three medals at Paris 
Salons. Pupil of Ingres when very young. His subjects are histor- 
ical and religious, and he has painted a large number of portraits. 
In 1853, before he had received his first medal, the government pur- 
chased his "Separation of St. Peter and St. Paul." His " Disciples 
at Emmaus " is in the church of Saint Louis d' An tin. The " Glorifi- 
cation of St. Denis" is in the church of Notre-Dame de Clignan- 
court. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited " Notre-Dame-des-Sept- 

Du Maurier, George B. (Brit.) Born, 1834. Educated in Paris. 
In 1851 he went to England, studying chemistry ; later he turned his 
attention to art, and became a pupil of Gleyre in Paris, working there 
for some time. He settled finally in England, furnishing illustrations 
for Thackeray's " Esmond " and other well-known English standard 
works, as well as for the Cornhill Magazine, Punch, etc. He sent to 
the Paris Exposition of 1878 the originals of many of his sketches for 

Dumilatre, Alphonse-Jean. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux. Pupil 
of Cavelier and A. Dumont. Medal of first class in 1878, when he 


exhibited statues of Croee-Spinelli and Theodore Sivel, made for the 
tomb erected to the victims of the catastrophe of the Zenith, in the 
cemetery of Pere-la-Chaise ; also a marble bust of Athanase Coquerel 
fils. This sculptor exhibited portraits at several previous Salons. 

Dumont, Augustin- Alexandre. (^V.) Born at Paris, 1801. 
Member of the Institute. Commander of the Legion of Honor. 
This sculptor studied under his lather, Jacques-Edme Dumont, and 
also with Oartellier. He took the grand prix de Rome in 1821. He 
did not go to Rome until 1823, and remained seven years. While 
there he executed u Alexandre studying by Night " (a bas-relief at the 
Museum of Saint-Omer), " Love tormenting a Soul under the Emblem 
of a Butterfly " (purchased by the Luxembourg), and a bust of Pierre 
Guerin, in one of the Salons of the French school at Rome. Later 
he made two other busts of the same master, one for the Louvre, and 
one for the church of Saint-Louis des Francais at Rome. Since his 
return to France he has executed a vast number of works for public 
places, a list of which cannot be given here ; the following are some 
of the most important (his works unite grace and boldness of design 
in a remarkable degree) : " Justice," for the Chamber of Deputies ; 
" Nicolas Poussin," for the Salle des Seances of the Institute ; " The 
Genius of Liberty," on the Colonne de Juillet ; statues of Francis I. 
and Louis Philippe, for the Museum of Versailles ; the statue of 
" Napoleon I.," which was on the Colonne de la Place Vendonie, over- 
thrown during the Commune ; a statue in bronze of "Buffon," for 
the city of Montbard ; " War," " Peace," " Prudence," and " Truth," 
for the new Palais de Justice ; bust of Alexandre Lenoir, for l'Ecole 
des Beam-Arts ; and statues of " Sculpture" and "Architecture," for 
the Pavilion Lesdiguieres at the Louvre. At the Luxembourg are, 
"A Study of a Young Woman," " Leucothea and the Child Bac- 
chus," and a " Bust of a Young Girl crowned with Flowers." 

Duncan, Edward. (Brit.) Born in London, 1804. Began his 
artistic career as an engraver, painting at the same time occasionally 
in water- colors, and was one of the original members of the New So- 
ciety of Painter* in Water-Colors in 1831. He left that institution in 
1848, when he joined the Old Water-Color Society, of which he is still 
an active member. Among his later drawings may be named, "Dutch 
Fishing-Boats in a Gale," in 1872; "Returning from Market" and 
several marine views, in 1S73; "Fast Castle near Dunbar," in 1875 ; 
"The Thames in Flood," in 1^77 ; "The Shore near Exmouth, South 
n/' in L87& To tin- Society of British Artists in 1877 he sent 
"Prawn-Catchers, Coast of South Wales/' 

"By Edward Duncan is a busy low-tide subject, 'Landing Fish on the Sands at Whit- 
by,' to which attention is called by its atmospheric beauty, and the extreme delicacy of 
its treatment. The theme is of an ordinary kind, but it marks sufficiently the power of 
the master." — Art Journal, June, 1873. 

Duncan, Thomas, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in Perthshire (1807- 


1845). He was a pupil of Sir William Allan in the Trustees Academy, 
succeeding him as Head Master of that school. He painted portraits, 
historical and ideal subjects, exhibiting at the Royal Scottish Acad- 
emy, of which he was an active member, and at the Royal Academy, 
of which he was elected Associate in 1843. Among his works are, 
"Prince Charles Edward entering Edinburgh at the Head of the 
Highland Clans" (R. A., 1840), engraved by Bacon; "Charles 
Edward protected by Flora M'Donald after Culloden," engraved by 
Ryall ; and " Jennie Dean and the Robbers " and " Anne Page invit- 
ing Slender to Dinner," the last two being in the National Gallery in 
Edinburgh. His " Auld Robin Gray " is in the Sheepshanks Collection. 
Duncan, Walter. (Brit.) Son of Edward Duncan. He was elected 
an Associate Member of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors in 

1874 or '75, contributing, in the latter year, "Undine," "Rising from 
the Well," " The Sonnet," and " The Letter " ; in 1877, " Love, Scan- 
dal, and Politics " and " The Sleeper "; in 1878, " Le Jardin d'Amour " 
and "Wayfarers." 

Duncan, Allan. (Brit.) Son of Edward Duncan. Water-color 
painter, resident of London, exhibiting at the Royal Academy and 
elsewhere. Sent to the Royal Academy, in 1878, "Porteynon, South 
Wales"; to the Society of British Artists, same year, "Isleworth on 
the Thames " and " The Old Farm on the Moor." 

Duncan, Laurence. (Brit.) Water-color painter, son of Edward 
Duncan and brother of Walter and Allan Duncan. He lives at Hen- 
don, and sends occasional pictures to London. At the Royal Academy 
in 1877 he exhibited "The Pet Cat." 

D'Unker Liitzow, Karl Hindrick. (Swede.) Born at Stock- 
holm (1829 - 1866). Swedish court painter. Honorary Member 
and Professor of the Academy of Stockholm. Gold medal at Amster- 
dam. Studied at the Diisseldorf Academy under K. Sohn, and visited 
Paris and Amsterdam. He became disabled in his right arm, and soon 
learned to use his left with great facility. Many of his best works are 
in possession of the banker Dahlgreen at Gothenburg. In the National 
Gallery, Berlin, is his " Policeman presenting a Prisoner to the Officer 
of the Law." 

Dupain, Edmond - Louis. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux. Medals in 

1875 and '77. Pupil of Cabanel. In 1875 he exhibited " Youth 
and Death " ; in 1877, " The Good Samaritan " and " SS. Gervais and 
Protais led to their Martyrdom" ; and in 1878, " Le droit de sortie, 
a Bordeaux, — seizieme siecle." 

Dupray, Louis -Henry. (Fr.) Born at Sedan. Medals in 1872 
and '74. Pupil of Pils and Cogniet. At the Paris Salon of 1877 he 
exhibited, " Grand Maneuvers of Autumn " and " Light Artillery going 
to take Position " ; in 1876, " A Regiment of Hussars in the Campaign 
of 1870-71," and " The Post of the Market-Place at Saint-Denis" ; 
in 1878, " L'arrivee a 1' etape, — la queue de la colonne." 


Dupr(S, Jules. (Fr.) Born at Nantes, 1812. Officer of the Le- 
gion of Honor. As a boy this painter studied design in the porcelain 
manufactory of his father ; at length he essayed oil-painting and 
made his debut at the Salon of 1831, with five landscapes. He now 
sends his works to the Salons very rarely. In 1867 he sent twelve 
pictures to the Exposition Universal : " Animals crossing a Bridge 
in Berry," "Forest of Compiegne," "A Sheepfold in Berry," "The 
Return of the Flock," etc. At the Johnston sale, "A Landscape" 
(13 by 10) sold for $ 1,500. At the Wertheimber sale, Paris, 1861, 
" The Sluice " sold for 7,100 francs. At the Strousberg sale, Paris, 
1874, " The Fisherman " sold for £ 520. At the Wilson sale, Paris, 
1873, " Environs of Southampton" sold for £ 1,680. " A Landscape " 
by Dupre is in the collection of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston, and 
another, belonging to Mr. H. P. Kidder, was exhibited at the Mechan- 
ics' Fair in 1878. 

*' Jules Dupre became, almost from his debut, one of the favorites in public opinion ; 
his farms, his cottages, his old oaks on the borders of pools with cows ruminating about, 
his plentiful pastures where horses run with flowing manes, his mills which profile 
their silhouettes on a stormy sky, have a simple and truthful side which captivates all 
the world. The precocity of his success only developed his activity ; he is always at 
work, and gives himself up to incessant production, although he appears but rarely at our 

expositions One may have more or less sympathy with the works of Rousseau 

or with those of Dupre, but these two masters will remain incontestably as the two 
grandest colorists in landscape which the contemporaneous school has produced." — 
Ren£ M£nard, Gazette des Beaux- Arts, March, 1S73. 

In 1860 there was at Paris an exposition for the benefit of artists. 
In reviewing it Theophile Gautier said : — 

"This exposition is to Jules Dupre a sort of dazzling debut, although his fame is 
already old. For a long time, we know not why, this great artist has sent nothing to the 
Salon ; and if he works, it is in the solitude and silence of the studio. The young gen- 
eration, who did not see the splendid putting forth of art which followed the revolution 
of July, is astonished before the pictures of Jules Dupre, by this boldness, this zeal, 
and this brilliancy. We are no more accustomed to these superb extremes, to this ex- 
cess of strength, to this overflowing of power, to these full-faced struggles with nature. 
This excessive scale dazzles the eyes habituated to the sober regime of gray." 

Dupre', Le'on Victor. (Fr.) Medals at Paris and Philadelphia. 
Brother and pupil of Jules Dupre. He also paints landscapes, and 
frequently views on the borders of rivers. At Philadelphia he ex- 
hibited '-Tli.- Wat.-ring-PLice,— Cattle," and at the Salon of 1878, 
"A Landscape" and "A Pond in Berry" 

Dupr£ Giovanni. (Ital.) Born at Siena, 1817. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor and of the Order of the Crown of Italy. Associate 
Member of the Acade'mie det Beaux-Arts at Paris. When twenty-live 
- old he exhibited his statue of the " Dying Abel." Duple was 
original in his manner. He was a fervent Roman Catholic, and fre- 
quently treated religious subjects. He also made portrait statues and 
busts. The Cavour monument at Turin, erected in 1873, occupied 
seven years in the making of the models alone. The celebrated ped- 
10* o 


estal for the porphyry vase in the Pitti Gallery is by Dupre, as is 
also the bas-relief of the " Raising of the Cross," on the facade of 
Santa Croce at Florence. ■ Among his other works are, " Cain," a 
" Pieta " (two statues in the loggia of the Uffizi), and the monument 
to Duke Camerini. 

Duran, Carolus. (Fr.) Born at Lille, 1838. Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor and of the Order of Leopold. Medal at Philadelphia. 
Pupil of Souchon. In 1853 he went to Paris and spent much time in 
copying again and again " La Joconde " at the Louvre. In 1861 he 
went to Rome. He lived six months with the monks of Subiaco ; 
during which time he painted the " Evening Prayer " of the Salon of 
1863. His first exhibition after he returned to Paris was " The Vic- 
tim of Assassination" (1866), for which he received his first medal ; it 
is in the Museum of Lille. But the fame of Carolus Duran rests on 
his portraits, among which we may name that of £mile Girardin, 
those of his daughters, the equestrian portrait of Mile. Croizette, seen 
at Philadelphia, etc. At the Luxembourg is his " La dame au gant " 
(1869). At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited "Gloria Marias Medicis" 
(a ceiling for a Salon at the Museum of the Luxembourg), and the 
portrait of a lady. 

" The wherefore of the grand success of Carolus Duran is easily explained. He makes 
living beings, and he makes them thus because he so sees them. One feels that when 
he has a subject under his eyes, he scrutinizes the very soul. With a penetrating look 
he seizes its dominant passion, and this becomes the point of support for the whole 
work. With such a painter there are no trickeries, no feints, no sous-entendres. All is 
precise, definite, absolute, — true, even to cruelty, — and, by the side of this furia, 
what delicacy, what sentiment, what grace, mingled with his debordements ! No one 
paints children better than he ; he allows them mischief and fun, tender joy and ju- 
venile revery. He gives affection and solicitude to the strokes of his brush." — Eugene 
Montrosier, Galerie Contemporaine, 1876. 

" The talent of Carolus Duran has the resounding sound of the trumpet ; it has also 
its register somewhat extended, — the want of suppleness, and the horror of graduating 
sounds. This painter excels in flourishes, in vigorous and bold calls, that constitute 
with him a specialty from which the sympathetic public which surrounds him would 
like to see him emerge. Carolus Duran is all enfagade, his charms are all exterior, — he 
attracts you, holds you not, — and has said all when he has called out to you. Heaven 
was severe in refusing him some things, and in other directions has endowed him 
royally. Regarding certain parts of his painting, we are carried away with the ease and 
marvelous sureness ; we. say, Behold a great master ; we are dazzled by his daring and 
harmonious chirpings, by his brilliant velvets and satins." — M. F. de Lagenevais, 
Revue des Deux Mondes. June, 1875. 

" Behold a painter, one of those to whom we make our obeisances, even when we 
ought to criticise. His work is a subject of controversy, but no one can deny him an 
astonishing power in color, an incomparable vigor of modeling, a marvelous control of 
ail the means of his art even in his most dangerous boldness ; and, above all, an original- 
ity which subjugates those whom it is far from charming. To what school belongs 
Carolus Duran ? Is he descended from the Flemish or the Spanish school, or is he 
related only to himself? It is very difficult to say, but it seems to me that the Spanish 
Goya would have painted thus if he had not so abused his black, and if he had been a 
lover of reality instead of a fantasaist and a poet." — Ernest Duvergier de Hauranne, 
ilevue des Deux Mondes, June, 1872. £ 


Durand, Asher B., X. A. (Am.) Born in New Jersey, 1796. 
He stadied engraving in the shop of his father, a watchmaker, ami 

apprenticed to Peter Maverick, the engraver, in 1812, becoming 
his partner in 1817. His u Declaration of Independence," alter Trum- 
bull, first brought him into prominent notice as an engraver. He was 
one of the original members of the National Academy of Design, organ- 
ized in 1826, and was on the first Exhibition Committee. He was 
elected president at the resignation of Professor Morse in 1845, a posi- 
tion he held until 1801. About 1835 he resolved to become a painter, 
and has since devoted himself to that branch of the profession. Among 
the better known of his earlier works are, " Harvey Birch and Wash- 
ington/' " The Wrath of Peter Stuyvesant," " The Capture of Andre," 
" Dance on the Battery," " The Forest Primeval," and " Franconia 
Mountains," many of which have been engraved. In 1869 he ex- 
hibited at the National Academy, " The Trysting-Tree," belonging 
to Benjamin H. Field, and "A Mountain Forest"; in 1870, '• The 
Sketther" ; in 1871, " Close of Day"; in 1873, " Harbor Island, Lake 
George"; in 1874, "Franconia Notch," belonging to R. L. Stuart. 
Durand's " In the Woods," belonging to Jonathan Sturges, was at the 
Paris Exposition of 1867. To Philadelphia, in 1876, he sent " Studies 
from Nature,'' "II Pappagallo," " Kaaterskill Clove," "A Brook 
Study," and a portrait of Governeur Kemble. He was commended by 
the Judges for " excellence in engraving." His " Alpine View near 
Meyringen," from the Leupp Collection, was sold at the Johnston sale 
for $ I 

" Cole and Durand may properly be termed the fathers of American landscape. They 
first effectually inspired the artistic mind with sympathies whose influence is still felt. 
Cole was truly a poet in sentiment, and his simple landscapes possess a charm which 
time does not mar. Durand likewise stimulated into activity that latent feeling for this 
branch of art which has become a marked feature of the American school, — if the term 
is admissible, —and his rendering of landscape is extremely sensitive and refined." — 
Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition of 1 - 

" Durand's ' Lake George ' [1S75] is the production of an octogenarian whom American 
art and American artists honor Mr. Durand treats a landscape as a poet would treat 
it He uses the majestic mountains, the placid lakes, the forest trees, to express the emo- 
tion which they have awakened in him ; and he does this so simply, modestly, sincerely, 
skillfully, with such a delightful feeling for nature and for character, with such an I 
pleasure in the harmony and beauty of forms and colors, with so much quickness of 
mind, so much catholicity of taste, that one is charmed by his recitals. If his laada 
do more than justice to the green color, it is only localise he sees more of these colors 
than some artists see " — Xac York Evening Post, November 9, 1877. 

Durand, Ludovic. (Fr.) Bora at Saint-Brieuc. Medals in 1872 
and "74. Pnpflof Toussaint At the Salon of 1^77 he exhibited a mar- 
ble statue called "Free," and one in plaster, "Captive"; in l 

a marhle portrait bust ; in 1*7"). a plaster statue, "Wounded" ; and 
in 1-7 iv." marble statue. 

Durand, Simon. Bom at Geneva. Medal at Paris in 

1875. Pupil of Menu. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited "A 


Market" and "Between the Pear and the Cheese" ; in 1875, "A 
Marriage at the Mayoralty " and "Un bout de conduite." 

Durand-Brager, Jean-Baptiste-Henri. (Fr.) Born at Dol, 1814. 
Officer of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Gudin and Isabey. He was 
devoted to a marine life by his parents, and made voyages when very 
young. He has since traveled officially for the purpose of exploring 
and making sketches in foreign countries, such as Saint Helena, 
Buenos- Ayres, Uruguay, and other portions of South America, Mada- 
gascar, Sebastopol, etc. His pictures are principally marine views. 
Among them are the " Combat of the French Frigate Niemen against 
the English Frigates Arethusa and Amethyst " (1844), at the Museum 
of Bordeaux, and " Bombardment and Taking of Mogador " (1845), 
at the Museum of Versailles, etc. 

Durant, Susan D. (Brit.) Died in Paris in 1873. Educated in 
France, and first exhibited at the Royal Academy, London, in 1847. 
Was teacher to the Princess Louise, and has executed medallion por- 
traits (R. A., 1866) and busts of almost the entire Royal Family of 
England. Was a constant contributor to the Royal Academy, and 
was called by the London Art Journal (March, 1873) " one of our 
most accomplished female sculptors." Her bust of the Queen (R. A., 
1872) is in the Middle Temple, London, and the " Faithful Shep- 
herdess," an ideal figure, executed for the Corporation of London, is 
in the Mansion House of that city. Among her other works are 
" Ruth " (R. A., 1869), a bust of Harriet Beecher Stowe, and monu- 
ment to the King of the Belgians at Windsor. 

Duret, Francisque-Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1804-1865). 
Member of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. This 
sculptor studied under his father, who was a distinguished artist of 
the Republic and Empire of his time. Later, the son entered the 
atelier of Bosio, and in 1823 took the prix de Rome at l'^cole des 
Beaux- Arts. In 1831 he sent to the Salon " Mercury inventing the 
Lyre," for which he received a medal, and the prize of the Widow 
Leprince. The statue was placed in the Palais Royal, and was copied 
for the Opera. Among his works are the " Neapolitan Dancer," pur- 
chased by the government ; statue of Moliere (1834), at the Museum 
at Versailles ; " Chactas at the Tomb of Atala " (1836), at the Museum 
of Lyons ; several statues at Versailles ; " Venus," for a fountain of the 
Champs tilysees ; " St. Gabriel " and a colossal " Christ," for the Made- 
leine ; the baptismal fonts of Notre-Dame de Lorette ; and a statue of 
" Justice " in one of the angles of the Bourse. Duret was actively 
employed in the ornamentation of the Louvre from 1851 to '56, and 
has also been engaged in many public works. Among his last works 
were a " Statue ol Law " for the new Palace of Justice, and a " Statue 
of Rachel." 

*' If Duret had lived in ancient times, he would have been called a statuary rather than 
a sculptor, because the Greeks designated by the last word the artist who cut his fig- 


ores in the stone or marble; and they called him ■ statuary who prepared his figure* 
only for the bronze-caster, who, in short, contented himself with modeling and sculp- 
tured not. Restless, impatient, and nervous. Dure! worked little in marble, or at least 
not for a long time, for he was easily discouraged, and he had little taste for handling 
the chisel. He used all his talent, and almost all his ambition, to form the clay, to 
fashion it with the linger and the ehauchoir. When he had fixed a movement, after 
turning and returning it in a hundred ways, he modeled his figure in small size, usually 
a third of its size, and neglected nothing to correct the form, to choose the folds, to 
manage the effects of light and shade, to give signification to the accessories,— in a word, 
to put spirit into matter. He was so much occupied with the clay or wax that he left 
no opportunity to caress, to finish, or refine his model. But this model once made, he 
altandoned it willingly to the practitioner, if the statue was to be put in marble, to 
which he had a great repugnance. I have seen him take the rasp to add an accent of 
expression, to soften one expression, or sharpen another, but this was the work of little 
time. Any instrument but the ebauchoir seems to burn his fingers. He had a strong predi- 
lection for bronze, because he was sine, thanks to the perfection of the modern casting, 
that his thought woultl come out of the hands of the caster pure and unsullied, without 
change ; and more lovely still when the form was incorporated in a clear, soft, and pol- 
ished metal than when he had written it in the dead and sad tone of the clay 

Yes, among so many works marked with the qualities of a purified taste, there are two 
which will always realize, as nearly as is possible, sculptural perfection in the sentiment 
of grace, — The ' Dancer' and the ' Mercury.' .... Had Duret produced but these three 
works, the ' Mercury,' the ' Dancer,' and the ' Victories of the Louvre,' or even but one 
of these sculptures, which would merit being called a masterpiece, that would suffice, I 
think, to preserve his memory in the French school, and to render it impossible that he 
should ever be forgotten." — Charles Blanc, Les Artistes de mon Temps. 

Durham, Joseph, A. R. A. (Brit.) Born in London (1821 - 
1^77). In 1S37 he was apprenticed to John Francis, and later 
worked for some time in the studio of E. II. Baily. In 1848 he 
sent to the Royal Academy his bust of Jenny Land, which attracted 
much attention. He made many hundreds of copies of this in marble 
and plaster. To the Royal Academy, in 1856, he sent his bust of the 
Queen, which was presented to the city of London by a retiring Lord- 
Mayor, and is now in the Mansion House. Among his ideal works 
are, "Trying the Lesson," in 1865 ; "The Picture-Book," in 1867 
(when he was elected Associate of the Royal Academy) ; " Leander," 
in 1871 ; "A Dip in the Sea," in 1872 ; " Grotto Boy," in bronze, in 
1877 ; in 1878, a bust of Thomas Webster, R. A. 

His " Ilermione and Alastor" is in the Mansion House. He gained 
a prize for a memorial to commemorate the Great English Exhibition 
of 1851 ; is the author of the statue of Palmerston in the Guild Hall, 
of the bust of Hogarth in Leicester Square, of the statues of Milton, 
Bentham, Newton, and Harvey, in the London University, and of the 
Queen and Prince Albert in various parts of Great Britain. 

" We have hitherto known Mr. Durham principally as the author of many fine 
statues and of groups of children at play, but in Ins '.Siren and tin' Drowned Leander ' 
he has aimed far higher, and so successfully as leads us to hope he will persevere in the 
new path into which he has entered. His mind is of a very high order. Very few 
sculptors of our age so happily combine grace with power. In all his productions, in- 
cluding his admirable busts, there is ample evidence of genius." — Art Journal, Novem- 
ber, 1873. 


Duval-le-Camus, Pierre. (Fr.) Born at Lisieux (1790-1854). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of David, and, for many 
years, Painter in Ordinary to the Duchesse de Berri. His pictures 
were highly finished ; many of them have been engraved. Several of 
his works are in the Louvre. 

Duval-le-Camus, Jules-Alexandre. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1817. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Son of the preceding. Pupil of 
Drolling and Delaroche. His picture of "Jacques Clement" (1861) 
is in the Luxembourg. In 1867 he exhibited " The Martyrdom of 
St. Laurence " ; in 1863, " St. Elizabeth of Hungary dispensing her 
Charities " ; in 1857, " The Flight into Egypt " ; etc. 

Duveneck, Frank. (Am.) A figure-painter, who has studied in 
Munich for ten or more years. He was a pupil of Diez, and consid- 
ered one of his best followers. He sent to the National Academy, 
New York, in 1877, a portrait of Charles Dudley Warner and " A 
Turkish Page." To the first exhibition of the Society of American 
Artists, in 1878, he contributed " The Coining Man " and " Interior 
of St. Mark's, Venice." In 1875 he sent five portraits to the Boston 
Art Club. 

[No response to circular.] 

A picture by Duveneck, called " A Circassian," was presented by 
Miss Hooper to the Boston Museum of Fine Arts. At the Boston 
Mechanics' Fair, 1878, were his " Italian Girl" and " The Professor," 
the latter belonging to Dr. H. C. Angell. 

Duverger, Theophile Emmanuel. (Fr.) Born at Bordeaux. 
Medals in 1861, '63, and '65. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited 
" The Grandmother's Needle " and " An Alley in a Garden at 
tfcouen"; in 1876, "Too much Gratitude"; in 1875, « A Child with 
Fruit " and " Return from Market." At the Johnston sale in New 
York, 1876, "Prayer" (13 by 10) sold for $320. At the Walters 
Gallery in Baltimore is " A Visit of Charity " by this artist, which is 
delicately finished ; and " News from the Army," " Kept In," and 
" The Indiscreet Chambermaid " are in the collection of Mrs. H. E. 
Maynard of Boston. "The Laborer and his Children" (1865) is in 
the Luxembourg. 

Dyce, William, R. A. (Brit.) Born in Scotland (1806- 1864). 
Entered the schools of the Royal Scottish Academy in 1823. Studied 
for some time in Rome. First exhibited at the Royal Academy, in 1827, 
" Bacchus nursed by the Nymphs "; in 1836, "The Descent of Venus "; 
in 1838, " Madonna and Child"; in 1843, "Jessica"; in 1844, "Joshua 
shooting the Arrow of Deliverance"; in 1850, "The Meeting of 
Jacob and Rachel "; in 1857, " Titian's First Essay in Coloring "; in 
1860, "The Man of Sorrows." He was made Associate of the Royal 
Academy in 1844, and Academician in 1849. In 1835 he was elected 
Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, and Member some years 
later. He was one of the artists engaged in the decoration of the Houses 


of Parliament, executed frescos in Osborne House and Buckingham 
Palace, and was Professor of Fine Arts at Kings' College, London. 
He wrote Beveral pamphlets on art subjects. 

" As typical specimens of this painter, three oil-paintings, amongst those shown at 
the Academy, may be quoted : 'Madonna and Child,' in 1846; 'Jacob and Rachel,' iu 
1853; and 'Jacob shooting the Arrow,' in 1>44. These are thoroughly and firmly drawn, 
and soberly colored, while the List-named rises to great force in expression and in ar- 
chaeological troth. There is also a peculiar tenderness about his style, severe as it is, a 
kind of reserved grace, a modesty which wins its place in the beholder's mind and re- 
tains it It is, however, as an histories] painter in fresco that Mr. Dyce is likely 

to be best remembered. Here his work has the merit of leading the way in a style 
which the French artists have brought to noble results in the churches of Paris." — 
Palg rave's Essays on Art. 

Dyckmans, Josef Laurens. (Belgian.) Born at Lierre (1811). 
Chevalier of the Order of Leopold. Professor at the Academy of 
Antwerp. Pupil of Wappers. The characteristic of this artist is 
extreme finish ; of all his pictures perhaps the "Blind Beggar" in 
the National Gallery shows this best. It was bought by Miss Jane 
Clark for more than 900 guineas, and given by her to the National 
Gallery, London. Other pictures of his are, " The Declaration," "The 
Marquise," "The Embroiderer," and "Settling Accounts," which last 
was Bold at the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, for $ 4,350. The fol- 
lowing extract refers to the " Blind Beggar " : — 

" The picture is painted in a tone of color exceedingly low, but the whole is worked to 
an extreme finish; the heads, in fact, are elaborated with a care such as Denner's pictures 
show. In these days of bright and glowing harmonies the eye is at once struck with 
the abstinence from color, which the artist has made a cardinal principle in the exe- 
cution of his work." — Art Journal, July, 1864. 

Dyer, Charles Gifford. (Am.) Born in Chicago, 1846. Dis- 
played artistic talents as a child, graduated at the Naval Academy at 
Newport, and saw some service in the early part of the American 
Civil War. By reason of ill-health he resigned his commission in the 
navy and went to Europe, resolved to become an artist. He studied 
tine time in Paris under Jacquesson de la Chevreuse, and en- 
tered the Royal Academy at Munich as a student in 1871, spending 
his professional life so far in those cities, with the exception of six 
winfc I in Rome, four summer- in Venice, and prolonged 

working-tours in Egypt and Syria. Among his more important 
workf . Mark's. Venire, with Armenian Chapel " (exhibited in 

Chicago and Philadelphia in 1873^ New York in 1874, and owned by 
Walter P. Warren of Troy, N. Y.). "On Linden when the Sun was 
Low" (belonging to >. •(. Anthony), "Venice at Birth of Day" (to 
R. Hay, Edinburgh), "Morning on the Riva, Venice" (belonging 
to John M. Moore of Philadelphia), u Historical Still-Life of the 
Seventeenth Century" (exhibited at Chicago, 1-77, New Fork, 
1878, in ; i Henry W. King. Chicago), "Among the Domes 

of St. Mark's." Since 1^70 he has been a pupil of David Neal at 


" A very praiseworthy study of the interior of St. Mark's at Venice is by Mr. Dyer. It 
does not convey that feeling of tender, colored, scintillating, and gold-shot gloom which 
is the characteristic of the church, but for a study in the manner of a revelation, in 
which all the sumptuous ornament of St. Mark's is indicated under some exceptionally 
perfect condition of illumination, it leaves nothing to desire." — New York Nation, 
March, 1874. 

Eakins, Thomas. {Am.) Born at Philadelphia, 1844. He re- 
ceived his art education in the School of Fine Arts, Paris, in the 
atelier of Bonnat, and studied also under Gerome and the sculptor 
Dumont. His professional life has been spent in the city of Philadel- 
phia, where he is a teacher in the life schools of the Academy of Fine 
Arts, and of the schools of the Philadelphia Artists' League. He 
has also charge (1878) of the School of Practical Anatomy of that 
city. He has painted many small pictures of domestic scenes in the 
early days of America, of American sporting and athletic games 
studies of the American negro character, etc., which have been exhib- 
ited in the Paris Salons, National Academy, New York, Water-Color 
Society, American Art Association, and elsewhere, and which are 
owned in France and the United States. Among the better known of 
his works are, the portrait of Dr. Brinton of Philadelphia, of Professor 
Hand (belonging to Jefferson College), of " William Rush carving his 
Allegorical Representation of the Schuylkill," and "The Surgical 
Clinic of Professor Gross in Jefferson College " (now the property of 
that institution). To the Centennial Exhibition of 1876 he sent the 
" Chess- Players," several portraits in oil, and " Whistling for Plover " 
and " Base-Ball," in water-color. 

Earle, Thomas. {Brit.) (1811 - 1876.) Studied in the schools of 
the Royal Academy, received a gold medal in 1839, and another prize 
for the best historical group. First exhibited in the Royal Academy, 
in 1834, " The Angel of Innocence." Among his works are a statue 
of " George IV." in Trafalgar Square, " Sun Triumphant," " Hyacin- 
thus," « A First Dip " (in 1865) ; " Miranda " (in 1866) ; " Titania," 
" Ophelia," "Alexander the Great" (rejected by the Royal Academy 
in 1876), and portrait busts of the Queen and other noted persons. 

Eastlake, Sir Charles Lock, R. A. (Brit.) (1793-1865.) In 
1809 be entered the schools of the Royal Academy. A few years later 
he studied and copied in the galleries of Paris, and in 1815 he painted 
his first important picture, a life-sized portrait of " Napoleon on the 
Bellerophon," which attracted much attention in England. After 
spending some time in study and sketching in Italy, Greece, and the 
East, he returned to England, exhibiting his first picture at the Royal 
Academy in 1823. He was elected Associate in 1827, Academician in 
1830, and President of the Royal Academy in 1850, when he was 
knighted by the Queen. From 1843 to '47 he was Keeper of the 
National Gallery, and in later years was one of its Trustees and Di- 
rectors. He was also for many years Secretary of the Commission 
appointed for the decoration of the New Houses of Parliament 


Among his more important works are, " Lord Byron's Dream" (R. A., 
L829), - Haidee" (H. A., 1831), "Christ lamenting over Jerusalem" 
i EL A., l s 41), and tin- " Escape of the Carrara Family from the Duke 
of Milan '' (R, A., i860 ; presented to the nation by Robert Vernon, 
and now in the National Gallery, also in various public and private 
galleries), M Pilgrims in Sight of the Holy City" (1828), "An Arab 
selling his Captives," "Greek Fugitives," "Christ blessing Little 
Children " (engraved by Cousins), etc. Eastlake wrote upon art mat- 
ters with considerable ability. His" Materials for the History of Oil- 
Painting" was published in 1847; " Contributions to the Literature 
of the Fine Arts," in 1848. 

" The mannerism of his coloring [Eastlake's], and the sameness of his female faces, 
showing that lie had but one idea of beauty, could be made evident only by time ; and 
at lirst there was an exquisite charm in the grave refinement and delicacy of both con- 
ception and execution." — Harriet Martineau's Autobiography. 

Eaton, Joseph O., A. N. A. (Am.) (1829-1875.) Associate of 
the National Academy, and member of the Society of Painters in Water- 
Colors, and of the Artists' Fund Society. He visited Europe in 1873. 
Exhibited at the National Academy in 1868, " Landscape, — View on 
the Hudson" ; in 1869, " Moral Instruction" and a portrait of R. S. 
Gilford ; in 1870, portraits of E. J. Kuntze (belonging to the National 
Academy) and of Rev. George H. Hepworth ; in 1871, " Dawning 
Maternity" and "The Last Chapter"; in 1872, "Greek Water- 
Carrier"; in 1874, f Lady Qodiva." In 1875, after his death, was 
exhibited his portrait of himself (belonging to the Academy) and his 
" Locking through the Kaleidoscope." To the Water-Color Exhibi- 
tion of 1869 he sent "Vision of the Cross" ; in 1871, "Little Nell 
and her Grandfather"; and in 1874, "The Two Pets." 

" Mr. Eaton was an effective portrait-painter, but his most interesting pictures in this 
specialty were those of childri-n." — Art Journal. March, 1875. 

Eaton, Wyatt. (Am.) A native 1 of Canada, he was educated in Paris 
under Gerdme, and has occupied a studio in New Vork for some years, 
painting portraits and landscapes with figures. He sent to the Exhi- 
bition of the Society of American Artists in 1878 a portrait of William 
Cullen Bryant, and was the first Secretary of that organization. TTis 
rod " Harvesters at Best" (Paris Salon, 1876 ; 
N. A . 1-77 were at the Park Exposition of 1878. 

" Fur simplicity, clearness, dignity, and graoe, this picture [' Harvesters at Rest'] may 

rank with the best of its kind. Perspective and atmosphere are equally good Sub- 

Jeei to the Fren'h painter, Millet, Eaton has lost none of his individuality." — Sew York 
Times, April : 

Ebers, Emile. (Oer.) Born at Breslau, 1807. Studied at the 
Academy of Dasseldort His subjects are usually maritime, but he 
has also paints from military and pastoral life. He is dis- 

tinguished for bis spirit, and for the representation of comical situa- 
tions, such as "Contrabands surprised by the Officers of Customs," 


and others which represent struggles between officers of the law, stu- 
dents in disguises, peasants who refuse to pay taxes, etc. In an- 
other vein are his pictures of " A Woman saved from a Shipwreck " 
and " Saint Goar preaching the Gospel to the Fishermen of the 

Echtermeyer, Karl. (Ger.) Born at Cassel, 1845. Medals of 
Prussia and Saxony, and one at the Exposition of Vienna. Pupil of 
the Academy of Cassel, he passed a year in Munich, and then studied 
under Hahnel in Dresden. In 1870 he traveled in Italy. He is 
now settled in Dresden. Among his works are two caryatides and a 
series of eight large statues for the Galley at Cassel ; a Bacchante 
and a satyr in sandstone for the new theater in Dresden ; a statue of 
the Elector Frederick for the Royal Castle at Meissen ; and at the 
National Gallery, Berlin, two bronze statues, " Dancing Bacchante " 
and "Dancing Faun." At Berlin, in 1876, he exhibited "Greece" 
(marble), antique ; " Rome " (plaster), antique ; " Netherlands " 
(plaster), Middle Ages ; and " Germany " (plaster), Middle Ages. 
The plaster casts are for the Royal Picture- Gallery at Cassel. At 
the Paris Exposition, 1878, he exhibited two statuettes in bronze, be- 
longing to the National Gallery of Berlin. 

Eckersberg, John Frederick. (Norwegian.) Born at Drammen 
(1822 - 1870). Knight of the Orders of St. Olaf of Norway and of 
Wasa of Sweden. Studied at Diisseldorf under Schirmer. Left 
Germany in 1848, and settled in Christiana. In 1850 went to Ma- 
deira on account of his health. In 1854 returned to Christiana, and 
founded an Academy of Painting which has since been taken under 
government protection. His landscapes are fine. At the Exposition 
of 1867 was exhibited his " Grand Panorama Scene from a Norwegian 
Plateau." In the Gallery at Christiana is a large Norwegian landscape, 
with ravines, and mountains with snow-capped summits. 

Edmonston, Samuel. (Brit.) Born in Edinburgh, 1825. He 
was educated in the schools of the Royal Scottish Academy, under 
Sir William Allan and Thomas Duncan, spending his professional life 
in his native city. He paints in oil and water-colors — generally in 
oil — landscapes, marine views, portraits, and homely figure-pieces of 
Scottish life, humorous and pathetic in character, exhibiting at the Royal 
Scottish Academy, Royal Academy, and elsewhere in Great Britain. 
Among his works may be mentioned, " Music hath Charms " (at the 
Royal Academy, 1862), " The Stuff our Sailors are made of," " The 
Volunteers," "The Highland Fair," "The Bathing Pool," "The 
Doubtful Contributor," "Grandfather's Story of his Leg," "Civil 
War," "The Tower of St. Regulus, St. Andrews," "The Bass 
Rock," "Three Fishers," etc. His "Morning of the 12th of 
August " belongs to the Earl of Dalhousie ; "The Orphans," to the 
Earl of Rosslyn ; a series of illustrations of " Duncan Grey " in oil, 
to P. Maclaggan, M. P. ; " The Two Swords," to Sir James Fal- 


■haw. " On Board the Warrior in Time of Peace " was bought by 
the Royal Association for the Promotion of the Fine Arts. 

Edmunds, Francis W., X. A. (Am.) Born in Hudson, N. Y. 
(1m>6- 1S63). He evinced a strong tendency for art as a youth, but 
was brought up in a New York bank, holding the position of cashier 
for some time in an institution of that kind in his native city, and in 
several banks of the metropolis until 1855. He was one of the or- 
ganizers of the Bank-Note Engraving Company, now known as the 
American Bank-Note Company; and his "Barn-Yard," "Sewing- 
Girl," "Grinding the Scythe," and "Mechanic" were upon the several 
notes printed by that establishment. During his entire business 
career he was devoted to art, practicing it diligently in his leisure 
hours. He had no regular art education except such as was gained 
by observation during a visit to Italy in 1840. He first exhibited in 
1836, under an assumed name, " Sammy the Tailor." In 1838 he 
was elected an Associate of the National Academy, and Academician 
a few years later. He was a Trustee of the National Academy, and 
at one time its Recording Secretary. Among the better known of his 
pictures are, " Dominie Sampson," in 1837 ; " The Penny Paper," in 
1839 ; "Sparking," in 1840 ; "Stealing Milk," in 1843 ; "Vesuvius" 
and "Florence," in 1844 ; " The Sleepy Student," in 1846 ; " Trial of 
Patience," in 1848 ; " The Speculator," in 1852 ; " Taking the Cen- 
' in 1854; "The Thirsty Drover," in 1856; " Bargaining," in 
1858 ; "The New Bonnet," in 1859. His " Gil Bias and the Arch- 
bishop " (from the collection of the late C. M. Leupp), at the Johns- 
ton sale in 1876, brought $ 250. 

Edwards, Edwin. (Brit.) Born in County Suffolk, 1823. Land- 
scape-painter, residing in London. He exhibits frequently at the 
Royal Academy. Among his works are, " L T nder the Chestnuts," 
" Lynmouth Harbor," " Down to Quay Clovelly," " Penberth Cove, 
Cornwall/' » Sunrise before Rain," " The Druids, Oakley Park," " The 
Song of the Sea," " Walbeeswick," etc. 

" ' Gainsboro' Lane ' is, in our opinion, one of the most successful studies from na- 
ture in this year"s exhibition [R. A., 1875]. Mr. Edwards here gives a very clever painting 
of a double row of quaint old pollards sheltering a lane by the river Os well, a spot 

gacred to the memory of Gainsboro' The skillful intertwining of the leafless 

branches of the old pollards is exceptionably good, and stamps the painting as one of 
great and original merit." — Art Journal, June, 1875. 

Egg, Augustus L., R. A. (Brit.) Born in London (1816 - 1863). 
Entered the schools of the Royal Academy in 1836, exhibiting soon 
after, at the British Institution and the Royal Academy, "The Devil 
on Two Stick-.'' " Katherine and Petruchio," " Buckingham Re- 
buffed," etc. I ! an Associate of the Royal Academy in 
1848, when he exhibited " Elizabeth discovering that she is no longer 
Young." and Academician in 1861. Among the better known of his 
works are, " The Life and Death of Buckingham," " The Night be- 


fore Naseby," "Madame de Maintenon and Scarron," "Past and 
Present," and " The First Meeting of Catherine and Peter the Great." 
His " Devil on Two Sticks " (in the Vernon Collection) is now in the 
National Gallery, London. His "Launce's Substitute for Proteus' 
Dog," at a sale at Christie's in 1869, brought 600 guineas. 

Egly, William. (Brit.) Born in Doncaster (1798 -1870). Devoted 
to mercantile pursuits, he studied art in his moments of leisure, and 
was entirely self-taught. He finally became a successful and fash- 
ionable portrait-painter, exhibiting first at the Royal Academy in 
1824, and regularly until his death. Among his sitters have been 
Yates the actor, J. H. Foley, R. A., the children of Don Carlos of 
Spain, and many members of distinguished families of England. His 
works are chiefly in miniature, and he was particularly happy in the 
portrayal of children. 

Ehninger, John W., N. A. (Am.) Born in New York, 1827. 
Graduate of Columbia College. In 1847 he went to Paris, entering 
the studio of Couture, and studying and painting for some years 
in the different art-centers of the Continent. He was elected full 
member of the National Academy in 1860. The Art Union Engrav- 
ings of some of his earlier paintings executed in Paris first brought 
him into notice in his own country as a promising artist. Among the 
better known of his works are, " New England Farm- Yard," " Yan- 
kee Peddler," " Love Me, Love my Horse," " The Foray," " Christ 
healing the Sick," and " Death and the Gambler." To the National 
Academy of 1867 he contributed an " Autumnal Landscape "; in 1871, 
"A Monk" ; in 1877, "Vintage in the Valtella, Italy " ; in 1878, 
" Twilight from the Bridge of Pau (Basses Pyrenees)." 

He has lived in Saratoga, N. Y., during the last few years, and his 
work is rarely seen on the Academy walls. He has made many suc- 
cessful and popular wood-engravings for various books, and at one 
time furnished cuts for an illustrated London journal. 

" Ehninger is one of the most accomplished draughtsmen among our American artists. 
His pencil works wonders, and his series of illustrations of John Gilpin have been much 
admired at home and abroad. " — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Ehrmann, Francois Emile. (Fr.) Born at Strasbourg, 1833. 
Medals in 1865, '68, and '74. He studied at the Gymnasium of Stras- 
bourg under a skillful engraver named Schuler, who gave him good 
principles in taste and in manner of work. At seventeen years of 
age, having traveled a few months, Ehrmann announced to his family 
his desire of becoming a painter, but their opposition was such that 
he compromised with them and entered the service of an architect. 
After three years he entered the school of the Beaux- Arts at Paris, 
and was also in the ateliers of Gilbert and Questel. In the design of 
ornament he took a medal, but showed himself impractical in the 
more technical parts of architecture. At length he took all his draw- 
ings and went to Robert Fleury for his advice. This artist pronounced 


him well qualified for a painter, and so, abandoning architecture, he 
entered the atelier of Gleyre, who was a tine teacher. For two years 
he kept young Ehrmann designing and redesigning from the same 
models, insisting that he should not yet attempt colors. In 1860 
Ehrmann sent a picture to the Salon which Mas refused, and, discour- 
aged, he went to Italy. Here he passed two years, sketching from all 
masters and falling in love first with one style and then another. 
Alter his return to Paris he devoted himself seriously to his art, and 
in 1805 exhibited u The Siren Fishing," which gained his first medaL 
It was placed in the Museum of Strasbourg, and burned in 1870. " A 
Conqueror " was purchased by the Luxembourg, and sent to the Gobe- 
lins to be copied in tapestry. " Ariadne abandoned by Theseus," a 
water-color (1873), is at the Luxembourg. His pictures are not hur- 
ried ; he awaits inspiration, and executes slowly and carefully. In 
1877 he exhibited " The Muses " from a ceiling painting in the Grande 
Chancellerie of the Legion of Honor ; in 1875, " Venus passing before 
the Sun" ; and in 1874, "Greece, Rome, The Barbarians and the 
Middle Ages," part of a frieze representing the History of Art in the 
hotel of M. Girard. Many of his pictures are surrounded by a bor- 
der of Cupids, foliage, vines, etc. Without a very rich imagination 
this painter has so cultivated himself that he produces charming rep- 
resentations of subjects often treated before, but which he brings out 
in an original manner, such as " The Fates " and u The Fountain of 
Youth,'' which are most pleasing pictures. Victor Champier, in 
" L'Art," 1876, says of Ehrmann : — 

" I believe that one may compare an artist of this nature to a dreamy musician, to a 
graceful, tranquil melodist, endowed, if you wish, with a charming sensibility, but not 
pathetic, and never forcing you to cry out from the heart. " 

Eichens, Frederic Edouard. (Prussian.) Born at Berlin, 1804. 

Member of the Academy at Berlin. Medal at Paris, 1842. This en- 

r first studied under Buchhorn at Berlin, and obtained several 

academical honors. He then traveled in Russia, •England, France, 

and Italy. At Pari< he studied under Forster and Richomme, at Parma 

under Toechi,ai Florence he made engravings after Raphael's "Vision 

of Ezekiel,*' and at Venice after "Titian's Daughter''; these plates 

ly established his reputation. After his return to Berlin he was 

much honored as a teacher of his art. His works are numerous. 

Some of his engraved portraits are fine. Among them are those of 

hi and the Emperor of Germany. 

Eichens, Philippe Hermann. (Prussian.) Born at Berlin, 1811. 

Four medals at Pari- for engraving and lithography. Brother of the 

• ling. He also studied at Berlin and Paris and traveled in Italy. 

He is one of the first lithographers of Berlin. In 1877 be exhibited 

at Paris an engraving after Weisz, "The Betrothal Ping" ; in 1868, 

"A Haymaker," after Broehart ; in 1863, "The Daughter of J aims," 

after Richter ; and " La Montre," after Toulmouche. 


Elliott, Charles Loring., 1ST. A. (Am.) Born in the State of New 
York (1812- 1868). Son of an architect. As a boy Elliott was a clerk 
in Syracuse, N. Y., but became a pupil of Trumbull, painting por- 
traits in the western part of the State while still a young man, and 
opening a studio in New York City early in his career. He was elected 
Associate of the National Academy in 1845 and Academician in 1846. 
He is said to have painted more than seven hundred portraits of emi- 
nent people, among them, Fitz-Greene Halleck, James E. Freeman, 
N. A. (belonging to the Academy), Matthew Vassar (belonging to Vassar 
College), Louis Gaylord Clark, W. W. Corcoran of Washington, Fletcher 
Harper, James T. Brady, Fenimore Cooper, Governors Seymour and 
Hunt (in City Hall, New York), Erastus Corning (in State Library, 
Albany), and A. B. Durand, N. A. (sold at the Johnston sale to 
the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, for $300). Many of his works 
were at the National Academy in the winter exhibition of 1868-69, 
including " Don Quixote," "Falstaff " (belonging to Vassar), "Andrew 
Van Corlear the Trumpeter " (belonging to W. T. Walters of Balti- 
more), and "Falstaff" (belonging to L. Jerome), his own portrait 
(belonging to M. 0. Roberts), and " The Head of Skaneateles Lake " 
(said to have been the only landscape he ever painted, and belonging 
to F. N. D. Horton). 

" The vigor and truth of his best likenesses, the character and color which distin- 
guish them, are such as to win the respect and interest due to a master There 

is not such a vigorous pencil among our living limners No one can mistake the 

rich tints and vigorous expression, the character and color, which distinguish Elliott's 
portraits." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

"Elliott has a Salvatoresque touch of brush, and brings forth the coarser elements of 
his sitters." — Jarves, Art Idea. 

Elmore, Alfred, R. A. (Brit.) Born in Ireland, 1815. Studied 
in the British Museum, and entered the Royal Academy schools in 
1832, exhibiting his first picture, " Scenes from an Old Play," in 1834. 
He painted for some time in Paris, visited other continental art cities, 
and spent some two years in Rome. He returned to England about 
1844, and was elected Royal Academician in 1856. Among his earlier 
w r orks are, " Rienzi in the Forum " (1844), and " The Invention of the 
Stocking Loom," a work frequently engraved. In 1860 he exhibited 
at the Royal Academy, "The Tuileries, June 20, 1792"; in 1861, 
"Marie Antoinette in the Temple"; in 1862, "The Invention of 
the Combing- Machine " ; in 1864, "Within the Conven t- Walls "; in 
1863, "Ishmael"; in 1870, "Louis XIII. and Louis Quatorze"; 
in 1872, "Across the Fields"; in 1873, "After the Expulsion"; 
in 1874, "Mistress Hettie Lambert," from "The Virginians"; in 
1875, "Ophelia"; in 1877, "Mary Queen of Scots and Darnley at 
Jedburgh"; in 1878, "Pompeii, A. D. 79" and "John Alden and 
Priscilla." Three of Elmore's pictures, " Two Women shall be 
grinding at the Mill " (belonging to Sir John Bowring), " On the 
House-Tops," and "Lenore," were at the American Exhibition at 


Philadelphia in 1S76. " Lucretia Borgia," "Mary Stuart and Darnley," 
"After the Fall," and " Lenore " were at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

" Mr. Elmorfl hardly comes up to the power shown in his ' Lucretia Borgia' of last 
year [1868] by the return which he makes now to his favorite hunting-ground, the clois- 
ter. ' Within the Convent Walls' [R A., 18o4], although not so brilliant an opportunity 
for color, is, however, a graceful and pleasing work, and painted with a greater complete- 
ness than the artist showed in former days.'' — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

" Elmore has a style of subject and treatment that is very winning." — Benjamin's 
Contemporary Art in Europe. 

Elsholtz, Ludwig. (Ger.) Born at Berlin (1805 - 1850). Stud- 
ied at the Berlin Academy, and under Franz Kriiger. Genre and 
military painter. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his " Beginning 
of the Battle." 

Ender, Thomas. (Ger.) Born at Vienna (1793 -1875). Professor 
of Landscape-Painting at the Vienna Academy. Studied at the same 
Academy. The Archduke John and the Prince Metternich w r ere his 
patrons, and by their influence he was appointed artist of a Brazilian 
expedition in 1817, from which he brought back more than seven 
hundred water-color drawings and sketches ; these are mostly at 
Vienna. From 1829 to '33 he was in Italy. His works are charac- 
terized by accurate drawing, strong coloring, and delicate handling. 
At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his "Italian Wood Chapel." 

Engrand, Georges. (Fr.) Born at Aire, Pas-de-Calais. Pupil 
of Cavelier. Medal of the third class at the Salon of 1878, where he 
exhibited " Arion," a plaster group. 

Enhuber, Carl von. (Ger.) Born at Hof (1811 - 1867). Mem- 
ber of the Academy of Munich, where he had studied. At first he 
affected animal subjects, but became a genre and military painter. 
He studied the works of Metzu and Terburg. He illustrated the joys 
and sorrows of every-day life in a masterly manner. In his youth he 
spent some time in the Pvies Valley, and his best-known pictures are 
of the life of the people there, in connection with the stories of Mel- 
chior Meyr. At the National Gallery, Berlin, is his "Return of a 
Volunteer of the Tailor's Guild from his Duty." At the Leipsic Mu- 
seum are six of his pictures of scenes in the "Erzahlungen aus dem 
Ries" of Meyr Among his other works are, "The Interrupted 
Card-Party," " The Court- Day," " The Golden Wedding," " The Rob- 
ber," etc. 

Enneking, John J. (Am.) Born at Minster, Ohio, 1841. Tie 
red lii-^ first lessons in drawing at St. Mary's College in Cin- 
cinnati, under Bishop Rosencrans, then principal of thai institution. 
At the outbreak of the American Civil War, Enneking entered the 
Unite army and served about a year. In 1868 1h- went to 

m, where hewi i in mercantile pursuits. In 18(57 he 

took lessons in pastel from Mrs. Walters in Boston, and went to Eu- 
rope in 1872. After some months spent in travel, Ik- settled in Paris, 
and studied during two yean under Bonnat, turning his attention to 


figure-painting. Later he studied landscape under the advice of 
Daubigny. He returned to Boston in 1874, and at present occupies a 
studio at Hyde Park, Mass. To the Exhibition at Philadelphia, in 
1876, he sent, "Moonlight on the Giudecca, Venice." His "Freshly 
Picked," belonging to Mrs. E. E. Slack, and " Drove of Cattle on a 
November Day," were at the Mechanics' Fair, Boston, in 1878. Mrs. 
John W. James of Boston owns two large and several small pictures 
by Enneking. Of them " The Obersee," which has been much ad- 
mired, is generally considered this artist's best work. The other large 
painting, a farm-yard scene in France, contains many figures. His 
works are frequently exhibited at the rooms of the Boston Art Club. 

Epinay, Cavalliere Prosper d\ (African-English.) Born on the 
island of Mauritius. He is a resident of Rome. Among his patrons 
is the Prince of Wales. He is a pupil of Dantan and M. Amici, and a 
frequent exhibitor at the Paris Salons. To that of 1874 he sent " The 
Golden Belt" (statue, marble) ; in 1875, " L'Enfant Spartiale" (statue, 
bronze) ; in 1876, " David " (statue, marble), belonging to the Count 
P. Strogonoff, and " The Bride of Abydos," belonging to Prince P. 
Borghese ; in 1877, portrait busts (in marble) of the Cardinal Berardi 
and of the Count R. Cohen; in 1878, "Child in a Net" (statue, 
marble). " The Youthful Hannibal," by this artist, was at the Phila- 
delphia Exposition of 1876. 

Escosura, Leon Y. (Sp.) Born in the Asturias. Commander 
of the Order of Isabella the Catholic. Chevalier of the Orders of 
Charles III. of Spain and of Christ of Portugal. Pupil of Gerome 
in Paris. His pictures are interiors with groups, representing the 
scenes of older times. They are very attractive in color, of extreme 
finish, and very much admired. At the Oppenheim sale in Paris, 
1871, "An Unexpected Visit " sold for 3,120 francs. At the Johnston 
sale in New York, 1876, " The Quarrel of the Pets " (7 by 9) sold for 
$ 1,000. In 1870 this artist exhibited at the Salon " The Friends of 
the Painter, — Time of Louis XIII." and "The Irreconcilables, — Time 
of Louis XV. " ; in 1869, " The Atelier of Velasquez " and " Lucretia 
Borgia at Venice" ; in 1868, "The Gallery of Philip IV. at the 
Prado " and " Murillo with the Capuchins " ; in 1867, " Philip IV. 
presenting Rubens to Velasquez " and " One of the Body-Guard," 
etc. At the London Academy in 1870 he exhibited " Going out from 
the Audience." 

At the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, is the "Reception of the 
Ambassador," belonging to T. Wigglesworth. " The Convalescent 
Prince " is in the gallery of Mr. T. R. Butler of New York. 

" His productions are uneven in merit : some of them are elaborately finished ; others 
of them approach coarseness ; none of them display a deep insight into character or a 

wealth of thought or passion This artist has painted a number of out-door garden 

scenes which discover considerable nicety of feeling for sunlit harmonies of color, which 
are simple in motive and not destitute of sentiment or strength. But from a modern 


Spaniard and a pupil of Geromc surpassing tenderness of conception is not to be ex- 
L" — Art Journal, July, 1878. 

Etex, Antoiue. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1808. Chevalier of the 
d of Honor. Descended from a family of artists, he early im- 
bibed a love for their pursuits. He frequented the ateliers of Dupaty 
and Pradier, and studied with Ingres and Duban. lie went to Italy 
in 1830, haying drawn the second prize at FEcole des Beaux- Arts. 
After his studies in Rome, he traveled in Algeria, Corsica, Spain, 
England, and Germany. He made his debut at the Salon of 1833 
with a colossal representation of Cain. Thiers was so pleased witli 
the spirit and boldness of this work that he commissioned him to 
execute two groups for the Arcde Triomphe. His tomb of Gericault 
won for him the decoration in 1841. Etex has been also an engraver, 
painter, and architect. Among his statues are, " Hero and Leander," 
at the Museum of Caen ; " Blanche of Castile," at Versailles ; " Eury- 
diee.a Dryad " (1853), and " Saint Benoit" (1865), at the Luxembourg; 
" St. Augustine," at the Madeleine ; etc. He made also many portrait 
statues and busts. As a painter he executed some portraits and such 
subjects as " Joseph explaining the Dreams to his Brothers," " The 
Ancient Slave," " The Modern Slave," '* Dante and Beatrice," etc. His 
water-colors, pastels, and engravings are numerous. As an architect 
he has made plans for some important works, and he has also written 
political articles and critiques of art for journals and other publications. 
At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited Daubree and Berryer (marble busts). 

Etty, William, R. A. (Brit.) (1789 - 1849.) Served an appren- 
ticeship to a printer in Hull, moving to London in 1806, when he 
ue a pupil of Sir Thomas Lawrence, entering the schools of the 
J Academy the following year. His pictures were rejected for 
many reasons ; his first exhibited work, " Telemachus and Antiope," 
appearing at the Royal Academy in 1811 ; and his second, "The 
Coral-Finders," in 1820. In 1822 he visited Italy, studying in Ven- 
ice, and being elected a member of the Academy there. He returned 
to London in 1^24, when lie was elected an Associate of the Royal 
Academy, exhibiting " Pandora crowned by the Seasons." He was 
made an Academician in 1828. Among his works the following 
were deemed the best by Etty himself: "The Combat," " Benaiah, 
tin," u Ulysses and the Sirens," "The Wag.- of 
Sin is Death," "Joan of Arc/and " Judith." Eleven of his pictures 
are at the National Gallery, London, including "The Dangerous 
Playmate/' "Christ and Mary Magdalene," "The Bather," "The 
Lute-Player," "Youth at the Plow and Pleasure at the Helm," and 
" The Duel." One hundred and thirty of his works ware exhibited 
in London in the year of his death, attracting great attention, and 
[etches when -old, some time later, realized more than .£5,000. 
His - Pluto carrying off Proserpine," at the Gillott sale in i 
brought 1,000 gnine 

11 p 


" Etty was in every respect one of the most distinguished painters of the English 
school, but more especially as a colorist, if not surpassing, at least equaling his great 
models, Titian and Paul Veronese. His drawing was too often affected and mannered, but 
it too was occasionally tasteful, correct, and even grand. To speak of Etty as purely a 
colorist, not as a painter, it is scarcely saying too much to affirm that he has produced 
the most exquisite gems of modern art, as in the ' Imprudence of Candaules ' and 
some other specimens in the Vernon Collection." — Wornum's Epochs of Painting. 

Evans, William. (Brit.) Bom in Eton (1798- 1876). He was 
styled " William Evans of Eton " to distinguish him from " Evans of 
Bristol." He was a pupil of his father, a teacher of drawing in Eton 
College, succeeding him in the same position in 1818. He devoted 
himself to landscapes and figures, generally of a genre character. 
Among his later pictures in water-colors may be noted, " Ferry on 
the Tay," " Highland Farm," " Dunkeld from the Bowling Green," 
" Blain Castle," " Burnham Beeches," etc. He was elected an Asso- 
ciate of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors in 1828, and a full 
member in 1830, contributing frequently to its exhibitions until 1875. 

Evans, William. (Brit.) (1811-1859.) Called " William Evans 
of Bristol," to distinguish him from the preceding artist. A land- 
scape-painter and for many years a member of the Society of Painters 
in Water-Colors. He devoted himself to the portrayal of rough and 
wild mountain scenery, spending much of his time in the districts 
which he loved to paint. His style was entirely different from that of 
" Evans of Eton." 

Evans, Samuel T. G. (Brit.) Son of William Evans of Eton. 
He devoted himself like his father to water-color painting, and resided 
for many years at Eton College. He is an Associate of the Society 
of Painters in Water-Colors, contributing, among others, the following 
works: " Study in the Simplon Pass," " Caerngorm Hills," "Windsor 
from Poet's Walk," "Via Mala," "Rock of Gibraltar," "Catalan 
Bay, South Barbara." His " Rock of Gibraltar, North Front " was 
at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

Evans, De Scott. (Am.) Born in Boston, Ind., 1847. He 
opened a studio in Cleveland in 1874, and turned his attention to por- 
trait-painting. In 1877 and '78 he studied under Bouguereau in Paris. 
At present he is a resident of Cleveland, and is co-director and in- 
structor in the Academy of Fine Arts there. Among his portraits are 
those of a young son of Alfred Cowles (formerly of the Chicago 
Tribune, which now belongs to Edwin Cowles, of the Cleveland Leader), 
of the children of Wilber Hinman, Miss Erne Ellsler, and others. His 
" Mother's Treasure," belonging to T. D. Crocker of Cleveland, was 
painted in France ; " In the Studio," genre picture, since his return 
to the United States. 

" Mr. Evans certainly excels in his delineation of draperies. His silks, satins, and 
velvets, it seems, could not possibly be painted better. There is no greater excellence 
in 'The Treasures' than its perspective. The pavement, rug, etc., recede with a level- 
ncss that is wonderful. It is hard to realize that the base of the column on the right 


is on the same surface, and no farther away than the group of figures, so perfect is the- 
perspective deception. Taken throughout, the picture is a charming one, and does the 
artist great credit." — Cleveland Leader, September, 1878. 

Ewald, Ernst Deodat Paul Ferdinand. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 
1836L Director and Professor of the Industrial School of Berlin. 
Honorary Member of the Museum of Nuremberg. Studied under 
Stefifeck in Berlin, and Couture at Paris, where he remained a long 
time. He went later to Italy, and returned to Berlin, where he exe- 
cuted decorative paintings in the Hotel de Ville and in the Querhallc 
of the National Gallery, the last being a series of the principal scenes 
from the " Niebelungenlied." 

Ezekiel, Moses Jacob. (Am.) Born in Richmond, Va., 1844. 
He graduated at the Virginia Military Institute in 1866. In 1869 
he went to Europe, entering the Royal Academy of Arts of Berlin 
the same year, and remaining there until 1871, working later in the 
studio of Prof. Albert Wolf. In 1873 he gained the Michaelbeer 
prize, a stipendium for two years' study and residence in Italy. He 
has lived in Rome since 1874, making occasional visits to America. 
He has received the gold medal of the Royal Association in Palermo, 
the Raphael medal at Urbino, and a silver medal at Palermo, and is 
a member of the Societies of Artists in Berlin and Rome, of the Acad- 
emy of Raphael in Urbino, and of the Art Association of Rich- 
mond, Va. He has exhibited at Berlin, Rome, Cincinnati, National 
Academy (New York), and elsewhere. Among his most important 
works are, " Religious Liberty" (a group), " Israel," " Eve," " Pan and 
Amur." "The Martyr," "The Sailor Boy," "Grace Darling," "Mer- 
cury," " Faith,*' " Consolation," and " Command." 

" ' The Martyr ' tied to the pillar, as chiseled hy Mr. Ezekiel, sufficed to convince us 
that the artist knows how to breathe life into marble, and that he can make the face re- 
flect grief and pious resignation of the heart .... * Liberty ' is a female of majestic and 
dignified mien, strikingly grand in the simplicity of her Greek attire. The genius of 
'Faith,' holding a flaming torch, is a handsome youth, symmetrical in all his forms. The 
crown of laun-1, the instrument of the American Constitution, the colossal eagle crushing 
]>ent, typify the glory and the power of the country of Washington." — El Diritto, 
Rome, September 2, 1876. 

" One sees at a glance that Ezekiel's group, 'Religious Liberty,' at Fairmount Park, 
Philadelphia, is individual ; it neither resembles in form of expression, in composition 
or handling of material, any work of art that the world possesses, and yet we feel that he 
thoroughly understands, venerates, and appreciate! Michael Angelo's greatness, and that 
be has gone to nature, like a confiding, trusting child, with reverence for nature's 
almighty power and superiority." — Cincinnati Commercial, November 12, 1877. 

"Ezekiel's group is essentially original and unique. Tin- highest merit In the work is 
that it follows nature ]>erfectly in every part. Usually abstract ideas incarnated 
in marble or on canvas are mute. Ezekiel gives them speech. Modern sentiments 
of a philosophieo-reli-iuus eharaeter utter audible words in his marble. One can 
see in it the synthesis of philosophy ; the sublime conception of a religion which draws 
one people to another in the bond of brotherhood. We conclude this brief notice by 
expressing our admiration of the great American sculptor, in whom wc feel Italian pride, 
because his genius was cultured benesth our sky, and was inspired by our great men to 
become more great" — Publica Opinion*, Naples. 


Faed, John (Brit.) Elder brother of Thomas Faed. Born in 
Kirkcudbrightshire, 1820. He painted miniature pictures when quite 
a youth, in the neighborhood of his native place, with considerable 
success. About 1841 he settled in Edinburgh, and not long after was 
elected an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy, exhibiting in its 
gallery in 1850, *' Boyhood " ; in 1851 (when he was elected Academi- 
cian), "The Cruel Sisters." In 1854 lie exhibited "The Cotter's Sat- 
urday Night" ; in 1855, "The Philosopher" ; in 1856, " The Household 
Gods in Danger" ; in 1858, "Job and his Friends " ; in 1860, " Boaz 
and Ruth." In 1862, when he removed to London, he sent to the 
Royal Scottish Academy " The Fine Old English Gentleman," and 
still contributes to its exhibitions. In 1861 he sent to the Royal Acad- 
emy, London, " Queen Margaret " ; in 1864, " Catherine Seyton " ; in 
1867, " Old Age" and " The Stirrup Cup" ; in 1869, "John Anderson 
my Jo" ; in 1870, "Old Mare Maggie" ; in 1873, "After the Victory" ; 
in 1874, " The Morning before Flodden " ; in 1875, " Blenheim " ; in 
1876, "In Memoriam" ; in 1877, "Goldsmith in his Study"; in 1878, 
" The Leisure Hour " and " The Old Basket- Maker." 

" Catherine Seyton [R. A., 1864] is one of the best painted pictures in the entire exhi- 
bition, and certainly by far the most successful work we have seen from the easel of 

John Faed. The whole picture maintains a winning refinement The two figures 

are happily composed, not only in relation the one to the other, but also in regard to the 
size of the .canvas to be filled, and yet they are not crowded, — vital points in which an 
artist often fails. The painter too has justly balanced the figures against the accessories, 
giving to the human element its due preponderance over chairs and tables." — Art Journal, 

Faed, Thomas, R. A. (Brit.) Born in Scotland, 1826. Studied 
in the School of Design, Edinburgh, under Sir William Allan, and 
was a pupil of his brother John, from whom he received his first les- 
sons. Was made an Associate of the Royal Scottish Academy in 
1849, when he exhibited his " Scott and his Literary Friends at Ab- 
botsford " (engraved by James Faed). He went to London in 1852, 
and sent to the Royal Academy of 1855 his " Mitherless Bairn," the 
first of his pictures of homely rural life that brought him into promi- 
nent notice, and perhaps the best and most touching of all his works. 
In 1856 he painted " Home for the Homeless " and " Highland 
Mary " ; in 1857, " The First Break in the Family " ; in 1859, " Sun- 
day in the Backwoods " and " My Ain Fireside" ; in 1860, " Coming 
Events cast their Shadows before" and "His Only Pair." In 1861 
(when he was made Associate of the Royal Academy), he exhibited 
"From Dawn to Sunset"; in 1862, "Kate Nickieby" and "A 
Flower from Paddy's Land" ; in 1863, "The Irish Orange-Girl" 
and "The Silken Gown"; in 1864, "Our Washing-Day" and 
." Baith Faither and Mither " ; in 1865, " The Last of the Clan." In 
1866 (upon his election as Academician) he sent "Pot Luck" and 
" Ere Care begins " (his diploma work) ; in 1867, " The Poor the 
Poor Man's Friend " ; in 1868, "Worn Out," " The Flower of Dun- 


Wane," and "The Cradle" ; in 1869, " Homeless n and " Only Her- 
self" ; in 1870, "The Highland Mother" and "When the Day is 
done" ; in L871, U A Wee Bit Fractious" ; in 1872, "God's ^cre " 
and u Winter " ; in 1873, "A Lowland Lassie," "A Skye Lassie," 
and "Happy as the Day is long"; in 1874, "Violets and Priin- 
!," " The Sailor's Wife," and " Forgiven " ; in 1876, " Morning " 
and "She never told her Love " ; in 1877, "Little Cold Tooties," 
" In Time of War," and " A Runaway Horse " ; in 1878, " Maggie 
and her Friends." These pictures have all been popular, and the en- 
gravings of them have made them familiar to the public on both sides 
of the Atlantic. 

"The picture 'From Dawn to Daylight,' which is honestly and harmoniously 
painted, is full of homely pathos and solemn simple feeling." — Mrs. Tytler's Modem 

" Faed's pleasing children's faces, his bright though patchy color (rich, thick, and 
treacly), the somewhat studious and elaborate picturesqueness, easy sentimentalism, 
and allusions which no one can misunderstand, — all these qualities show no signs of 
falling off, and in ' The Mitherless Bairn' will exert their usual effect over the passing 
spectator. Mr. Faed's work generally pleases for the moment, but seems to us deficient 
in the simplicity and thoroughness without which scenes from common life of the 
pathetic order cannot maintain a lasting interest. Meanwhile he pleases, and should 
hence be encouraged to do more justice to his powers." — Palgrave's Essays on Art. 

" ' Baith Faither and Mither,' by Mr. Faed, who has done for Scottish art what Burns 
has done for Scottish song, is thoroughly characteristic of that phase of the British 
school which is perhaps the most widely popular, and with which its public are the 

most sympathetic It is the translation into painting of a subject suited to a 

poem. It is illustrative and readable, and in technical merit of a certain kind it is in 
many respects admirable. It is rather poetic than artistic, if the distinction explains 
itself. The conspicuous values are in the telling of the story, rather than in the pic- 
torial treatment" — Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition 
of 1878. 

" The aspect and action of the old lady as she feels the wall with her trembling hands 
give an immense value to the picture ' Runaway Horses ' [R. A., 1877], and show how 
true an observer Mr. Faed is in all that pertains to human nature from ' Dawn to 
Sunset.' " — Art Journal, July, 1S77. 

" Mr. Faed has, by such pictures as the 'Mitherless Bairn,' made a profound impres- 
sion." — Benjamin's Contemporary Art in Europe. 

Faed, James. (Brit.) A native of Kirkcudbrightshire. He has 
spent the greater part of his professional life in Edinburgh, devoting 
himself to engraving with marked success. Among his plates are 
many of the works of his brothers John and Thomas Faed, and oi 
the portraits of Sir Francis Grant. He paints also occasional land- 
- and figure-pieces in oil-colors, exhibiting at the Royal Scottish 
Academy, and elsewhere in Great Britain. 

Fagerlin, F. J. (Swede.) Medal at Paris, 1867. At the Paris 
Exposition of 1S7S he exhibited "Plus d'espoir" (belonging to Mr. 
Winch of London), and a genre subject. This artist is a member ot 
tht- Royal Academy <>f Sweden lb* resides at Dusst-ldorf. 

Fahey, James. (Brit.) P>orn, 1«04. Turning his attention to 
engraving at an early age, he adopted painting as a profession about 


1823, studying under Scharf in Munich, and later for some yeais in 
Paris. He settled in London about 1830, and was one of the early 
members of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colors, holding the 
position of Secretary for many years. He is a member of the Acad- 
emy of Fine Arts of Philadelphia. His specialty is landscapes. 
Among his later works may be noticed, "The High Mill, Bootle," 
" Ha wes Water, Westmoreland," "Poole Harbor, Dorset," and in 1878, 
" Bray Castle, Windermere," " Warren Corner, Hants," and views in 
Cumberland and the Isle of Skye. 

Fahey, Edward H. (Brit.) Born in Brampton, London, 1844. 
Son of James Fahey. He began the study of art in the schools of 
South Kensington in 1862, was admitted an architectural student 
at the Royal Academy in 1863. In 1866 he went to Italy. In 1869 
he studied painting at the Royal Academy, going to Germany, and 
again to Italy in 1871. He was elected an Associate of the Institute 
of Painters in Water-Colors in 1871, and a full member in 1875. He 
has spent his professional life chiefly in London. Among his more 
important works are, " The Mill at Rest " (exhibited at the Dudley 
Gallery in 1874), " Queen Lily and Rose in One " (R. A., 1875 ; pur- 
chased by the Earl of Ellsmere), "He Never Came " (R. A., 1876), 
" Lily and her Butterflies " (Dudley Gallery, 1875), " Still Waters '' 
(R. A., 1877), and " The Pool " (at Dudley Gallery in 1877). His 
" Cloudy Day on the Moulsford Downs " was at the American Cen- 
tennial Exhibition of 1876. "He Never Came," in oil, and "The 
Higher Pool," in water-colors, were at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

Falconer, John M. (Am.) Born in Edinburgh, 1820. He came 
to America in 1836, and has since been engaged in mercantile pur- 
suits in New York, devoting his leisure time to painting in oil and 
water-colors, exhibiting frequently at the National Academy, of which 
he is an Honorary Member. He was one of the early members of the 
Water-Color Society, and has been Treasurer of the Artists' Fund So- 
ciety for many years. Among his works exhibited at different times 
may be mentioned, " Hoboken Meadows in 1852, looking south," 
" Newsboy," "Waiting," " Bird- Trapping," "The Old Hotel Hurley," 
"Prickly Pear in Blossom," " Shakspere's Birthplace," " The Oldest 
House in St. Louis," " Albert Diirer's House, Nuremberg," etc., in 
water-colors. In oils he has exhibited " Aussig River," " Gray Sum- 
mer Morn," "The Birthplace of the Author of 'Home, Sweet Home,'" 
"Washington's Headquarters," "October Snow," "Spring," and 
" Autumn at Mount Clair, New Jersey," and many more. 

Falguiere, Jean-Alexandre-Joseph. (Fr.) Born at Toulouse. 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Jouffroy. At the Salon 
of 1877 he exhibited a bronze statue of Lamartine and a picture of the 
"Beheading of St. John " ; in 1876, a bronze bust of Carolus Duran 
and a picture of Cain and Abel ; in 1875, " Switzerland succoring 
the French Army " (plaster group) and a picture of "The Wrestlers" ; 


in 1874, a portrait bust in marble. In the Gallery of the Luxembourg 
are a marble statue of "A Christian Martyr" (1868) and the famous 
"Vainqnenr an combat de eo<is " (1870). At the Salon of 1878 he 
exhibited a marble statue of Pierre Corneille, a portrait bust, in mar- 
ble, of the Archbishop of Rouen. 

Fantacchiotti, Odoardo. (Ital.) Born at Florence (1809- 
1877). Member of several academies. This sculptor was endowed 
with a fine imagination, and was original in treatment and skilled in 
execution. His statues of " Boccaccio " and " Accursio " are in the 
loggia of the Uffizi. In Santa Croce is his tine monument to Raphael 
Moighen the engraver, in San Lorenzo is that to Madame Spence, 
and in a church in Cincinnati, U. S. A., is his " Angel of Prayer." 
Among his other works are, "Love and Psyche." "Love resting on 
Fidelity," a large group called "The Murder of the Innocents," etc. 

Fantin-Latour, Henri. (Fr.) Born at Grenoble, 1836. Medals 
in 1^7i> and '75. Pupil of his father and Lecoq de Boisbaudran. At 
the Salon of 1877 he exhibited a picture called "Reading," which 
was much praised by Duranty in the " Gazette des Beaux-Arts," and a 
portrait, also two pastels of landscapes and two lithographs ; in 1876, 
paintings of " Flowers " and " The Anniversary" ; in 1875, three por- 
traits ; and in 1874, " Flowers and Objects of Still-Life"; at the 
Salon of 1878, "La famille D.," which last was much admired and 
well written of by Roger Ballu in the " Gazette des Beaux- Arts " of 
July, 1878. 

" Flower-painting needs a very skillful hand to make it attractive, but the ' Roses ■ 
[Dudley Gallery, 1S73]. l»y H. Fantin, must attract every one who cares for taste and re- 
finement in art. Not less in drawing than in color the flowers show an uncommon gift 
for realizing the individual beauties of outward nature." — Art Journal, December, 1873. 

Farrer, Henry. (Brit.- Am.) Born in London, 1843. He has 
spent his professional life in the city of New York. He is a member 
of the New York Etching Club, and of the American Society of 
Painters in Water-Colors. Among his works may be mentioned, 
"On the East River," "A Hot Day," "A Calm Afternoon," "Sunset, 
Coast of Maine," "The Silent Tongue" (painted in 1872), " The Old 
Homestead at Twilight," and " A November Day," belonging to J. T. 

To the American Centennial Exhibition of 1876 he contributed 
"A Windy Day" (belonging to Dr. J. G. Holland) and "The Old 
House on the Hill"; to the Paris Exposition of 1878, "A Qniet 
Pool" (belonging to Robert Gordon, and at the National Academy 
the same year). 

*' "The Silent Tongue," by Henry Farrer, being a study of a ferry- wharf, in which the 
warning bell is the chief object, is a very noticeable picture, one into which the artist 
has succeeded in getting a great deal of true sentiment "— New York Evening Mail, 
February 14, 1878. 

" In ' The Quiet Pool ' Farrer husbands all his means, understands and enjoys his sub- 
ject, and trusts with simple faith to the power of nature to help him through. The re- 


suit is a drawing that, in its way, is nearly perfect, — one that in its single self gives 
character to the Exhibition." — Tribune, February 5, 1878. 

" Fairer is the best, by all odds the best, of the young men who are honorably striving 
to establish among us the practice of the delightful art of etching." — Tribune, April 19, 

Fairer, Thomas C. (Brit.-Am.) Brother of Henry Fairer. He 
occupied a studio for some years in New York, but has of late been a 
resident of London, studying and painting also on the Continent. 
He was one of the early members of the American Society of Paint- 
ers in Water-Colors. Among his works exhibited at the National 
Academy in New York may be mentioned, " Field Lily " and " Twi- 
light on the Hudson," in 1867 ; " Beach at Hastings " and " An Eng- 
lish Farm," in 1871 ; "Caernarvon Castle, Wales " (belonging to Robert 
Elting), and " Interior of St. Mark's, Venice," in 1872 ; (i Sunset," in 
1875 ; " Yorkshire Trout Stream," " Coming through the Lock," and 
" Rochester Castle," in 1878. To the Royal Academy in London, in 
1872, he sent " Rochester Castle"; in 1874, " Early Spring"; in 1877, 
" The Brook." 

"We are not surprised that this skillful artist [T. C. Farrer] finds the art-lovers of the 
States able and willing to appreciate his labors. He may take high professional rank 
anywhere ; and, although young, he has already achieved a reputation that cannot fail 
to place him foremost among the painters of whom America is justly proud." — Art 
Journal, April, 1871. 

Faruffini, Federigo. (Ital) Born at Sesto San Giovanni, prov- 
ince of Milan (1833 - 1870). Medals in Italy and at Paris. The 
principal pictures by this artist are, " The Architects of the Cathedral 
presenting to Cardinal Sforza a Model of the Dome of Pavia " (a fine 
work, for which he received a medal) ; " Dante in Youth " ; " Even- 
ing on the Ticino " ; " Titian in a Gondola with his Daughters " (be- 
longing to the banker Ponti, Milan) ; and " Macchiavelli and Cesare 
Borgia," which took a gold medal at Paris in 1866. The " Sala del 
Cambio," a large and valuable picture, was purchased by Mr. Gordon 
and brought to America. He left a large unfinished picture of a 
" Festa at Messalina." 

Fassett, C. Adfele. (Am.) Born in Owasco, N. Y., 1831. She 
studied water-color painting in New York under J. B. Wandesforde, 
an English artist, and crayon drawing and painting in oil under Cas- 
tiglione, La Tour, and Matthieu in Paris. She spent two years in 
study in Paris and Rome, lived in Chicago twenty years, and has 
been a resident of Washington, D. C, since 1875. Mrs. Fassett is a 
member of the Chicago Academy of Design, elected in 1873 or '74, 
and in 1876 was elected a member of the Washington Art Club. 
Among her many portraits may be mentioned those of Dr. Small, 
J. H. Dunham, Judge Hibbard, Charles Hammill, and other promi- 
nent citizens of Chicago, Vice-President Wilson (owned by the Shoe 
and Leather Association of Boston), Justice Miller of the Supreme 
Court (owned by Colonel Corkhill of Washington), Chief Justice 


Waite (at the Centennial Exhibition of 1876), the sculptor Vela 
(presented to the Corcoran Gallery, Washington, by Hon. John Hitz, 
Consul-General of Switzerland), Clara Barton the philanthropist 

(owned by Mr. Hitz), and the library of Mrs. Martha J. Lamb, the 
historian of New York, with portrait of Mrs. Lamb (exhibited at the 
National Academy in 1878). Mrs. Fassett's " On the Campagna " is 
owned by Hon. E. B. French of Washington, and a drawing of " The 
Three Graces " is in the possession of the present Japanese Minister 
to Washington. 

Mrs. Fassett is now engaged (1878) upon an historical painting en- 
titled " The Electoral Commission in Open Session." It will include 
portraits from life-sittings of some two hundred ladies and gentlemen, 
prominent in political, literary, social, and scientific circles in the 
Capitol. It represents the old Senate Chamber of the United States, 
now the Supreme Court room, with Hon. W. M. Evarts making the 
opening argument. 

" Mrs. Fassett's admirable likeness of Vice-President Wilson, said to be one of the 
most correct for which he ever sat, has been purchased by subscription for § 500, and 
presented to the Shoe and Leather Exchange of Boston. Her great work, ' The Electoral 

Commission,' in her studio in Washington, is slowly approaching completion Mr. 

Evarts is addressing the court, and the large number of people present are naturally 
and easily grouped. There is no stiffness or awkwardness in the position, nothing 
forced in the work. There are in the crowd ladies enough in bright colors to relieve the 
somberness of the black-coated men, and the effect of the whole picture is pleasing and 
artistic, aside from its great value as an historical work." — Arcadian, New York, Decem- 
ber 15, 1S76. 

" The picture — Mrs. Fassett's 'Electoral Commission '—gives evidences of great merit, 
and this illustration in oil of an historical event in the presidential annals of the coun- 
try by the preservation of the likenesses in group of some of the principal actors, and 
a few : ipoodenta of the press, will be valuable. This portrait we safely pre- 

dict will be a landmark in the history of the nation that will never be erased. It memo- 
rizes a most remarkable crisis in our life, and perpetuates, both by reason of its intrin- 
sic value as a chapter of history, and its intrinsic worth as an art production, the inci- 
dent it represents and the name of the artist." — Washington Capitol, March 17, 1878. 

Fassin, Adolphe. (Belgian.) He exhibited at Philadelphia the 
" Neapolitan Water-Seller," in galvano-plastic, and " Rome " and 
"Naples," both in marble, and received a medal. 

Fattori, Cavaliere Giovanni. (Ital.) Professor at Florence. 
Medals at Vienna and at Philadelphia, where he exhibited " Land- 
scape. — Real in Summer," "The Escort," "The Arrival of a Mail in 
Camp." and "The Horse-Market" 

Fedi, Pio. (Ital.) Born at Viterbo, 1815. Member of several 
academies. Went when very young to Florence. Worked with a 
goldsmith on the Ponte Vecchio until he was sixteen years old. In 
1838 studied engraving at Vienna. At length entered the Acad- 
emy of Florence, and there gained a stipend with which to go to 
Rome. He sent to Florence " Christ healing the Epileptic," a " St. 
tian,"and a "Cleopatra." In 1846 Leopold II. commissioned 
him to make the statues of Andrea Ceaalpine and Niccolo Pisano for 


the loggia of the Uffizi. The work by which he is best known 
is the " Rape of Polyxena," in the Loggia dei Lanzi ; this is his 
capo d } opera. Mr. Wood of New York offered him $ 25,000 to repeat 
it for Central Park, and it is said that a Boston gentleman offered him 
double that sum ; but he felt it would be a breach of trust to dupli- 
cate it, and declined the offers. 

" Fedi's marble group of the ' Rape of Polyxena' has been placed by the Florentines 
in competitive proximity to the works of Michael Angelo, Donatello, Cellini, and Gio- 
vanni da Bologna. It is a noteworthy example of the Italian habit of looking behind, in- 
stead of around or before, in art and literature. Although the closely stuck drapery 
has a look of being just taken out of a washtub, and a falling figure is always a grave 
sesthetic defect, like stuttering in speech, yet as a whole it is a favorable illustration of 
the capacity of the modern academicians to treat whatever motives may be presented to 
them in a skillful manner, devoid of other ambition than to make an effective tableau. 
That so much talent and money can be in this age so misplaced as concerns the 
public, is a direct impeachment of the old governmental tyranny over the artistic mind, 
which permitted no training that could enlighten the people or inspire them with that 
disquietude in existing things that prepares the way for something better. How could 
art thus repressed rise higher than mere mechanical excellence and a tolerable imitation 
of whatever in the past was officially endorsed as politically harmless ! But if govern- 
ments prevent the development of any genuine national lil'e based on freedom, the artist 
also has much to answer for in bringing it into popular disrepute by his treatment of 
the permitted subjects." — Jarves, Art Thoughts. 

Felsing, Jacob. (Ger.) Born at Darmstadt, 1802. Medal at 
Paris, and Honorary Member of the Institute of France. This cele- 
brated engraver studied first under his father, then at Milan, and also 
at Parma under Toschi. His engraving of " Christ in the Garden of 
Olives," after Carlo Dolci, took the grand prize at the Academy of 
Milan. Felsing visited Borne and Naples, and was for some time a 
professor at the Academy of Florence. Among his works are, " The 
Madonna of St. Francis," after Andrea del Sarto ; the " Violin- 
Player," after Raphael ; " Young Girls at a Fountain," after Bende- 
mann ; " Holy Family," after Overbeck ; etc. 

FeVon, Firmin-Eloi. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1802 - 1876). Pupil of 
Gros. He gained the grand prize in painting at l'rtcole des Beaux- Arts 
in 1825. After his return from Rome he executed several works for the 
Gallery at Versailles, — " The Battles of Arsur," " Fornoue," " Gun- 
tersdorff," " Hollabrun," and several others, also " The Taking of 
Rhodes," " Entrance of Charles VIII. into Naples," " The Arrival of 
the Duke of Orleans at the Hotel de Ville, July, 1830," a portrait 
of Duguesclin, etc. 

Ferrari, Luigi. (Ital.) Born at Venice, 1810. Son of a sculptor, 
who early instructed him in drawing and modeling. Before the 
death of the father, in 1844, the son had given proof of good talent, 
and had exhibited a bust of the " Virgin," since placed in the Mu- 
seum of Brescia. This sculptor represented a new school in Italy; he 
was full of zeal and boldness, and was made, in 1851, Professor of 
Sculpture at the Academy of Fine Arts in Venice. Among his 


works are, " David triumphing over Goliath," "A Young Girl pray- 
ing at the Tomb of her Father," "Christian Resignation" (a bas- 
relief), "Melancholy," "Endymion," " Innocence," etc. 

Ferrari, E. (Ital.) Born at Rome. Medal at Naples in 1877. 
Sculptor. He sent to the Exposition at Paris in 1878, " Jacques 
Ortiz " (statue in plaster). King Humbert gave him sittings for a 
bust in 1878. He made a large statue of a Roumanian statesman to 
be sent to that country. Ferrari is also a clever artist in water-colors. 
Some of his pictures are in private collections in Boston. 

Ferrier, Joseph- Marie -Augustin- Gabriel. {Fr.) Born at 
Nimes. Prix de Rome, 1872. Medals in 1876 and '78. Pupil of 
Pils and Lecoq de Boisbaudran. At the Salon of 1876 he exhibited 
" David " and " Bathsheba " ; in 1875, " The Rape of Ganymede " ; 
and in 1872, " An Improvisator of Greece, Thirty Years B. C. " ; in 
1878, "St. Agnes, Martyr." 

Fesquet, Jules. (Fr.) Born at Charleval. Two medals at 
Paris. Pupil of the elder Dantan. This sculptor executed a " St. 
John, Evangelist " for the church of the Trinity at Paris, and an alle- 
gorical statue of the city of New York for Central Park. About 
1867 his health became so feeble that he was forced to give up sculp- 
ture. He became a designer, and is much employed upon illustrated 
publications, besides his other professional labors. 

Feuerbach, Anselm. (Ger.) Born at Speyer, 1829. Professor 
at Vienna. Pupil of the Diisseldorf Academy under Schadow, and 
of Rahl at Munich. He visited Antwerp, and entered the atelier of 
Couture at Paris, where he remained but a short time, and then 
sought his way without masters other than the old masters of Italy, 
whither he went. His first noticeable picture after this experience 
was " Dante with the Noble Women of Ravenna," exhibited at 
Carlsrnhe, and purchased by the Grand Duke ; we believe it to be 
now in the Museum of Carlsruhe. His "Pieta," of 1862, has been 
etched by Professor Raab. Among his works are, " Francesca di 
Rimini," some representations of child-life, " Iphigenia at Aulis," now 
in the Stuttgart Gallery, "Orpheus and Eurydice," "Medea," "The 
Judgment of Paris," " Lesbia," and " Pallas." At the International 
Exhibition at Munich in 1869 he exhibited the "Banquet of Plato" 
and the " Pieta." 

" In all his works there is a resemhlanee to Ingres not to be overlooked. Our master 
always shows a moderation in the use of his colors which Ingres never had ; but he also 
knows how to give a power to this moderation such as few of our historical artists have 
reached, and to unite perfection of form with strength of efTect in a manner quite 
original. He thus separates himself from his predecessors, and is a modern artist and 
a child of his time in the l>est sense." — Fr. Pecht, Zeitschrift fur bildenrle Kuntt, 1878. 

" Feuerbach was completely unknown to us, as he probably is to our readers, before 
our Journey to Munich ; and in leaving this eity we hear away the most vivid admira- 
tion of his talent, and the conviction that he is one of the three or four artists upon 
whom Germany can count .... We found there almost the complete work of an art- 
ist who traces out a path for himself, who copies no one, and who goes his way with 


a rare determination, without disquieting himself about success. Of little imagination, 
at least in appearance, but of much heart, although he strives to conceal it. The 
'Pieta' (1863) is a chef-d'oeuvre. This day, so full of emotions, draws to its end ; even- 
ing throws its shade on all the world ; Christ, a figure ugly rather than beautiful, is ex- 
tended in a cavern ; his mother is beside him, overwhelmed with her grief; behind her 
kneel three young women, sad but resigned. It is all ! No accessories, no violent ges- 
tures, no ideas, but a sincerity which goes to the heart, and a sadness so natural and so 
deep that it touches one more than all the research of the pathetic. It is as simple and 
grave as an ancient chant of the Church. The forms are not beautiful, but severe and 
true ; the attitude of the three women is monotonous in design ; the severity of color suits 
the subject admirably, and the heaviness of the background concentrates the effect and 
impresses it more profoundly on the soul. The artist has in every way abandoned tra- 
dition, and in painting the people of to-day has known how to elevate them by a grand 
style." — Eugene Muntz, Gazette des Beaux-Arts, September, 1869. 

Feyen-Perrin, Francois Nicolas Augustin. (Fr.) Born at 
Bey-sur-Seille. Medals in 1865, '67, and 74. Pupil of Cogniet and 
Yvon. The pictures of this painter frequently represent scenes from 
homely life, — peasant- women, fishermen's wives, etc. He has made 
etchings of his own works, and occasionally of the works of other 
artists. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " The Parisienne at Can- 
cale"; in 1876, "The Cancalaises " ; in 1874, "The Return of the 
Oyster- Fishers, Cancale " (at the Luxembourg) and " In the Dew " ; 
in 1873, " A Cancalaise at the Fountain " and " The Road to the 
Market." He has also exhibited portraits. At the Salon of 1878 
was his " Death of Orpheus." 

"Some years since he said to me that, considering the great inequality of some art- 
ists in their work, he thought the aim of an artist ought not to be so much to make 

brilliant hits as to reach une bonne moyenne I may add that M. Feyen-Perrin has 

himself decidedly attained the bonne moyenne which he thought desirable, both as a 
painter and an aquafortist. " — P. G. Hamerton, The Portfolio, May, 1873. 

Fichel, Eugene Benjamin. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Delaroche. His " Arrival at the 
Inn" (1863) is at the Luxembourg. At the Paris Salon of 1877 he 
exhibited " The Inn at Ramponneau," and " At Hotel Drouot " ; in 
1876, " A Fete in 1776." At the Walters Gallery in Baltimore there 
is a charming picture by Fichel. His " Coin Connoisseurs " is in the 
collection of Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston. At the Johnston sale, 
New York, 1876, his " Minstrel" (7 by 9) sold for $450. At the 
Salon of 1878 he exhibited "Soldiers and Grisettes" and " Le save- 
tier et le financier." 

Fiedler, Bernhard. (Ger.) Born at Berlin, 1816. Member of 
the Academy at Yenice. Medals at Yienna. Studied at the Academy 
of Berlin and under E. Gerst; later, under W. Krause. In 1843 he 
went to Italy, then to the East, where he traveled extensively with 
the Duke of Brabant. Fiedler decorated the beautiful castle of Mira- 
mar, near Trieste, the home of the unfortunate Maximilian. He 
filially settled at Trieste. At the Berlin National Gallery is his 
"View in Istria." At Berlin, in 1871, he exhibited "A Yiew of 
Cairo " and several water-colored views of Egypt and Venice. 


Fildes, S. Luke. (Brit.) Contemporary English artist residing 
in London. lit- began his stndiee in the schools of South Kensing- 
ton ; later, filtered the Royal Academy. He furnished drawing 

I for the London Graphic, Cornhill Magazine, Once a Week, and 
other periodicals, and was selected to illustrate the last books of 
Dickens and Lever. Hi> name appears for the first time in the cata- 
logues of the Royal Academy in 1868, when he sent " Nightfall." In 
1869 he exhibited "The Loosened Team"; in 1871, " The Empty 
Chair"' (Dickens' study); in 1872, "Fair, Quiet, and Sweet Rest"; in 
1873, "Simpletons'' ; in 1874, "Applicants for Admission to a Casual 
Ward"; in 1875, "Betty"; in 1876, "The Widower"; in 1877, 
" Playmates.'' His " Casual Ward," belonging to Thomas Taylor, 
and M Betty " were at the Philadelphia Exhibition of 1876, and "The 
Casual Ward " at the Paris Exposition of 1878. 

" ' The Casual Ward,' by S. Luke Fildes [R. A. , 1874], is the most notable piece of real- 
ism we have met with for a long time. The painter has shirked nothing ; he has set down 

the facts as he found them We think Mr. Fildes has taken the only sincere course 

possible with a subject of this kind. He has made no attempt to make his picture pretty, 
he has, in truth, deliberately made it horrible and weird, but so much of artistic taste 
as there was room for he has bestowed upon his work." — Art Journal, August, 1874. 

" ' Betty,' by Fildes is fresh and animated, well drawn, full of spirit and hearty grace. 
It appeared one of the most attractive pictures of the Exhibition. His ' Applicants to a 
Casual Ward ' is a work of great power, and abounds in admirable individualization." — 
Prof. Weir's Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition of 1876. 

" ' The Widower ' [R. A., 1S76] is certainly one of the finest works of art ever re- 
ceived by the Academy Committee of Selection ; full of tender pathos and sentiment, 
robust in execution, and vigorous in outline." — Art Journal, August, 1876. 

" But the gem of the Exhibition [Dudley Gallery, winter of 1S77^ is ' Marianina,' by 
Luke Fildes, which for pose, drawing, and color is perhaps the best bit of work he has 
done. Mr. Fildes has used the very roughest kind of canvas, he has laid on his paint 
here and there with a palette knife, as if he were handicapping himself to obtain soft- 
ness of tone and texture in spite of conditions that would at first blush appear to tell 
against both. There is no picture in the gallery more tender, soft, and delicate in its 
effect than this vigorous study." — London Letter to New York Times, December 9, 1877. 

" This work [' Applicant* for Admission to a Casual Ward '] attracted universal atten- 
tion, both from the singularity of the subject and the power with which it was treated. 
In the astonishing reality and individuality of the figures it represented one of those 
haunting scenes of miserable life which Dickens knew how to produce, and it proved 
with what discrimination the painter had been chosen to illustrate the famous novelist's 
last work. " — Portfolio, May, 1878. 

Fildes, Mrs. Luke. (Brit.) Resides in London, painting in the 

studio of her husband. To the Winter Exhibition at the Dudley 

•v. in 1^77. she contributed "The Cottage Door" ; to the Royal 

Academy, in H7^, u Peeling Potatoes" and "A Berkshire Cottage." 

Finch, Francis Oliver. (Brit.) Born in London (1802-1862). 
Water-color painter, studying under John Varley. He executed 
both portraits and, particularly twilight and moonlight 

Fischer, August Ferdinand. (Ger.) Born at Berlin (1805- 
). Member of the Academy and of the Senate of the Academy 


at Berlin, where he studied. Schadow and Wichmann influenced him 
to give his attention to sculpture. In 1842 he was commissioned to 
make four groups in marble for the Belle- Alliance- Platze. These 
were not erected until ten years after the death of Fischer. He made 
many decorative works for public buildings. One of his best easel- 
pictures, " The Roman Water-Carrier," was purchased by the Em- 
peror. In the National Gallery, Berlin, is the " Glaubens-Schild." 

Fisher, William Mark. (Am.-Brit.) A native of the United 
States, of Irish parentage, he spent his youth in Boston, studying art 
at the Lowell Institute ; later, he was a pupil of George Inness at 
Medfield. He spent some time in study in Europe, although without 
a master and in no school. Returning to America, he practiced his 
profession in Boston, but met with little success, his pictures not being 
appreciated except by the intelligent few. He has lived in London 
for some years, exhibiting at the Royal Academy and elsewhere. He 
is very highly regarded in England, and his works are in the finest 
public and private collections. To the Royal Academy, in 1877, he 
sent " The Meadows" ; in 1876, "A Scotch Hillside" and " On the 
Cam " ; in 1875, " Early Summer " ; in 1872, " Noon." To the Brit- 
ish Fine Art section at the Paris Exposition of 1878 he sent " Fen 
Meadows " and "A Scottish Hillside," in oils, and "A Canal Jump on 
the Ouse," in water-colors. The Boston Art Club owns one of Fisher's 
pictures ; others belong to Mr. Hunnewell of Wellesley, Mrs. May- 
nard of Boston, Miss Norcross, Mr. T. G. Appleton, and others. 

" Mark Fisher, a Boston artist, who had to leave his native land in order to find the 
appreciation he deserves, has won a front rank in the landscape art of his adopted 
country, and seems to have no superior there in the interpretation of certain aspects of 
nature." — Benjamin's Contemporary Art in Europe. 

Fisk, William. (Brit.) (1797-1873.) Early displayed a talent 
for art, but did not practice it as a profession until he had reached his 
thirtieth year. First exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1829, con- 
tributing one or more portraits annually until 1836, when he sent 
" The Coronation of Robert the Bruce," devoting himself after that 
time to the painting of historical pictures, which were popular and 
frequently engraved. Among them may be mentioned, " Cromwell's 
Family interceding for the Life of Charles I." (1840), "Charles V. 
picking up Titian's Pencil" (1840), "Charles I. passing through 
Whitehall Palace to his Execution " (1843), " Trial of the Earl of 
Stafford," and " The Attempted Assassination of Lorenzo de Medici," 
which received the gold medal of the British Institution in 1840, as 
the best historical picture. He has not exhibited in public since 

" If Mr. Fisk's works may not Declassed in a high rank of historical painting, they are 
most creditable examples, well composed, careful in execution, and accurate in costume 
and accessories." — Art Journal, January, 1873. 

Fitch, John L., A. N. A. (Am.) Born in Hartford, 1836. He 


studied in Munich and Milan under Pro!'. Albert Ziinmerniann and 
his brothers, Max and Richard Ziinnicmiann. His professional life 
has been spent in Hartford and New York. Is a member of the 

Artists' Fund Society and an Associate of the National Academy. In 
1870 he sent to the National Academy "A Mountain Brook"; in 
1871, "The Outlet" ; in 1873, "In the Canon, Granville, Mass."; 
in 1674, "Waiting for a Bite" ; in 1875, "A Stray Sunbeam" ; in 
1876, -Autumn" ; in 1878, "Twilight on John's Brook." 

His " Gill Brook " belongs to F. Goodrich. His largest picture, 
"In the Woods," was at Philadelphia in 1876. 

"John L. Fitch has attained considerable eminence as a painter of forest scenes, and 
his latest picture, entitled ' In the Woods,' will, we think, add greatly to his reputation 
as a student of nature." — Art Journal, April, 1875. 

Flagg, George W., N. A. (Am.) Born in New Haven, 1816. 
His boyhood was passed in Charleston, S. C. He was a nephew of 
Washington Allston, and had the advantage of that artist's tuition in 
Boston, displaying as a youth what were considered phenomenal tal- 
ents. He spent three years in study in Europe, painting for six 
years in London. Among his earlier works are, " A Young Greek," 
" Jacob and Rachel at the Well," " Murder of the Princes in the 
Tower," " Lauding of the Pilgrims," " Washington receiving his 
Mother's Blessing" (frequently engraved), " Columbus and the Egg," 
" The Match-Girl," " Haidee," and the " Scarlet Letter." Flagg was 
elected full member of the National Academy in 1851, but has not 
exhibited in its gallery since he sent his " Columbus and the Egg " in 

" ' Haidee ' is another subject treated by this artist [George W. Flagg], a single figure 
painted with much tendemM* Mr. Flagg has in early years studied with profit the 
great Italian masters, and is still faithful in his allegiance to them." — London Art 

" In the ' Mouse Boy ' the tone of the coloring is very harmonious, the position alto- 
gether graceful and easy, and the impression of the picture at once natural and pleas- 
ing."— Tcckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Flagg, Jared B., N. A. (Am.) Younger brother of George W. 
_. Born in New Haven, 1820. Studied in the studio of his 
brother, and n ceived »>uie instruction from Allston. He first exhib- 
ited at the National Academy, in 1836, a portrait of his father. In 
1849 (when lie was elected Academician) he exhibited "Angelo and 
•!la." IV'. in "Measure for Measure." He became a clergyman 
of the Episcopal Church in 1854, but -till devotes some time to the 
practice of art He has painted several excellent portraits, and sent 
to the National Academy, in 1877, a portrait of Charles L. Frost 
and "The Poetfl Capti 

Flagg^i portrait of Commodore Vanderbilt was in the Philadelphia 
Exhibition of 1876. 

Flahaut, L^on. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of L. Fleurv and 
Corot. Medals in WJ'J and '78, when he exhibited " The Environs 


of Montbouy (Loiret) and "High Sea at Puys." In 1869 he exhib- 
ited " Under the Wood " and a " Souvenir of the Normandy Coast." 

Flameng, Leopold. (Belgian.) Born at Brussels, of French par- 
ents, in 1831. Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Medal at Phila- 
delphia. It is, perhaps, sufficient for a concise writer to say of this 
engraver that M. Charles Blanc uses for him the adjective "illus- 
trious," a word never used unadvisedly by the French, but reserved 
for the best men of their time. Flameng is truly worthy of the 
praise on account of his own works and those of his school. He first 
studied under Calamatta ; went to Paris in 1853, where he soon be- 
came notable for his illustrations in the " Gazette des Beaux- Arts." 
Since 1859 he has sent his works to the Salons, receiving first medal 
in 1864, decoration in 1870. Among his plates may be mentioned, 
" Portrait of the Countess of Agout," after Claire-Christine ; " Por- 
trait of Miss Graham," after Gainsborough (1859) ; "St. Sebastian," 
after Leonardo da Vinci (1861); "La Source" and "Angelique," 
after Ingres, and a portrait of a man, after Rembrandt (1863) ; " Birth 
of Venus," after Cabanel, and " Marguerite at the Fountain," after 
Scheffer (etchings, 1864) ; " The Last Doll," after Amaury-Duval, 
and "Christ before the Doctors," after Bida (1865); "Marino 
Faliero," after Delacroix, and " Innocence," after Prudhon (1867) ; 
" The Secret of Love," after Jourdan, and three etchings (1868) ; 
" Stratonice," after Ingres, and five etchings (1869) ; " The Watering- 
Place," after Troyon (1874) ; " Abundance," after Rubens (1875) ; 
" The Lesson in Anatomy " and " The Syndics," after Rembrandt 
(1876) ; and etchings, after portraits of Rubens and his wife by 
Rubens (1877). 

" Flameng is really one of those illustrious men whose labors make epochs in the 
history of the fine arts." — Hamerton, Etching and Etcliers. 

Flandin, Eugfene Napole'on. (Fr.) Born at Naples, where his 
father was sent in an official capacity (1809-1875). Chevalier of the 
Legion of Honor. Artist, explorer, and man of letters. He studied 
without masters, and made his debut at the Salon of 1836 with two 
pictures, " The City of Venice," purchased by the Civil List, and 
" The Bridge of Sighs," purchased by the Societe des Amis des Arts. 
He went to Algiers, and in 1837 exhibited a " View of the Mayor- 
alty at Algiers," also bought by the Civil List. He was with the 
army in the campaign against Constantine, and Louis Philippe bought 
his picture of the assault upon that place, for the chateau of Neuilly. 
This canvas was torn by bullets during the revolution of 1848, was 
afterward sold with other debris, was purchased by Queen Marie- 
Amelie and taken to Claremont. From 1839 to '55 Flandin was oc- 
cupied in researches in Persia and Nineveh, where he was sent by the 
Academies of the Beaux- Arts and of Inscriptions. After his return to 
France he published, in several books, the result of his labors, and he 
is much honored by the Academies who had employed him. In 1855 


he reappeared at the Salon, and continued to exhibit for several years 
pictures of scenes in the East, such as "A View of the Golden Horn 
and Stamboul," " General View of Constantinople," " View of the 
Bosphorus," etc. 

Flandrin, Auguste. (Fr.) Born at Lyons (1804- 1844). Medal 
at Paris. Pupil of Ingres. He was for some time chief of the 
School of Art at Lyons, llis picture of "The Bathers" was much 
praised ; also, an " Interior of the Church of San Miniato at Flor- 
ence," for which he received a medal. 

Flandrin, Jean Hippolyte. (Fr.) Born at Lyons (1809-1864). 
Member of the Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. Brother 
of Auguste, and a pupil of Ingres. He took the prix de Rome in 1832, 
and there studied also under Ingres, who had been made Director of 
the Villa Medicis. In 1838 he returned to France, where he added to 
his laurels, and in 1853 he was elected to the Academy. His works 
are well designed, and show close study, but are cold in general effect. 
In 1847 he painted " Napoleon as a Legislator," a commission for the 
Home Department in the Council of State. He painted many portraits; 
that of the Emperor was at the Salon of 1863, and five others were 
exhibited in 1861. Flandrin also executed many monumental paint- 
ings in the churches of Saint Severin, Saint Germain-des-Pres, Saint 
Vincent de Paul, etc. During the last years of his life his portraits 
were much esteemed, and so numerous were the orders he received 
that he was obliged to refuse many applications. It is related that a 
very beautiful woman offered him 80,000 francs if he would paint her 
portrait, but he bowed her out of his studio without a word of reply. 

" If it needed Ary Scheffer to temper the dominant materialism with his spiritual ap- 
prehension of art, it not less needed Ilippolj'te Flandrin as an example of a purely re- 
ligious master. His sincerity and high-mindedness would have done honor to the best 
Lfl of the sacred art of Italy. Having a faith in divine things, Flandrin incarnated 
his ideas in a remarkable series of wall-paintings for public edifices, and in easel-pic- 
tures, borrowed in general characteristics from early Christian art, but treated in his 

own thoughtful and refined manner His talent in composition ranks him as a 

master, and he is as clear and simple in coloring as devout in spirit Although 

Flandrin stands at the head of French religious art, he would take no such rank among 

great masters elsewhere. There is nothing grand or profound in his works It is 

an example that goes to prove a general truth ; namely, the Incapacity of the French 
school thus far to give birth to art based on exalted religious motives or moral feeling." 
— Jarves, Art Thought* 

" I know not where M. Flandrin would have gone, if he had worked -without a master, 
and been left to himself. Perhaps he is one of those sons who are happy that their 

father was ln.rn before them M. Flandrin found in M. Ingres his natural teacher, 

but he has advanced high and towards the right. If posterity is just it will call him 
•Flandrin without fault,' as Andrea del Sarto is called ' Andrea without defect.'" — 
■mow About, Not A Won de 1857. 

Flandrin, Jean Paul. (Fr.) Born at Lyons, 1811. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Brother of Auguste and Jean Hippolyte, and 
pupil of Ingres. After some historical painting this artist con fin <■'! 
himself to genre landscapes and portraits. A landscape, "Sabine 


Mountains" (1852), is in the Luxembourg. His " View of Eivoli " 
was purchased by Queen Marie- Amelie, and " The Flight into Egypt " 
by the Ministry of State. In 1877 he exhibited " The Banks of the 
Gardon near the Pont du Gard," " A Farm in Provence," and " A 
View of the Maison de l'&lueation of the Legion of Honor at St. 
Denis " ; in 1876, "A Landscape" and " In the Woods," and sketches 
for two portraits*; in 1875, " Souvenir of Bas-Breau, Fontainebleau," 
" Border of a Pine Wood at Pornic," and three sketches ; in 1874, 
" Souvenir of Provence," " An Idyl," and " A Prairie near Nantua," 
and three sketches for portraits; in 1873, " Souvenir of Provence " and 
a design for a portrait ; in 1872, one finished portrait and a sketch for 
another; in 1870, "Group of Green Oaks" and the "Palace of the 
Popes at Avignon " ; etc. He also executed the paintings in the gal- 
lery of the baptistery in the church of Saint-Severin, and some of the 
" Views in the Environs of Paris," in the Hotel de Ville. At the 
Salon of 1878 he exhibited two landscapes. 

" His tone is heavy, but serious and quiet, his color conventional, but the motive never 
trivial, nor the drawing superficial." — Anton Springer, Geschichte der bildenden Kunste 
im neunzehnten Jahrhundert. 

Flers, Camille. (Fr.) Born at Paris (1802-1868). Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. This painter of landscapes broke away from 
academic traditions and was called an " innovator." But his pictures 
were admired, and he held good rank in his art. Among his works are, 
" The Allier at Vichy, after an Inundation," " A Mill at Aunay," " A 
Mill near Quilleboeuf," " The Four Seasons," etc. 

Fleury, Leon. (Fr.) Born in Paris (1804- 1858). Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Victor Bestin and Hersent. This artist 
made extensive sketching-tours, and is chiefly known as a landscape- 
painter ; but he also executed some religious pictures, such as a " St. 
Genevieve " in the church of Saint £tienne-du-Mont, and " The Bap- 
tism of Christ" in the church of Sainte Marguerite. Several pic- 
tures by Fleury were purchased by the government for provincial 

Fluggen, . (Bavarian.) Born in Munich, where he was also 

educated. The pictures of this artist are favorably known all over 
Europe. He affects scenes of romantic and historic genre. His 
"Familien Gliick" is in the collection of Mr. Henry Wallis, and is 
known by an engraving by E. Mohn. Among his other subjects are, 
" Elizabeth of Hungary taking Refuge with her Children in a Ruined 
Hut," "Milton dictating Paradise Lost," "The Countess Margaret 
taking Leave of her Children," and " The Landlady's Daughter." 

Focosi, Alessandro. (Ital.) Born at Milan (1839 - 1869). His 
first work of importance, " Charles Emmanuel I.," gave him fame, and 
a rank among artists which is seldom attained in early life. He then 
executed a large historical picture, for which he received the ex- 
traordinary prize of 10,000 francs, besides selling the painting for a 


lai „v sum to a wealthy patron. His early death deprived the modern 
Italian Bchool of a notable artist. 

Foley, John H., R. A. (Brit.) Born in Dublin (1818 -1875). Stud- 
ied in the schools of the Royal Dublin Society, and became a student 
in the Royal Academy, London, in 1834. First exhibited at the Royal 
Academy, 1839, " The Death of AbeL" He executed statues of Hamp- 
den, in 1847, for Parliament House, of Father Mathew for the city of 
Cork, of John Stuart Mill, Stonewall Jackson, Burke, Goldsmith, 
Lord Clyde, in Glasgow, Grattan, Outram, the Prince Consort, and 
ideal works, ft Ino and Bacchus," " Youth at a Stream," " Caractacus," 
u The Mother," " Grief," " The Muse of Painting," etc. His last and 
most important work was the figure of the Prince Consort in the 
Albert Memorial, London, commissioned by the Queen, but not cast 
until after the sculptor's death in 1875. He was elected Associate of 
the Royal Academy in 1849, and Academician in 1858. 

" Of Foley's principles in art it may be said, that with the highest admiration for the 
time-honored excellence of the antique, he was no blind devotee to its merits, at the 
expense of what he deemed of far higher import, nature and character. His portrait 
statues, always in the highest degree characteristic in dress and bearing, were rendered 

with the closest attention to local details His ideal subjects, equally with his 

portraits, were removed from any imitative precedent, whether classical or mediieval. 
.... From a contemplation of such subjects the spectator rises with a feeling of sat- 
isfaction that the artist has in them reached those chords of sympathetic feeling and 
emotion, the one touch of which makes the whole world kin." — Art Journal, January, 

" From an art point of view the statue [Prince Consort] is grand in form, regal in 
bearing, and masterly in its lines of composition." — Art Journal, April, 1877. 

" The Seal of the Confederate States of America, the composition of which is by 
J. H. Foley, R. A , contains as a center a representation of that statue of Washington 
which was executed by the American sculptor, Crawford, and erected at Richmond. The 
figure is mounted and in uniform, as if commanding in an engagement. It is sur- 
rounded by a wreath, beautifully composed of the most valuable vegetable products of 
ithern soil, as tobacco, rice, maize, cotton, wheat, and sugar-cane. The rim bears 
the legend, 'The Confederate States of America, 29d February, 1862, Deo Vindice.' The 
diameter of the seal is from three to four inches, and it is of silver." — Art Journal, Jan- 
uary, 1865. 

Foley, Margaret E. (Am.) Native of New Hampshire. Died, 
1877. Entirely self-taught as a sculptor, she began her career in an 
humble way in her native town, by the carving of small figures in 
wood, and the modeling of busts in chalk. Later, she found her way 
to Boston, where >lie cut portraits and ideal heads in cameo. At the 
end of seven years she went to Rome, where the rest of her pn 
sional life was -put. She died at M.nan, in the Austrian Tyrol, the 
summer home of Mr. and Mrs. Howitt, whither she had gone ill 1877, 
for the benefit of her health. Among her works are busts of Theo- 
dore Parker, Charles Sumner, and others ; medallions of William and 
Mary Howitt, of Longfellow, Bryant, and 8. C. Ball ;" The Alban- 
ese" (medallion), "Cleopatra" (bust), and "Excelsior" and "Jere- 
miah," statues, etc. 


"A critical estimate of Miss Foley declares that her head of the somewhat impracti- 
cable, but always earnest senator from Massachusetts [-Sumner] is unsurpassable and 
beyond praise. It is simple, absolute truth, embodied in marble." — Tuckerman's 
Book of the Artists. 

" The walls of Miss Foley's room are well lined with medallion portraits, in which she 
has been so successful, and which have gained for her so wide a reputation. Bierstadt 
says he knows of no artist who, in the same length of time, has made so many portraits 
as Miss Foley. She is gifted with a rapid insight into character, which is as important 
an element in depicting the human face divine as the deft fingers of the draughtsman. 
.... Her 'Excelsior,' a spirited illustration of Longfellow's famous lyric, is the very 
embodiment of the feeling which found its expression in the poet's verse, nor does the 
artist's conception lose any of its charm by transfer to the cold marble. " — The Revo- 
lution, May 4, 1871. 

" Miss Foley's exquisite medallions and sculptures ought to be reproduced in photo- 
graph. Certainly she was a most devoted artist, and America has not had so many 
sculptors among women that she can afford to forget any one of them." —Boston Adver- 
tiser, January, 187S. 

Foltz, Philippe. (Ger.) Born at Bingen, 1805. Member and 
Professor of the Royal Academy of Fine Arts at Munich, and Direc- 
tor of the Royal Galleries of that city. Foltz studied at the Gym- 
nasium of Mayence, and devoted himself to art, against the will of his 
family. In 1825 he went to Dusseldorf, where he was soon noticed 
by Cornelius, and through his influence was employed in the decora- 
tion of the Glyptothek at Munich, under the direction of Schlott- 
hauer. He painted many decorative works in the New Residence and 
other edifices, under Royal favor, and became a prominent artist in 
Munich. He visited Italy, and sent pictures to the Paris Expositions 
of 1855 and '67. His most celebrated work is a grand official sub- 
ject, " Otho, Prince of Bavaria, leaving the Palace of his Fathers to 
go to take Possession of the Throne of Greece." This has been litho- 
graphed by Bodmer. His " Frederick Barbarossa " and " Henry the 
Lion," at Paris, in 1867, were purchased by the King of Bavaria. 
His " Pericles" was exhibited in Munich in 1870. 

Fonse'ca, Antoine-Manoel da. (Portuguese.) Born at Lisbon, 
about 1795. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. 
Chevalier of the Orders of Christ and Notre Dame de la Conception 
of Portugal, and of that of the House of Hohenzollern of Prussia. 
His achievements were such that he was appointed Painter to the 
King, and Professor in the Academy of Lisbon, in 1830. His sub- 
jects are historic, genre, and portraits. Fonseca painted many portraits 
of the Royal Family for the government. His works were at the 
Paris Expositions of 1855 and '67. Among his historical pictures are, 
"The Death of Albuquerque," ".Eneas saving Anchises," "Christ 
amidst the Doctors," acquired by the Count of Farrobo, etc. 

Fontana, Roberto. (Ital.) Of Milan. Medal at Philadelphia, 
where he exhibited the " Evocation of Souls from Robert le Diable," 
which was especially commended in the report of John F. Weir. 

Fonville, Horace. (Fr.) Born at Lyons. Pupil of his father. 
His " Road in the Mountains of Haut-Bugey " (1874) is in the Lux- 


embourg. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited " Souvenir of Virieux- 

Foote, Mary Hallock. (.4m.) Born at Milton, N. Y., where she 
has since lived. She began her art studies in the Cooper Institute, 
New York, under Dr. Rimmer, working there four winters. Later, 
she was a pupil of Frost Johnson. From William J. Linton she re- 
ceived valuable counsel regarding her block work. Besides this she 
has had no direct artistic training. For Osgood & Co. she has illus- 
trated several gift-books, including " The Hanging of the Crane," 
"Mabel Martin," "Skeleton in Armor, "Scarlet Letter," etc. Scrib- 
ner & Co. have published many of her best detached illustrations in 
Scribners' Monthly, St. Nicholas, and elsewhere. 

Forbes, Edwin. (Am.) Born in the city of New York, 1839. 
At the age of eighteen he commenced the study of art, devoting him- 
self to animal-painting. In 1859 he became a pupil of A. F. Tait. 
At the outbreak of the American Civil War he joined the Army of 
the Potomac, remaining in the South during the years 1862, '63, and 
'64 as special artist for Mr. Frank Leslie the publisher. He made 
many studies of battle-scenes and of objects of historic interest. On 
his return to New York he painted his " Lull in the Fight," a scene 
in the Battle of the Wilderness, exhibited at the National Academy, 
New York, and the Boston Athenaeum. Later he painted several 
smaller war-scenes, but at present is engaged upon landscapes and 
cattle-pictures. His " Life Studies of the Great Army," a series of 
copperplate etchings, were exhibited at Philadelphia in 1876, and were 
awarded a medal. The first proofs of these were bought by General 
Sherman for the United States Government, and are now in the War 
Office at Washington. He was elected an Honorary Member of the 
London Etching Club in 1877. 

" It would take too long to go through the sketches in detail, and so I will only select 
a few which seem to me to be the most suggestive. They embrace nearly all the 
branches of the service, —artillery, cavalry, Infantry, the engineers, the supply-trains, 
the newspaper reporters, the stragglers, and even the herd of cattle who furnished us 
with such delicious but none the less tough beef. Nor is the negro omitted, — the poor 
black contraband, the innocent cause of it all The gem of the collection, to me, is ' A 
Night March.' It needs no description, —it must be seen ; and, as I look at it, and let 
my memory play, it takes me back to more than one scene like it. In pleasing contrast 
to this is that bright snow-scene, 'Returning from Picket Duty.' So cold does the air 
look, and so determined and contented the returning squad, that you hope they will be 
rewarded for their hoars on the picket-line by a good ration of commissary whisky as 
soon as they get back to quarters. In 'The Reveille ' you can almost hear the clear 
notes of the bugle in the chill morning air. 'The Advance of the Cavalry Skirmish- 
Line ' and ' Qoing into Action ' give an idea how things began, of bow the battle was gen- 
erally opened ; while 'The Lull in the Fight' and 'The Halt of the Line of Battle ' give 
such a picture of the necessities of a recess for both sides, and the havoc committed 
which demanded temporary respites at least, — for there was no long one until it was all 
over, I mean the war, — that it can be judged that life in the army was not altogether 
the picnic excursion that many at first thought it was going to be. 'After Dress- 
Parade ' is a pleasant interior scene of duty over, and the genial companionship of 


brother officers, and this Mr. Forbes told me was actually taken from one of our Massa- 
chusetts regiments. ' A Cavalry Charge ' is the exemplification of movement and phys- 
ical courage ; while ' A Halt for Twenty Minutes ' has so weary and used-up a look, 
that you would suppose that nothing could arouse the slumberers. * Going into Camp at 
Night ' and ' The Distant Battle ' are wonderful artistic productions, as is also ' Through 
the Wilderness,' a piece of artillery struggling along as best it can. The scene of ' Ford- 
ing a River,' and the other of ' The Pontoon Bridges,' are both worthy of note ; as also 
* The Advance of the Cavalry Picket-Line,' and many others, among them those which 
give an idea of a drenching Virginia rain-storm. But I cannot name them all, and so, 
before ending, will merely mention some of those in which the negro is brought in, 
as a 'Reliable Contraband,' 'Coming into the Lines,' and then, last of all, 'The Sanc- 
tuary.' That scene embodies the pathos of the part the colored race played in the 
drama. There they are, the old woman with amis outs retched, thanking God in her 
wild, fervent manner, that the day of freedom has come, that the soldiers of Lincoln are 
at hand, and the dear old flag in sight. By her side are the aged negro man, husband or 
father, the pickaninny, and the dog, — all in a rapt but mute state of gratitude." — 
Nathan Appleton, in the Boston Globe, October 4, 1S76. 

Forrester, Alfred Henry. (Brit.) Born in London (1806- 
1872). He was brought up as a notary in the Royal Exchange, con- 
tributing articles, when not more than sixteen years of age, to several 
London journals, and, later, illustrating them himself. About 1840 
he turned his attention entirely to literature and art, and was well 
known as " Alfred Crowquill " for his bright sketches with pen and 
pencil. He was connected with Punch, the Illustrated London 
News, etc. Among his works, for which he furnished the letterpress 
and the drawings, may be noted, " The Comic English Grammar," 
"Comic Arithmetic," "Picture Tables," " A Bundle of Crow-quills," etc. 

Forster, Francois. (Fr.) Born at Locle, 1790. Member of the 
Institute. Officer of the Legion of Honor. This very distinguished 
engraver gained the grand prize at l'Ecole des Beaux- Arts in Paris in 
1814. The King of Prussia, being then in Paris with the allied sov- 
ereigns, granted Forster a pension for two years to enable him to go to 
Rome, and gave him also a gold medal. Forster, who had been a 
fellow-pupil with Leopold Robert, and was very fond of that painter, 
begged that the same assistance might be given his friend ; this was 
granted, and together they went to Rome. Forster devoted him- 
self especially to reproducing the works of Raphael. After the two 
years he was obliged to return to Paris and labor for a support. 
Among his works are, " The Three Graces," " The Virgin of the 
Legend," and two portraits of Raphael, all after that master ; the 
" Virgin in bas-relief," after Leonardo da Vinci ; " ^Eneas and Dido " 
and " Aurora and Cephalus," after Guerin ; " St, Cecilia," after Paul 
Delaroche ; etc. 

Fortin, Charles. (Fr.) Born at Paris (about 1815-1865). 
Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. He studied landscape-painting 
under C. Roqueplan, and interiors under Beaume. Fortin made his 
debut at the Salon of 1835. His " Benedicite " (1855) was purchased 
by the State. He sent to the Salon of 1861, " A Country Tailor " 


(Finistere), " The Old Story," " An Interior," and three others ; in 
L864, "Between two Halts''; and in 1865, "The Magpie's Break- 
fast " and "A Familiar Scene." 

" Fortin i>ainted poverty, too ; not poverty patient and in serene unconsciousness, but 
meny. Fortin has almost the humor of Dickens." — Harper's Magcuiiu, November, 

Fortuny, Mariano. (Spanish.) Born at Reuse, near Barcelona 
(1838 - L874). Chevalier of the Order of Charles III. He studied at 
the Academy of Barcelona, and when twenty years old took the prix 
Be went to Rome in the summer of 1858, and devoted 
himself to sketching after the works of the masters by day ; at even- 
ing he went to the Academy Chigi, where he sketched in crayon, in 
ink, and in water-colors. Very soon he was called to Spain, and 
placed on the staif of General Prim, whom he accompanied to Mo- 
rocco. There he was so absorbed by his wish to sketch all that he 
that he often placed himself in danger, and, on one occasion, only 
ped by passing himself off as an Englishman. The war ended, he 
returned to Barcelona, and then again to Rome. He executed several 
works, which he sent to Barcelona. He went to an exposition of 
painting in Florence, where he was much delighted with the color of 
the works of Morelli. From this time he had a new manner. The 
city of Barcelona had commissioned him to paint a picture of the 
"Battle of Tetuan," at which he had assisted. He was so long in exe- 
cuting the order that the deputation of Barcelona became impatient, 
and Fortuny (who had commenced his work on a magnificent scale, 
and who was working devotedly upon it) became angry and gave it up. 
lie returned the money which had been advanced him, and no per- 
suasion could ever induce him to resume his work on this picture. 
In 1866 he went for a time to Paris. He had executed a picture for 
D Christine, for the decoration of her Parisian hotel ; he also had 
friends among the French artists in Borne, and at Paris made many 
more acquaintances. lie went next to Madrid, to copy after the 
Spanish masters. There he became the friend of Madrazo, whose 
daughter he married. In 1806 he painted a " Fantasy of Morocco," 
which he duplicated for Mr. A. T. Stewart of New York. About this 
time he executed many etchings. At Madrid he painted his u Mari- 
posa," which undoubtedly suggested the" Aurora" to llamon. For- 
tuny had fixed himself in Rome and had made great successes. He 
could not execute all the works which were desired from him. For 
this reason the "Spanish Marriage," suggested by lii- own wedding, 
was not finished. He completed the " Seipent-Charmer," which had 
been sometime commenced, and repeated it for M. Andre. His repe- 
titions always differed somewhat from the fust picture, since he 
painted tin- second from models as well as tie- first. Hi- means were 
such as to enable him to gratify his ta~t <•<. II.- surrounded himself in 
studio with costly arms, rich stuffs and tapestries, bronzes and 


faiences, carpets and rugs from the East, fresh flowers, copies of the 
works of his favorite masters, and sketches given him by his friends.* 
He had, also, a garden in which he could sketch from nature trees 
and plants, while in the court was a Persian tent, shaded by oaks and 
other trees. One can well imagine that this artist, with such sur- 
roundings, attracted all the world to visit him. Artists congregated 
at his studio, and men of letters there discussed the questions of the 
day ; ladies of the grand world were only too happy to add brilliancy 
to the gatherings, and Madame Fortuny was an attractive hostess. 
Thus the Studio Fortuny became a Salon of which many have pre- 
cious recollections. In 1868 - 69 Fortuny made some fine pictures in 
water-colors, and in the last-named year finished the " Spanish Mar- 
riage." There were several portraits in it, among them those of 
Madame Fortuny, the Duchess Colonna, and the artist Regnault. It 
was first sold to Goupil, then to Madame de Cassin. In Paris the 
artist was much courted, but he avoided society and loved to be with 
a few friends, to sketch while they talked, and only to speak himself 
at intervals. While there he made a few pictures, " A Book-Lover in 
the Library of Richelieu," a water-color of a " Persian Carpet-Mer- 
chant," etc. From time to time Fortuny had exchanged his works 
with the antiquaries at Rome for articles which he wished to have. 
Mr. Stewart had bought some of these pictures, and at Paris Fortuny 
retouched them and added much to their charm and value. When 
the Franco-German war began Fortuny went to Madrid. Here he 
painted, in water-colors, the " Carnival of the Last Century." It was 
bought by Mr. Stewart. The artist went next to Granada, where he 
passed one of the happiest periods of his life ; the climate pleased 
him; he was able to enlarge his collection of rare and beautiful things. 
He went again to Morocco to verify his sketches and deepen his im- 
pressions. He lived in an ancient Moorish palace, and was so placed 
as to paint to the best advantage. At the end of the war he sent sev- 
eral pictures to Paris, among them the " Fencing- Lesson " and the 
" Tribunal of a Cadi." While in Granada he worked as if he wished 
to possess the entire country and all it contained in his sketches, and 
had little thought of leaving it, when the servant whom he had left 
in charge of his affairs at Rome died. This determined Fortuny to 
return to Rome, and there he settled himself permanently at the end 
of 1872. He now painted the " Academy of the Arcadians listening 
to an Unpublished Tragedy in the Gardens of the Society." It was 
the last work that he entirely completed, and this was not finished 
until 1874. He was so surrounded with artists, travelers, picture- 
1 m vers, etc., that he found no time for work. He disliked closing 
his doors to his friends, so he went to Venice and Naples. In 1873 
he had been ill in Rome from living in an unhealthy locality. At 

* The author can testify to the wonderful charm of this studio and its surroundings, 
having visited it several times. 


Naples he took a villa at Portici, by the sea, and apparently recov- 
ered his health. He worked incessantly, and was full of ambitious 
plans ; his sketches of this time are of great interest. Early in No- 
vember, 1874, he returned to Rome. He imprudently worked out of 
doors, and soon became ill, and died on the twenty-first of the same 
month of November. Even on the day of his death he made a sketch 
from the mask of Beethoven, for his wife's album. Walther Fol 
wrote a very interesting sketch of the life of Fortuny for the " Gazette 
des Beaux-Arts, 9 which was concluded in the April number, 1875, 
with these words : — 

" Let us review in a few words the career of this eminent artist, whose zeal in his 
work was not abated for a single moment. First period : his stay at the Academy of 
Barcelona, and first journey to Morocco ; the time in which he freed himself from all 
that in his execution which suggested the school. Second period : from 1860 to 1865, 
the time when he developed as a designer, and came to have a personal manner. Third 
period : from 1866 to 1S70, that is to say, from his picture of the ' Amateur of Engravings ' 
and the ' Fantasy of Morocco ' to the ' Spanish Marriage ' ; the time when, placed in 
relations with the most famous artists of Paris, he occupied himself to excess with the 
effects of composition and of mise en scene. Fourth period : from 1870 to his death in 
1874, time of purely individual development, during his retreat in Granada, which con- 
tinued to the moment of his death, in the decisive and truly original expression of his 
talent To his varied gifts as painter and water-colorist he added a rare talent for etch- 
ing. He engraved a series of plates, the fine proofs of which will become very rare. 
Among the most remarkable for the effect of color we will name the * Kabyle mort, 
l'Arabe veillant sur le corps de son ami ' and ' L'Idylle.'" 

At the Johnston sale "A Mandolin Player," water-color (10 by 7), 
sold for $680 ; " Scene on a Terrace," water-color (10 by 14), $ 500 ; 
" A Hall Porter," pen and ink (7 by 5), $355 ; " Study "of an Arab," 
India ink (11 by 7), $335 ; and "St. Jerome," after Ribera, water- 
color (7 by 5), $ 160. At the Oppenheim sale, Paris, 1877, a superb 
water-color, "The Prayer," was bought by Baron Rothschild for 
K 5,000 francs. 

" Fortuny's painting possessed a mastery which forced admiration. Dealing only with 
the superficial realities of life, and handling his material with a complete and cynical 
disregard of beauty in the result, he nevertheless claims consideration by the confident 
skill of his expTTMioml i>ower, and his rapid and perfect perception Of all that goes to 
form the first impression of things. The vision may be limited, if you will, the motive 
is often vulvar, but the trivial idea is supported by the excellence of its representa- 
All common gesture, all vulvar expression in the countenance, are completely 
under his control. The faces he paints hare no beauty, bat they bear upon them faith- 
fully the record that coarse life leaves, — they have as much the mark of fashion as the 
costume that goes with them ; they are attuned to all the trivialities of the existence 
that surrounds them." — J. If. OdiitmCam, The Portfolio, February, 1876k 

" What Chopin is to music, it appear! to us that I-'mtuuy is to art, and both of them 
have more of the gypay wildness and strangeness of Spain in their works than of the 
sweet, jposure of Italy, or of the sharp, graceful esprit of Fiance." — Art 

\ -',',. 

Foster, Birket. (Brit.) Bom in L825. Was an apprentice of 
E. Landell,an English wood-engraver, devoting himself to thai particu- 
lar branch of art lor some years, and furnishing illustrations for Long- 



fellow's "Evangeline," his first important work, in 1850; later, he 
engraved the plates for The Task, Herbert's Poems, Wordsworth, 
Goldsmith, Gray's Elegy, Beattie's Minstrel, Pleasures of Hope, 
Poets of the Nineteenth Century, Ancient Mariner, Old English 
Ballads, and other fine editions of standard British and American 
works, always with marked success. About 1860 he turned 
his attention to drawing in water-colors, exhibiting a picture in the 
Royal Academy, which attracted much attention. He was elected 
an Associate of the Society of Painters in Water-Colors in 1859, and 
a full member three years later. His pleasant rural scenes of a 
homely character, devoted almost exclusively to the portrayal of child- 
life, have been very popular, and very extensively reproduced in 
chromos, photographs, and engravings. Among the better known of 
his subjects are, " Nutting," " The Bird's-Nest," " In the Hay-Field," 
"Little Anglers," "The Busy Bee," "Sailing the Boat," "The Dip- 
ping-Place," " The Mill," " Cows in the Pool," " A Green Lane," 
" The Capture of a Thirty-two Pounder," etc. 

An English landscape of Birket Foster's, belonging to William T. 
Blodgett, was in the National Academy, New York, in 1870. 

" Birket Foster has indeed, both in his drawing and in his designs for the wood-engraver, 
carried suavity and grace to the very highest point to which they can be carried without 
falling into effeminacy, as he has pushed delicacy of execution to a pitch beyond which 
it seems impossible without pettiness and loss of unity." — Tom Taylor. 

V Inasmuch as Birket Foster's pictures recall to our memories the dear remembrances 
of our own childhood, it lias done us more good to gaze upon them than to have placed 
before our eyes the grandest piece of historical painting, or the finest example of mural 

decoration ever conceived by the subtlest artist The works of no living artist 

have been so extensively copied as have been the works of Birket Foster." — London 
Art Journal, July, 1877. 

" Birket Foster made certain contributions, though not many, to the early numbers 
of Punch, but they were of a character which showed him to be eminently unfitted 
for the task of delineating facetia. He did not suffer many years to elapse, however, 
before his name became famous in a very different branch of art to that which Punch 
would have marked out for him." — Hodder's Memoirs of my Time. 

Fowke, Francis. (Brit.) (1823-1865.) Architect and engineer. 
He was employed in the erection of the new buildings of the South 
Kensington Museum, the Industrial Museum of Scotland, the Dub- 
lin National Gallery, and the Buildings of the International Exhibi- 
tion of London in 1862. 

Fowler, Frank. (Am.) A native of New York. He studied art 
under E. White in Florence. Living for some years in Paris, he 
entered the studio of Carolus Duran, assisting his master in painting 
the " Gloria Marije Medicis," a fresco for the Museum of the Luxem- 
bourg, exhibited at the Paris Salon in 1878, and other works. 

He contributed a portrait to the first exhibition of the Society of 
American Artists in New York in 1878, and "Young Bacchus," to 
the Paris Exposition of the same year. 

Fraccaroli, Innocenzo. (Ital.) Born at Castel-Kotto, 1803. 


Member of tbe Academies of Venice and Milan. Corresponding 
Member of the Institute of France. Two medals at Paris Salons. 
This sculptor studied at the Academies of Venice and Milan, and 
later at Rome. On his return from Rome to Milan he was called to 
a professorship in the Academy of Florence. Among his works 
are, " The Massacre of the Innocents " (a colossal group purchased by 
Ferdinand I. for the Palace of the Belvedere), the " Monument to 
Charles Emmanuel II." (in the Royal Chapel at Turin), " The Mau- 
soleum of Maestro Mayr " (at Bergamo, surmounted by three alle- 
gories), «* St. Mary Magdalene," " St. John the Evangelist," " An 
Immaculate Conception," etc. Fraccaroli sent to London, in 1866, 
" Dsdalus attaching Wings to Icarus" and "Achilles Wounded." At 
Paris in 1855 were the two preceding, as well as "Eve after the 
Fall " and " Atala and Chactas." 

Fraikin, Charles Auguste. {Belgian.) Born at Herenthalt, 1816. 
Chevalier of the Order of Leopold. A medal at London in 1857, and 
one at Paris in 1855. This sculptor studied at the Academy of Ant- 
werp, and made his debut at the Salon of Brussels in 1846. From 
that time he has received many commissions, both private and official. 
Among his works are, "Captive Love" (1847), purchased by the 
State ; two allegories for the Hotel de Ville of Brussels ; the " Tomb 
of the Queen of Belgium," the model of which was at Paris in 1855 ; 
a statue of a young girl called " Sleep," in 1856 ; etc. At Phila- 
delphia he exhibited the " First Child " and the " Drone Bee " (both 
in marble), and received a medal. At the Paris Exposition, 1878, he 
exhibited " The Artist " (marble statue), and a portrait bust, in marble. 

Francais, Francis Louis. (Fr.) Born at Plombieres, 1814. 
Officer of the Legion of Honor. In 1848 and '52 this artist was a 
member of the juries of admission and recompense at the Salons. 
Pupil of Gigoux and Corot. When fifteen years old Francais went 
to Paris, where he was employed in a bookstore, and at the same 
time studied design. At the end of five years he was able to sup- 
port himself, and had a good reputation as a lithographer. He now 
studied painting, but he did not exhibit a landscape in oil until 1857. 
At the Luxembourg are his "End of Winter" (1853), "Orpheus" 
(1863), and " Daphnis and Chloe " (1872). His " View taken at Bas- 
Meudon '' was purchased by Prince Napoleon. In 1876 he exhibited 
a souvenir of Franehe-Comte called " The Mirror of Scey, — Night- 
fall " ; in 1875, " The Ravine of Puits-Noir, — Evening," and the 
"Stream of Puits-Noir,— Morning " ; in 1874, " The Fountain " and 
"A Terrace at Nice''; etc. The illustrations which Francais made for 
"La Tourraine " gained him much reputation. In May. 1872, there 
was a collection of sketches and water-colors by Francais at the Cercle 
del Beanx-Arta in Paris. Rene* Menard wrote in high praise of this 
exhibit, and especially remarked, as a virtue of the artist, that he 
gives to Nature her diverse characterises, and thus concludes : — 


" He has sought to translate the varied impressions which he has received in different 
countries. The Campagna of Rome or the environs of Paris, the coasts of Brittany or 
the cascades of Switzerland, are, turn by turn, analyzed and rendered with the vigorous 
exactness of a portrait. Each locality retains its own charm, and the artist seems to 
efface himself, in order to better identify himself with the nature he endeavors to repre- 

A very important work of this artist is the decoration of the Chapelle 
des Bapteines in l'liglise de la Trinite, Pads ; it is his first essay in 
decorative painting, and is much praised by Roger Ballu and other 

" I know not with what fitness Frangais has attained in some studios the fame of a 
cTiefd'e'cole. He does not design as well as Desgoffe or Paul Flandrin ; he has neither 
the vigor of Theodore Rousseau or the poetic charm of Corot. An ant might walk at 
ease in his narrowly treated landscapes ; the spectator is wearied in regarding them. 
The talent of FraiiQais is composed of an important collection of medium qualities ; he 
does well enough what he undertakes ; he is somewhat the pupil of all the world ; 
he will never be, thank God, the master of any one." — Edmond About, Salon de 1864. 

" If ever a name is precisely adjusted to the person whom it designates, it is assuredly 
so with Frangais. Has not this charming artist a talent entirely French, more than 
French, — Parisian ? This seems strange for a landscape-painter, and, moreover, without 
carrying his umbrella and his color-box farther than Bougival or Meudon, Frangais lias 
succeeded in making some chefs-d'oeuvre of grace, elegance, and spirit. It is not that he 
would not be as capable as others of facing the blue, the sun, and the Italian style : the 
views of the port of Genoa, of Lake Nemi, and the Campagna of Rome, have sufficiently 
proved this ; if he has rivals on the banks of the Tiber, on the Seine he meets none. 
This nation is his, he governs it as a master, he draws from it, without falsehood, beau- 
ties which others have not been able to see. There he is truly original. Do we not owe 
him gratitude, we other inhabitants of the great city, for thus making us comprehend 
the poetry of these delicious sites, whose only fault is their proximity ; whose shades 
have encircled the rambles, the dreams, and the loves of our youth ? We have deserted 
them for distant and pretentiously picturesque countries, but Frangais has remained 
faithful to them, and has found the benefit of it." — Theophile Gautier, Abecedaire 
du Salon de 1861. 

Francis, John. (Brit.) Born in Lincoln (1780- 1861). He was 
brought up as a farmer in his native county, but, displaying decided 
artistic talents, he was sent to London in the early part of the century, 
and spent some years in the studio of Chantrey. Here he worked 
diligently, soon attracted the attention of the higher circles, and be- 
came a favorite in the metropolis. He made busts of many distin- 
guished English people, during his long career, including those of the 
Queen, Prince Consort, and other members of the Royal Family. 
Many noted sculptors were among his pupils. 

Francois, Charles-Remy-Jules. (Fr.) (1809-1861.) Cheva- 
lier of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Henriquel Dupont. Most of 
the plates of this distinguished engraver were after the works of Paul 
Delaroche. He also made one of the " Crown of Thorns " after 
Vandyck. The " Military Gallant," by Terburg, was commanded 
by the Calcographie. At the time of his death he was occupied in 
the reproduction of " The King Candaules " by Gerome. The Cal- 
cographie of the Louvre purchased, in 1863, " The Coronation of the 
Virgin," by Francois, after Fra Angelico, for £ 1,200. 


Franqois, Alphonse. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1811. Member of 
the Institute, and Officer of the Legion of Honor. Brother of the 
preceding, he has followed him in his studies and labors. He has 
engraved a great number of portraits. His " Coronation of the Vir- 
gin," alter Fra Angelieo, was at the Paris Exposition of 1867. His 
chief plates have been after the works of Paul Delaroche, among 
which are, " Pic de la Mirandole," " Bonaparte crossing the Alps," 
" Marie Antoinette after her Condemnation," etc. 

Fraser, Charles. {Am.) Born in Charleston, S. C. (1782-1860). 
He studied anil practiced law in his native city for some years. In 1818 
he adopted painting as a profession, turning his attention particularly 
to miniatures, in which he was remarkably successful. Among his 
sitters have been Lafayette, and members of all the noted families of 
the Carolinas. A collection of his miniature portraits was exhibited 
in Charleston in 1857, attracting much attention. He also painted 
occasionally historical and genre pictures. 

Fraser, Alexander. (Brit.) Born in Scotland (1786 - 1865). He 
exhibited for many years at the Royal Academy pictures relating to 
Scottish character and history. Among his works maybe mentioned, 
" The Glass of Ale," " Alarms of War," " Robinson Crusoe," " Last 
Moments of Mary Queen of Scots," etc., some of which have been 
engraved. His " Interior of a Highland Cottage " (belonging to the 
Vernon Collection) is in the National Gallery. 

Fraser, Alexander. (Brit) Born in Linlithgowshire, but for 
many years a resident of Edinburgh, and a member of the Royal Scot- 
tish Academy, where his paintings are exhibited. He devotes him- 
self to landscape-painting. Among his works are, " A Fisherman's 
Home," " Highland Landscape," " The Margin of the Forest," " High- 
land Cottage Interior," etc. To the Royal Scottish Academy in 1878 
he sent - In Glen Aman," " Trout Stream in the West Highlands," 
" Springtime at Dingleton," and others. 

"Alexander Fraser enters not so much into the sublimity as he seeks to revel in the 
cheerfulness of the outer world. He paints the moorland, the gleaming water, and the 
rustic bridge, with rain clearing off from the heavy clouds ; and the freshness of his 
fancy, dallying with the green and russet of the varying seasons, attains to very attractive 
results." — Art Journal, April, 1873. 

Freeman, James E., X. A. (Am.) A native of Nova Scotia, he 
was takm as a child to Otsego County, New York. At an early age 
he entered the schools of the National Academy, and painted for some 
time in Western New York, but lie has been for many years a resident 
of Rome. He was elected a member of the National Academy in 
1833, but has not exhibited in its gallery since 1868, when he sent a 
" Mother and Child." His works rarely come to this count ry. Among 
the better known of his pictures are, "The Beggars," "The Flower- 
Girl," "The Savoyard Boy in London," "Young Italy," "The Bad 
Shoe," etc. Two of his pictures, figure-pieces, — young girls, one with 


a parrot, — belong to H. P. Kidder of Boston. He published in Eng- 
land a charming book called " Portfolio of Italian Sketches." 

"The composition is simple but remarkably felicitous, consisting of one erect and 
one sleeping figure [' The Beggars,' by James E. Freeman], but the attitudes, the atmos- 
phere, the execution, the finish, and above all the expression, are in the highest degree 
artistic and suggestive." — Tuckerman's Book of the Artists. 

Freeman, Mrs. James E. Wife of the preceding. She has devoted 
herself to sculpture, and has executed busts which display considerable 
artistic ability. Among her ideal works is " The Culprit Fay." 

Freeman, Florence. (Am.) Born in Boston, 1836. She received 
her earliest instruction in sculpture from Bichard S. Greenough. In 
1861 she went to Italy with Miss Charlotte Cushman, remaining a 
year in Florence, under the instruction of Hiram Powers. She re- 
moved her studio to Rome in 1862, where the rest of her professional 
life has been spent. Among the most important of Miss Freeman's 
works are a bust of " Sandalphon " (belonging to Mr. Longfellow) ; 
bas-reliefs of Dante ; a statue entitled " Sleeping Child," and the 
sculptured chimney-piece representing " Children and Yule Log and 
Fireside Spirits," which was at the Centennial Exhibition at Philadel- 
phia in 1876, and received honorable mention. The chimney-piece is 
now in the possession of Mrs. Augustus Hemenway of Boston. 

" Miss Freeman is a native of Massachusetts ; and is one of those delicate, shrinking, 
and artistic natures such as Hawthorne painted in his Hilda, that marvelous and truth- 
ful portrait of a type of character indigenous to New England ; as lovely and as pecul- 
iarly its own as the delicate mayflower. In fact, ' Hilda ' is the soubriquet by which 
this young artist is known among her friends. Her works are full of poetic fancy, her 
bas-reliefs of the seven days of the week and of the hours are most lovely and origi- 
nal in conception. Her sketches of Dante in bas-relief are equally fine. Her designs 
for chimney-pieces are gems, and in less prosaic days than these, when people were not 
satisfied with the work of mechanics, but demanded artistic designs in the commonest 
household articles, they would have made her famous." — The Revolution, May 11, 1871. 

"Among the many studies and designs in Miss Freeman's studio one of the most in- 
teresting statues is, ' Thekla, or the Tangled Skein,' from the ' Schonberg Cotta Family.' 
The pretty, sorrowful girl sits looking despondently at the tangled web of yarn which 
she has vainly tried to wind ; and I can almost hear the old grandmother's wise words, 
which helped the girl in after life when she had life's tangles to contend with, ' Wind 
away, child, and take out the knots one by one.' Miss Freeman's designs for chimney- 
pieces are quite original ; one has over the chimney a bas-relief of children dragging 
home the Yule Log, and on either side are wood-elves sitting on logs, as if watching the 
blazing of the fire pensively, and thinking of their lost trees." — Anne Brewster, in 
Philadelphia Bulletin. 

Freese, Johann Oskar Hermann. (Ger.) Born in Pomerania 
(1813-1871). Painter of animals and hunting-scenes. He was de- 
votedly fond of the chase, and died from the effects of some indiscretion 
in eating or drinking when overheated by his exertions in hunting. 
Studied under Briicke and Steffeck. He made his debut in 1857 with 
a picture called "Fighting Deer." He soon became distinguished. 
His ideal pictures were less successful than his representations of the 
actual scenes in which he was often an actor. At the National Gal- 
lery, Berlin, is his " Flying Deer " and a " Boar Hunt." 


Fremiet, Emmanuel. (F>\) Born at Paris, 1824. Chevalier of 
the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Rude. Made his debut at the Salon 
of 1843. His " Wounded Dog," bronze (1850), and " Pan and Bears " 
marble (1867), are in the Luxembourg. His "Joan of Arc," an 
equestrian statue, was erected on the Place de Rivoli, and has been 
severely criticised. At the Salon of 1876 he exhibited "A Hunter 
and a Gorilla," in terra-cotta, belonging to E. Ferrin fils, and "A 
Lady of the Court, Sixteenth Century " ; in 1875, "Joan of Arc," a 
monumental statue in plaster ; " A Man of the Age of Stone," bronze 
statue ; ''A Minstrel of the Fifteenth Century," statuette in silvered 
bronze ; etc. Fremiet has made many statuettes in bronze and plaster, 
and an equestrian statue of Napoleon III., for whom he made casts of a 
complete collection of the arms used by the French army. At the 
Salon of 1878 he exhibited "St. Gregory of Tours," marble, for the 
church of Sainte Genevieve, and " A Knight- Errant." 

French, Daniel Chester. (Am.) Born at Exeter, N. H., 1850. 
Attending art lectures under Dr. Rimmer in Boston, he was for a 
short time in the studio of J. Q. A. Ward in New York, and studied 
under Thomas Ball in Florence in 1875-76. His professional life has 
been spent in Concord, Mass., Florence, and Washington, D. C. He 
is at present (1878) in Florence. Among the better known of his 
sculptured works are, "The Minute Man," in bronze, on the battle- 
ground in Concord, Mass., unveiled in 1875 ; " The May Queen," in 
marble (owned by Joel Goldthwaite in Boston) ; "Daybreak," high- 
relief, in marble (owned by William C. Taylor, Dorchester, Mass.) ; 
'• Elsie Venner," bas-relief, in marble (the property of a Boston gentle- 
man) ; " Peace and War," a colossal group for the Custom House at 
St. Louis ; and " Awakening of Endymion," not yet finished, in his 
studio at Florence. During his residence in Washington in 1876 he 
was elected a member of the Art Club, and executed a number of 
small figures and groups which were put in parian and plaster, and 
are very popular ; among the better known of these are, two groups 
of Dogs, " The Owl in Love," " Dolly Varden and Joe Willet," " Dick 
Swiveller and the Marchioness," etc. 

" 'The Minute Man of Concord' will be readily accepted as a worthy example of 
American sculpture, and might even stand for the ideal embodiment of the genius of the 
Revolution. .... The statue is of course of heroic measure ; somewhat more than 
seven feet in height, generously proportioned. It represents a young man, turning at the 
hurrying call of the messenger from his labors in the field, and instantly ready for duty. 
This ' Minute Man ' is instinct with life sad principle. It is no ideal face, no counte- 
nance or form that would be at home in other countries, but a thorough Yankee, that 
Mr. French has given to immortality." — Springfield Republican. 

Frere, Pierre EdouarcL (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1810. Chevalier 
of the Legion of Honor. Pupil of Delaroche. He made his debut 
at the Salon of L843. I lis earliest works were popular, and through 
engravings were widely known. His pictures: arc. numerous. ^ The 
Frencli call him fecond, but industrious would be a better word, for 


his works all show care and study. We can give but a meager list of 
his pictures here. Among the first were, " The Little Gourmand" 
" The Little Curious One," " The Grapes," etc. At the Salon he 
exhibited " An Interior at licouen " and " Going to School" (1877), 
"La Glissade" (1873), "A Presentation" (1872), two pictures of 
" Boys," and " Girls going out of School " (1869), etc. At the Acad- 
emy Exhibition, London, 1878, he exhibited "The Reading" and 
"The Road to School." At the Johnston sale, New York, 1876, 
"Industry" (13 by 11), from the Wolfe sale in 1863, brought $895 ; 
and " Preparing for Church " (22 by 18), $ 2,400. The latter is now 
in the Corcoran Gallery, Washington. At a London sale, in 1876, 
"The Lesson" sold for £241. At the Gillott sale, London, 1872, 
" The Orphan's First Prayer " brought 655 guineas. 

"It was marvelous to the critics that this character had come out of the studio of 
Delaroche. The stately swan had hatched out a wild creature, which took to the woods 
immediately. As the wood birds take their color from the ground and the brown 
leaves, so there was a countrified look about this pupil of Delaroche; but the results 
were in this case certain asufs-d'or which Parisian critics could not mistake. He painted 
the country children in all their performances and amusements, in a way that made 
him the Columbus of a before undiscovered world around the capital." — Harper's 
Magazine, November, 1871. 

" His painting of children is as different as it can be from the conventional studying 
of models imported into the studio, and thereby losing their natural grace and artless 
simplicity. One of the most distinctive and charming characteristics of unspoilt child- 
hood is the utter absence of self-consciousness, and the air of complete absorption of 
mind with which it regards some incident, or engages in some occupation, to us merely 
trivial. This should never be lost sight of by the painter of children ; and we believe 
that a great deal of the charm of Frere's portraiture depends upon its constant recog- 
nition. But, to see it and paint it, the artist must be on the most easy terms with his 
sitter, and one cannot fail to perceive that the presence of M. Frere with his palette 
and brushes in any part of the village of his adoption is a great deal too familiar a 
sight to cause any interruption of the ordinary pursuits or demeanor of the children. 
We do not, however, profess to know by what process M. Frere fixes upon his canvas 
these wonderfully true and subtly rendered incidents of child-life. They are too vivid 
and complete in their impression for us to suppose that they can be other than actual 
incidents, painted exactly (or with the modifications necessary to artistic treatment) as 
he has seen them. They cannot, of course, be actually finished from the life. The use 
of models, in the ordinary sense of the term, must, one would think, be confined to 
very mechanical parts of such work as this. Does he trust entirely to strong powers of 
observation and a retentive memory, or does he aid his recollection by rapid sketches, 
taken when an incident strikes his fancy, in a few expressive touches of the pencil or 
brush ? For Fxlouard Frere, besides being a great delineator of character, is a thorough 
artist, and his pictures are as skillful in the qualities of composition, lighting, and color, 
as they are masterly in those above referred to." — Art Journal, November 29, 1873, 
from the London Spectator. 

Frere, Charles Theodore. (Fr.) Born at Paris, 1815. Medals 
in 1848 and '65. Pupil of Cogniet and Roqueplan. Brother of 
Edouard Frere. He made his debut at the Salon of 1834, and two 
years later went to Algiers, and has traveled and lived much in the 
East. He has a studio at Cairo, as well as at Paris. His works are 
mostly of Eastern scenes and customs. His "Halt of Arabs" (1850) 


was bought by the Ministry of the Interior. At the Salon of 1877 he 
exhibited, "An Khan-Kalil" (Cairo), and "An Evening, Upper 
E^ypt"; in L876, "The Island of PhilaB," and " The Tombs of the 
Caliphs at Cairo"; in 1875, "Caravan of Mecca" and "Twilight at 

Cairo.'' Mrs. H. E. Maynard of Boston has in her collection a " View 
near Cairo n by this painter. At the Salon of 1878 he exhibited 
"The Nile, — Evening " and " The Desert, — Midday." 

Frere, Charles-Edouard. (Fr.) Born at Paris. Pupil of A 
Frere and of Couture. At the Salon of 1877 he exhibited, " L'Eni- 
batage" and "A Bit of Paris"; in 187G, "The Snow"; in 1875, 
"Before the Rain"; in 1878, a portrait and "Machine a battre, a 

Frere, Jean-Jules. (Fr.) Born at Cambrai Pupil of Cavelier. 
Medal of the third class in 1878, when he exhibited " An Oriental 
Singer," statue, plaster. In 1877 he sent two portrait busts in terra- 
cotta and plaster. 

Freschieri, Giuseppe. (Hal.) Born at Savona, 1810. Chevalier 
of the Order of SS. Maurice and Lazarus. Gold medal at Florence 
in l^Gl. Director and Professor for thirty years in the Academy of 
Genoa. His portraits are numerous, and are in Royal collections and 
private palaces in all countries of Europe and Great Britain. Some 
of his works in this department are in the United States of America. 
His portrait of himself is in the autograph collection of the Uffizi 
at Florence. Charles Albert purchased his large painting of " Fran- 
eescaand Paolo," and it is in the Royal Gallery of Turin. 

Fripp, George Arthur. (Brit.) Born, 1813. Practiced art in 
Bristol for some years, and settled in London about 1840, since which 
time he has been a frequent contributor to the exhibitions of the So- 
ciety of Painters in Water-Colors, of which he was made a member 
early in his career, acting for some time as Secretary of the Society. 
Paints landscapes which are highly regarded, and meet with ready 
sale. At the exhibition in 1877 he had twelve pictures, scenes on the 
:vt- and Sark, and elsewhere in the North. 

"George A. Frijip's ' Study of a Hillside and Cavern, Cornwall ' [18771 is very admi- 
rable and a marvel of nice art .... Exhibits the most skillful draughtsmanship, and 
is a truly beautiful and effective piece of water-color." — Art Journal, February, 1877. 

Fripp, Alfred D. (Brit) Born at Bristol. 1822. Younger brother 
A. Fripp. At the age of eighteen he went to London, and 
studied in the British Museum and in tin; Royal Academy. Like his 
brother he has exhibited regularly at the Gallery of the Society of 
Painters in Water-Colors since 1844, when he sent his "Poacher's 
Hut." Among his earlier works, generally of British and Irish 
scenes and character, arc, '-The Irish Courtship," "The Irish 
Mother," "Irish Piper," "The Islet Home," and -The Fisherman's 
Departure." W ntly he has contributed Italian views and 

mpeii," "An Italian Cottage Door," "Neapolitan Pil- 


grims," and " Passing the Cross at Ave Maria," in the International 
Exhibition of 1863, etc. 

" 'The Quarry Path,' by Alfred Fripp [Water-Color Exhibition of 1877], for purity of 
coloring, excellence of perspective, delicacy of touch, and tenderness of outline, is unex- 
celled in the gallery."' — Art Journal, February, 1S77. 

Frith, William Powell. (Brit.) Member of Royal Academies of 
London, Belgium, Stockholm, and Vienna. Born in Yorkshire, 1819. 
Entered the schools of the Royal Academy, London, in 1837. Ex- 
hibited his first picture, the head of a child, at the British Institution 
in 1839. Exhibited his first picture in the Royal Academy, in 1840, 
" Malvolio and the Countess Olivia," which was highly praised. Among 
his early works are, " An English Merry- Making, One Hundred Years 
Ago," " Coming of Age," " The Parting between Leicester and the 
Countess Amy," " Pope's Love- Making to Lady Mary Wortley Mon- 
tagu," "John Knox and Mary Queen of Scots," "Hogarth at Calais," 
and others equally well known by the engravings of them. In 1845, 
when he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, he con- 
tributed " The Village Pastor" ; in 1853 he was made Academician; 
in 1854 he painted " Life at the Seaside," and in 1858, " The Derby 
Day " (probably his best-known work, and now in the National Gal- 
lery, London). His "Railway Station" was exhibited in 1862. For 
this he received £ 9,000 ; the purchaser, a dealer, resold it with the 
subscription list to the engraving for £ 16,000 ($80,000). His " Mar- 
riage of the Prince of Wales " (R. A., 1865), painted for the Queen, 
and sent by her to the Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia, in 1876, 
brought him £ 3,000 from Her Majesty, and £ 5,000 for the right of 
engraving. He exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1863, " Juliet " ; 
in 1869, " Hope and Fear," " Nell Gwynn," and " Malvolio " ; in 1870, 
" Sir Roger de Coverley and the Perverse Widow," " Amy Robsart 
and Janet Pride," and "At Homburg"; in 1872, "Lord Toppington 
describes his Daily Life," "Henry VIII. and Anne Boleyn Deer-Shoot- 
ing at Windsor," "The Miniature," and " The Love- Letter" ; in 1873, 
"A London Flower-Girl," "A Boulogne Flower-Girl," "Breakfast- 
Time," and the "Winning Hazard"; in 1874, "Prayer," "Sleep," 
"Pamela," and " Wandering Thoughts " ; in 1875, " Black and Blue 
Eyes," " Polly Peachum," " New Ear-Rings," and " St. Valentine's 
Day " ; in 1876, " A Scene from the ' Vicar of Wakefield,' " " Beneath 
the Doge's Palace, Venice, in 1460," and " The Lover's Seat," besides 
portraits of Mrs. Rousby, Mr. Sothern, and others in different sea- 
sons. His " Road to Ruin," in 1878, a series of five pictures, attracted 
much attention. " The Derby Day " and others were at Paris the 
same year. 

" Mr. Frith is the most fortunate example hitherto known in our art of the happy 
union of undeniable artistic ability with universal popularity of subject." — Hamerton's 
Thoughts about Art. 

" I am not sure how much power is involved in the production of such a picture as 
this [ ' The Derby Day '] ; great ability there is assuredly, long and careful study, con- 


siderable humor, untiring industry, all of them qualities entitled to high praise, which 

I doubt not tliey will receive from the delighted public The drawings of t! 

taut BgUTM seem to me especially dexterous and admirable ; but it is very difficult to 
characterize the picture iu accurate general terms. It is a kind of cross l>etween John 
Leech and Wilkie, with a dash of daguerreotype here and there, and sonic pretty M 
ings with Dickens' sentiments. '* — Rcskix's Modern Painters. 

" Mr. Frith's ' Pamela ' is attractive and pleasing ; but his ' Railway Station ' did not 

gain the attention here that it did in England Mr. Frith understands, on his own 

ground, that to be popular it is always necessary to get down to the level of popularity. 
His pictures show an entire lack of mystery ; they are crowded with numerous inci- 
dents and stories, well told and calculated to amuse the curious. But this is not art in 
any high acceptation of the term. The stories once read, we do not return to Mr. Frith*! 
pictures again and again, as we are instinctively drawn by great works of art." — Prof. 
- Official Report of the American Centennial Exhibition o/1876. 

Fromentin, Eugene. (Fr.) Born at La Rochelle (1820- 1876). 
Officer of the Legion of Honor. Studied landscape-painting under 
Cabat, and traveled in the East from 1842 to '46. He visited Algiers, 
and in every place made many sketches. His works represent Orien- 
tal subjects, almost without exception. His "Couriers, Country of 
the Ouled-Xays in Springtime" (1861) and "A Falcon Hunt in 
Algiers " (1863) are in the Luxembourg. In 1876 he exhibited "The 
Nile " and u Souvenir of Esneh,'' both in Upper Egypt; in 1874, "Souve- 
nir of Algiers " and "A Ravine in Algiers" ; in 1872, two scenes in 
Venice ; in 1869, "A Fanteirie" and " The Halt of Muleteers," both 
in Algiers ; in 1868, "Arabs attacked by a Lioness" and ", Centaurs" ; 
etc. Fromentin published in the " Pays " some account of his travels. 
He also made some excursions for the " Committee of Historic Monu- 
ments," the results of which he published under the following titles : 
"Vi-ites Artistitpies," " Simple Pelerinages " (1852 to '56), " Une 
an nee dans le Sahel" (1858). This artist wrote a romance called 
u Dominique " (1863), which was a successful book. In London at 
Christie*.-. March, 1874, "The Siesta" sold for 376 guineas, and " Ren- 
dezvous of Arab Chiefs," 850 guineas. At the Oppenheim sale, Paris, 
1877, - The Ravine "' sold for 15,000 francs. At the Walters Gallery, 
Baltimore, is a picture of "Arabs and Horse," by this artist. 

" Fromentin's ambition has led him to hitherto untrodden fields. His observation is 
broad and felicitous He transfers Arab life, wild and picturesque, to his eanvas< - 
enjoy the freedom of the desert, and rejoice at escapin g the confinement and artifice of 
the studio His pulses beat quick music to its surrounding life. He sees the un- 
tamable activity of nomad existence ; the splendid development that it bestows upon the 
d man ; its modem realistic aspect on its bright and itory-telling side. The ring- 

:!lop of his high-bred Arab h or se s, obedient to the sympathetic action of their 
Sheik riders as they pursue their chase, are vividly given. There is no unworthy triek 
of pencil or straining after effect, but conscientious, rapid, and telling painting. Some- 
thing is wanting in his qualities of atmosp here, which is apt to l»e thick and unbreath- 
able, and of his -till water, which too much resemble! lee ; l>ut t? 
scarcely felt in the healthy entemUt of his work." — Jasybb, Art The 
"Thanks to the conquest) Fromentin is able to be an African without ceasing to be a 

iiman, and if he distinctly affirms his taste for the life of the desert, his paint 
written works manifest the most delicate and refined sentiment of a Parisian of pur- 


try. His Arabs have spirit even in the slightest fold of their burnous, and the parched soil, 
that recovers with difficulty a meager vegetation, takes an unexpected charm under his 
graceful and resolute touch. Take note that in his pictures the desert, in order to be pleas- 
ing to the eye, loses nothing of its grandeur, and that the Arabs preserve all their instinc- 
tive life ; it is the narrator who is amusing ; it is the recital that is intelligent. An 
attentive observer, Fromentiu wishes to neglect nothing, and the exactness of his pictures 
is affirmed by all travelers ; a